(October 28, 1858 –
January 6, 1919; His last name is, according to the man himself,
"pronounced as if it was spelled 'Rosavelt.' That is in three
syllables. The first syllable as if it was 'Rose.'" ;
An audio recording
in which Roosevelt pronounces his own
last name distinctly. To listen at the correct speed, slow the
recording down by 20%. Retrieved on July 12, 2007.
) was the 26th President of the United
. He is well remembered for his energetic persona, his
range of interests and achievements, his leadership of the Progressive Movement
, his model of masculinity
, and his "cowboy" image. He was a
leader of the Republican
and founder of the short-lived Bull Moose Party of
. Before becoming the 26th President (1901–1909) he held
offices at the municipal
, and federal
government. Roosevelt's achievements as a naturalist
are as much a part of his fame as
any office he held as a politician
Born to a wealthy family, Roosevelt was an unhealthy child
suffering from asthma who stayed at home studying natural history
. In response to his physical
weakness, he embraced a strenuous life. He attended Harvard, where he
boxed and developed an interest in naval
A year out of Harvard, in 1881 he ran for a seat in
the state legislature
first historical book, The Naval War of
, published in 1882, established his reputation as a
. After a few years of
living in the Badlands, Roosevelt returned
to New York
City, where he gained fame for fighting police
corruption. He was effectively running the US Department of the Navy when the
Spanish American War broke out;
he resigned and led a small regiment in Cuba known as the
Rough Riders, earning himself the
Medal of Honor.
After the war,
he returned to New York and was elected Governor
; two years later he
was nominated for and elected Vice President of the United
President William McKinley was
assassinated, and Roosevelt became president at the age of 42,
taking office at the youngest age of any U.S.
history. Roosevelt attempted to move the Republican Party in the
direction of Progressivism
including trust busting
regulation of businesses. Roosevelt coined the phrase "Square Deal
" to describe his domestic agenda,
emphasizing that the average citizen would get a fair shake under
his policies. As an outdoorsman, he promoted the conservation movement
. On the world
stage, Roosevelt's policies were characterized by his comment,
"Speak softly and
carry a big stick
". Roosevelt was the force behind the completion
of the Panama
Canal; he sent out the Great
White Fleet to display American power, and he negotiated an end
to the Russo-Japanese War, for
which he won the Nobel Peace
Roosevelt declined to run for re-election in 1908. After leaving
office, he embarked on a safari
and a trip to Europe
his return to the US, a rift developed between Roosevelt and his
anointed successor as President, William Howard Taft
. Roosevelt attempted
in 1912 to wrest the Republican nomination from Taft, and when he
failed, he launched the Bull Moose Party. In the election
Roosevelt became the only third party
candidate to come in
second place, beating Taft but losing to Woodrow Wilson
. After the election, Roosevelt
embarked on a major expedition to South
; the river on which he traveled now bears his name
. He contracted malaria
on the trip, which damaged his health, and
he died a few years later, at the age of 60. Roosevelt has
consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest
The Roosevelts had been in New York since the mid-17th century.
Roosevelt was born into a wealthy family of Dutch origin; by the
19th century, the family had grown in wealth, power and influence
from the profits of several businesses including hardware and
plate-glass importing. The family was strongly Democratic
its political affiliation until the mid-1850s, then joined the new
. Theodore's father, known in the family as "Thee", was a
New York City philanthropist
and partner in the family glass-importing firm Roosevelt and Son.
He was a prominent supporter of Abraham
and the Union
effort during the American Civil
. His mother Mittie Bulloch was a Southern belle from a slave-owning family in Roswell,
Georgia and had quiet Confederate sympathies.
brother, Theodore's uncle, James
Dunwoody Bulloch, was a United
States Navy officer who became a Confederate admiral and naval
procurement agent in Britain. Another uncle, Irvine Bulloch, was a midshipman on the
Confederate raider CSS
remained in England after the war.
From his grandparents'
home, the young Roosevelt witnessed Abraham Lincoln
's funeral procession when it
came through New York.
Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, in a four-story brownstone at 28 East 20th
Street, in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City, the second of four children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831–1878)
and Mittie Bulloch
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
He had an elder sister Anna
, nicknamed "Bamie" as a child and "Bye"
as an adult for being always on the go, and two younger
siblings—his brother Elliott
(the father of future First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
), and his sister
Sickly and asthmatic
as a child, Roosevelt
had to sleep propped up in bed or slouching in a chair during much
of his early childhood, and had frequent ailments. Despite his
illnesses, he was a hyperactive and often mischievous child, who
suffered severely from tone deafness
His lifelong interest in zoology
at age seven upon seeing a dead seal
local market. After obtaining the seal's head, the young Roosevelt
and two of his cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt
Museum of Natural History". Learning the rudiments of taxidermy
, he filled his makeshift museum with
many animals that he killed or caught, studied, and prepared for
display. At age nine, he codified his observation of insects with a
paper titled "The Natural History of Insects".
Roosevelt described his childhood experiences in a 1903 letter,
As far as I can remember they were absolutely
I was a rather sickly, rather timid little boy, very
fond of desultory reading and of natural history, and not excelling
in any form of sport.
Owing to my asthma I was not able to go to school, and
I was nervous and self-conscious, so that as far as I can remember
my belief is that I was rather below than above my average playmate
in point of leadership; though as I had an imaginative temperament
this sometimes made up for my other short-comings.
Altogether, while, thanks to my father and mother, I
had a very happy childhood I am inclined to look back at it with
some wonder that I should have come out of it as well as I
It was not until after I was sixteen that I began to
show any prowess, or even ordinary capacity; up to that time,
except making collections of natural history, reading a good deal
in certain narrowly limited fields and indulging in the usual
scribbling of the small boy who does not excel in sport, I cannot
remember that I did anything that even lifted me up to the
To combat his poor physical condition, his father encouraged the
young Roosevelt to take up exercise. Roosevelt started boxing
lessons. Two trips abroad had a permanent
impact: family tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and of the
1872 to 1873.
Theodore, Sr. had a tremendous influence on his son. Of him
Roosevelt wrote, "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I
ever knew. He combined strength and courage with gentleness,
tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us
children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or
In a 1900 letter, Roosevelt said of his father,
I was fortunate enough in having a father whom I have
always been able to regard as an ideal man.
It sounds a little like cant to say what I am going to
say, but he really did combine the strength and courage and will
and energy of the strongest man with the tenderness, cleanness and
purity of a woman.
I was a sickly and timid boy.
He not only took great and untiring care of me—some of
my earliest remembrances are of nights when he would walk up and
down with me for an hour at a time in his arms when I was a
wretched mite suffering acutely with asthma— but he also most
wisely refused to coddle me, and made me feel that I must force
myself to hold my own with other boys and prepare to do the rough
work of the world.
I cannot say that he ever put it into words, but he
certainly gave me the feeling that I was always to be both decent
and manly, and that if I were manly nobody would laugh at my being
In all my childhood he never laid hand on me but once,
but I always knew perfectly well that in case it became necessary
he would not have the slightest hesitancy in doing so again, and
alike from my love and respect, and in a certain sense, my fear of
him, I would have hated and dreaded beyond measure to have him know
that I had been guilty of a lie, or of cruelty, or of bullying, or
of uncleanness or of cowardice.
Gradually I grew to have the feeling on my own account,
and not merely on his."
Roosevelt's sister, Corinne, later wrote, "He told me frequently
that he never took any serious step or made any vital decision for
his country without thinking first what position his father would
First marriage and response to catastrophic loss
Alice Hathaway Lee (July 29,
1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New
York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and
mother of their child, Alice.
Alice died of an undiagnosed (since it was camouflaged by her
pregnancy) case of kidney failure
those days called Bright's disease
two days after Alice Lee was born. Theodore Roosevelt's mother had
died of typhoid fever
in the same
house, on the same day, at 3 am, some eleven hours earlier. After
the near simultaneous deaths of his mother and wife, Roosevelt left
his daughter in the care of his sister, Anna "Bamie/Bye" in New
York City. In his diary he wrote a large X on the page and wrote
"the light has gone out of my life." (See diary photo).
Diary Entry Feb 14, 1884
A short time later, Roosevelt wrote a tribute to his wife published
privately indicating that:
She was beautiful in face and form, and lovelier still
in spirit; As a flower she grew, and as a fair young flower she
Her life had been always in the sunshine; there had
never come to her a single sorrow; and none ever knew her who did
not love and revere her for the bright, sunny temper and her
Fair, pure, and joyous as a maiden; loving , tender,
As a young wife; when she had just become a mother,
when her life seemed to be just begun, and when the years seemed so
bright before her—then, by a strange and terrible fate, death came
And when my heart’s dearest died, the light went from
my life forever.
To the immense disappointment of his wife's namesake and daughter,
, he would not speak
of his wife publicly or privately for the rest of his life and did
not mention her in his autobiography. As late as 1919 when
Roosevelt was working with Joseph Bucklin Bishop on a biography
which included a collection of his letters, Roosevelt did not
mention either his first marriage nor the circumstances of his
second marriage which took place in London.
A letter written then to a young female friend of Roosevelt's
, who had
lost a loved one, demonstrated Roosevelt's method of dealing with
catastrophic loss. After his death, in her memoirs, his sister
Corinne described this letter as "full of a certain quality —
what perhaps I might call a righteous ruthlessness specially
characteristic of Theodore Roosevelt," because he had written, "I
hate to think of her suffering; but the only thing for her to do
now is to treat it as past, the event as finished and out of her
life; to dwell on it, and above all to keep talking of it with any
one, would be both weak and morbid. She should try not to think of
it; this she cannot wholly avoid, but she CAN avoid speaking of it.
She should show a brave and cheerful front to the world, whatever
she feels; and henceforth she should never speak one word of the
matter to any one. In the long future, when the memory is too dead
to throb, she may, if she wishes, speak of it once more, but if
wise and brave, she will not speak of it now." Roosevelt would
later indicate that this was his only method of dealing with a such
a debilitating loss, indicating to a grieving friend, "There is
nothing more foolish and cowardly than to be beaten down by a
sorrow which nothing we can do will change." or, in the words of
his biographer, Edmund Morris
, "Like a
lion obsessively trying to drag a spear from its flank, Roosevelt
set about dislodging Alice Lee from his soul. Nostalgia, a weakness
to which he was abnormally vulnerable, could be indulged if it was
pleasant, but if painful it must be suppressed, 'until the memory
is too dead to throb.'"
Young "Teedie", as he was nicknamed as a child, (the nickname
"Teddy" was from his first wife, Alice Hathaway Lee, and he later
harbored an intense dislike for it due to her untimely death) was
mostly home schooled
by tutors and his
parents. A leading biographer says: "The most obvious drawback to
the home schooling Roosevelt received was uneven coverage of the
various areas of human knowledge." He was solid in geography
(thanks to his careful observations on
all his travels) and very well read in history, strong in biology
, but deficient in mathematics
. He matriculated at
College in 1876.
His father's death in 1878 was a
tremendous blow, but Roosevelt redoubled his activities. He did
well in science
courses but fared poorly in Latin and Greek. He studied biology
with great interest and indeed was already an accomplished
naturalist and published ornithologist
He had a photographic memory
developed a life-long habit of devouring books, memorizing every
detail. He was an eloquent conversationalist who, throughout his
life, sought out the company of the smartest people. He could
multitask in extraordinary fashion, dictating letters to one
secretary and memoranda to another, while browsing through a new
young Sunday school teacher at Christ
Church, Roosevelt was once reprimanded for rewarding a
young man $1 who showed up to his class with a black eye for
fighting a bully.
The bully had supposedly pinched his
sister and the young man was standing up for her. Roosevelt thought
this to be honorable; however, the church deemed it too flagrant of
support of fighting.
While at Harvard, Roosevelt was active in rowing, boxing, the
Delta Kappa Epsilon
and was a member of the Porcellian
. He also edited a student
. He was runner-up in the Harvard boxing championship,
losing to C.S. Hanks
In later years, pondering his largely home-based early education
and his college experience in his autobiography, Roosevelt
expressed mixed feelings about its value in preparing him for
public service, writing:
All this individual morality I was taught by the books
I read at home and the books I studied at Harvard.
But there was almost no teaching of the need for
collective action, and of the fact that in addition to, not as a
substitute for, individual responsibility, there is a collective
responsibility....The teaching which I received was genuinely
democratic in one way.
It was not so democratic in another.
I grew into manhood thoroughly imbued with the feeling
that a man must be respected for what he made of
But I had also, consciously or unconsciously, been
taught that socially and industrially pretty much the whole duty of
the man lay in thus making the best of himself; that he should be
honest in his dealings with others and charitable in the
old-fashioned way to the unfortunate; but that it was no part of
his business to join with others in trying to make things better
for the many by curbing the abnormal and excessive development of
individualism in a few.
Now I do not mean that this training was by any means
On the contrary, the insistence upon individual
responsibility was, and is, and always will be, a prime
But such teaching, if not corrected by other teaching,
means acquiescence in a riot of lawless business individualism
which would be quite as destructive to real civilization as the
lawless military individualism of the Dark Ages.
I left college and entered the big world owing more
than I can express to the training I had received, especially in my
own home; but with much else also to learn if I were to become
really fitted to do my part in the work that lay ahead for the
generation of Americans to which I belonged."
Upon graduating, Roosevelt underwent a physical examination and his
doctor advised him that due to serious heart problems, he should
find a desk job and avoid strenuous activity. He chose to embrace
strenuous life instead. He graduated Phi
(22nd of 177) from Harvard in 1880, and entered
Columbia Law School
offered a chance to run for New York
in 1881, he dropped out of law school to pursue his
new goal of entering public life.
Early political career
First book published - The Naval War of 1812
While at Harvard, Roosevelt began a systematic study of the role
played by the nascent US Navy
the War of 1812
, largely completing two
chapters of a book he would publish after graduation.
He would later recall that in the middle of Mathematics
classes at Harvard, his mind would
wander from his lessons to the accomplishments of the infant US
Navy. Reading through literature on the subject, Roosevelt found
both American and British accounts heavily biased and that there
had been no systematic study of the tactics employed in the war.
Although a challenge for a young man with no formal military or
naval education, but helped in part by his two former Confederate
naval officer Bulloch uncles, he did his own research using
original source materials and official US Navy records. Unlike
previous American and British books that ignored quantifiable facts
to push a specific agenda, Roosevelt's carefully researched book
was akin to today's modern doctoral dissertations, complete with
carefully researched drawings depicting individual and combined
ship maneuvers, charts depicting the differences in iron throw
weights of cannon shot between American and British forces, and
analyses of the differences between British and American leadership
down to the ship-to-ship level. It is today considered one of the
first modern American historical works. Published after Roosevelt's
graduation from Harvard, The Naval War of
was immediately accepted by reviewers who praised
the book’s scholarship and style. The newly established Naval War
College adopted it for study, and the Department of the
Navy ordered a copy placed in the libraries of every capital ship
in the Fleet.
This book would help establish Roosevelt's
reputation as a serious historian. Roosevelt brought out a
subsequent edition including questions and answers from both
scholars and critics. One modern naval historian wrote:
"Roosevelt’s study of the War of 1812 influenced all subsequent
scholarship on the naval aspects of the War of 1812 and continues
to be reprinted. More than a classic, it remains, after 120 years,
a standard study of the war."
Roosevelt as NY State Assemblyman,
Roosevelt was a Republican
activist during his years in the Assembly, writing more bills than
any other New York state legislator. Already a major player in
state politics, he attended the Republican National
in 1884 and fought alongside the Mugwump
reformers; they lost to the Stalwart
faction that nominated James G. Blaine
. Refusing to join other Mugwumps in
supporting Democrat Grover
, the Democratic
nominee, he debated with his friend Henry Cabot Lodge
the pros and cons of
staying loyal. When asked by a reporter whether he would support
Blaine, he replied, "That question I decline to answer. It is a
subject I do not care to talk about." Upon leaving the convention,
he complained "off the
" to a reporter about Blaine's nomination. But, in
probably the most crucial moment of his young political career, he
resisted the very instinct to bolt from the Party that would
overwhelm his political sense in 1912. In an account of the
Convention, another reporter quoted him as saying that he would
give "hearty support to any decent Democrat." He would later take
great (and to some historical critics such as Henry Pringle, rather
disingenuous) pains to distance himself from his own earlier
comment, indicating that while he made it, it had not been made
"for publication." Leaving the convention, his idealism quite
disillusioned by party politics, Roosevelt indicated that he had no
further aspiration but to retire to his ranch in the wild Badlands
of the Dakota
that he had purchased the previous year while on a
buffalo hunting expedition.
built a second ranch, which he named Elk Horn, thirty-five miles
(56 km) north of the boomtown of
On the banks of the Little Missouri
Roosevelt learned to ride western style, rope, and hunt. He rebuilt
his life and began writing about frontier life for Eastern
magazines. As a deputy sheriff
, Roosevelt hunted down
three outlaws who stole his river boat and were escaping north with
it up the Little Missouri. Capturing them, he decided against hanging
them (apparently yielding to established law procedures in place of
vigilante justice), and sending his
foreman back by boat, he took the thieves back overland for trial
in Dickinson, guarding them forty hours without sleep and
reading Tolstoy to keep himself
When he ran out of his own books, he read a dime store western
that one of the thieves was
carrying."While working on a tough project aimed at
hunting down a group of relentless horse thieves, Roosevelt came
across the famous Deadwood sheriff, Seth
The two would remain friends for life.
Return to New York
uniquely severe U.S. winter of
1886-1887 wiped out his herd of cattle (together with those of
his competitors) and his $60,000 investment, he returned to the
East, where in 1885 he had built Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New
It would be his home and estate until his
death. Roosevelt ran as the Republican candidate for mayor of New
York City in 1886 as "The Cowboy of the Dakotas"; he came in
the election, he went to London in 1886 and
married his childhood sweetheart, Edith
Kermit Carow. They honeymooned in Europe, and Roosevelt
led a party to the summit of Mont Blanc, a feat which resulted in his induction into the
British Royal Society.
They had five children: Theodore
, Ethel Carow
, Archibald Bulloch
"Archie", and Quentin
Reentering public life
Civil Service Commission
In the 1888
, Roosevelt campaigned in the Midwest for
Harrison appointed Roosevelt to the United States Civil
, where he served until 1895. In his term,
Roosevelt vigorously fought the spoilsmen
and demanded enforcement of civil
service laws. Close associate, friend and biographer, James Bucklin
Bishop, described Roosevelt's assault on the spoils system
The very citadel of spoils politics, the hitherto
impregnable fortress that had existed unshaken since it was erected
on the foundation laid by Andrew Jackson, was tottering to its fall
under the assaults of this audacious and irrepressible young
Whatever may have been the feelings of the (fellow
Republican party) President (Harrison) — and there is little
doubt that he had no idea when he appointed Roosevelt that he would
prove to be so veritable a bull in a china shop—he refused to
remove him and stood by him firmly till the end of his
During this time, the New York Sun described Roosevelt as "irrepressible, belligerent, and enthusiastic"
In spite of Roosevelt's support for Harrison's reelection bid in
election of 1892
, the eventual winner, Grover Cleveland
(a Bourbon Democrat
), reappointed him to the
New York City Police Commissioner
Roosevelt as NYPD Commissioner
Roosevelt became president of the board of New York City Police
in 1895. During his two years in this post,
Roosevelt radically reformed the police department. The police
force was reputed as one of the most corrupt in America. The NYPD's
history division records that Roosevelt was "an iron-willed leader
of unimpeachable honesty, (who) brought a reforming zeal to the New
York City Police Commission in 1895." Roosevelt and his fellow
commissioners established new disciplinary rules, created a
to police New York's
traffic problems, and standardized the use of pistols by officers.
Roosevelt implemented regular inspections of firearms and annual
physical exams, appointed 1,600 new recruits based on their
physical and mental qualifications and not on political
affiliation, established meritorious service medals, and closed
corrupt police hostelries. During his tenure, a Municipal Lodging
House was established by the Board of Charities, and Roosevelt
required officers to register with the Board. He also had
telephones installed in station houses.
In 1894, Roosevelt met Jacob Riis
Evening Sun newspaper
journalist who was opening the eyes of New York's rich to the
terrible conditions of the city's millions of poor immigrants with
such books as, How the
Other Half Lives.
In Riis' autobiography, he described the
effect of his book on the new police commissioner, remembering that
When Roosevelt read (my) book, he came.
We were not strangers.
It could not have been long after I wrote “How the
Other Half Lives” that he came to the Evening Sun office one day
looking for me.
I was out, and he left his card, merely writing on the
back of it that he had read my book and had “come to help.” That
was all and it tells the whole story of the man.
I loved him from the day I first saw him; nor ever in
all the years that have passed has he failed of the promise made
No one ever helped as he did.
For two years we were brothers in (New York City's
crime-ridden) Mulberry Street.
When he left I had seen its golden age.
I knew too well the evil day that was coming back to
have any heart in it after that.
Not that we were carried heavenward “on flowery beds of
ease” while it lasted.
There is very little ease where Theodore Roosevelt
leads, as we all of us found out.
The lawbreaker found it out who predicted scornfully
that he would “knuckle down to politics the way they all did,” and
lived to respect him, though he swore at him, as the one of them
all who was stronger than pull.
The peaceloving citizen who hastened to Police
Headquarters with anxious entreaties to “use discretion” in the
enforcement of unpopular laws found it out and went away with a new
and breathless notion welling up in him of an official’s sworn
That was it; that was what made the age golden, that
for the first time a moral purpose came into the
In the light of it everything was
Always an energetic man, Roosevelt made a habit of walking
officers' beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure
they were on duty. As Governor of New York State before becoming
Vice President in March 1901, Roosevelt signed an act replacing the
Police Commissioners with a single Police Commissioner.
Becoming a national figure
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
Roosevelt had always been fascinated by naval history. Urged by
Roosevelt's close friend, Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge
, President William McKinley
appointed a delighted
Roosevelt to the post of Assistant Secretary of the
in 1897. (Because of the inactivity of Secretary of the Navy John D. Long
time, this gave Roosevelt control over the department.) Roosevelt
was instrumental in preparing the Navy for the Spanish-American War
and was an
enthusiastic proponent of testing the U.S. military in battle, at
one point stating "I should welcome almost any war, for I think
this country needs one".
War in Cuba
Col. Theodore Roosevelt
Upon the 1898 Declaration of War
launching the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt resigned from the
Navy Department. With the aid of U.S. Army Colonel Leonard Wood
, Roosevelt found volunteers from
from the Western territories to
friends from New York, forming
the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment
. The newspapers
called them the "Rough Riders."
Originally Roosevelt held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel
served under Colonel Wood. In Roosevelt's own account, The
, "after General Young was struck down with the
fever, and Wood took charge of the brigade. This left me in command
of the regiment, of which I was very glad, for such experience as
we had had is a quick teacher." Accordingly, Wood was promoted to
of Volunteer Forces, Roosevelt was promoted to Colonel and given
command of the Regiment.
Under his leadership, the Rough Riders became famous for dual
charges up Kettle Hill
and San Juan Hill
on July 1, 1898 (the
battle was named after the latter "hill," which was the shoulder of
a ridge known as San Juan Heights). Out of all the Rough Riders,
Roosevelt was the only one with a horse – the troopers' horses
had been left behind because transport ships were in short
supply – and used it to ride back and forth between rifle pits
at the forefront of the advance up Kettle Hill; an advance which he
urged in absence of any orders from superiors. However, he was
forced to walk up the last part of Kettle Hill on foot, due to
barbed wire entanglement and after his horse, Little Texas, became
For his actions, Roosevelt was nominated for the Medal of Honor
which was subsequently
disapproved. As historian John Gable
wrote, "In later years Roosevelt would describe the Battle of San
Juan Hill on July 1, 1898, as 'the great day of my life' and 'my
crowded hour.'.... (but) Malaria and other diseases now killed more
troops than had died in battle. Roosevelt and other officers
demanded that the soldiers be returned home. The famous 'round
robin letter', and a stronger letter by Roosevelt, were leaked to
the press by the commanding general, enraging Secretary of War
, Russell Alger
and President McKinley.
Roosevelt believed that it was this incident that cost him the
Medal of Honor."
Medal of Honor
In September 1997, Congressman Rick
, representing the 2nd District of New York, sent two
award recommendations to the U.S. Army Military Awards Branch.
These recommendations, addressed to Brigadier General Earl Simms,
the Army's Adjutant General, and Master Sergeant Gary Soots, Chief
of Authorizations, would prove successful in garnering the much
sought after award. Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of
Honor in 2001 for his actions. The medal is currently on display in the
Room of the White House.
He was the first and,
thus far, the only President of the United States to be awarded
with America's highest military honor, and the only person in
history to receive both his nation's highest honor for military
valor and the world's foremost prize for peace. His oldest son,
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
would also posthumously be awarded the Medal of Honor for his
actions at Normandy
on June 6,
After his return to civilian life, Roosevelt preferred to be known
as "Colonel Roosevelt" or "The Colonel." As a moniker, "Teddy"
remained much more popular with the general public; however,
political friends and others working closely with Roosevelt
customarily addressed him by his rank.
Governor and Vice-President
Chicago newspaper sees cowboy-TR
campaigning for governor
On leaving the Army, Roosevelt was elected governor of New York in
as a Republican.
He made such an effort to root out corruption and "machine politics
" that Republican boss
Thomas Collier Platt
forced him on
McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election
against the wishes of McKinley's manager, Senator Mark Hanna
. Roosevelt was a powerful campaign
asset for the Republican ticket, which defeated William Jennings Bryan
in a landslide
based on restoration of prosperity at home and a successful war and
new prestige abroad. Bryan stumped for Free
again, but McKinley's promise of prosperity through the
, high tariffs, and the
restoration of business confidence enlarged his margin of victory.
strongly supported the war against Spain, but denounced the
annexation of the Philippines as imperialism that would spoil America's
Roosevelt countered with many speeches that
argued it was best for the Filipinos to have stability, and the
Americans to have a proud place in the world. Roosevelt's six
months as Vice President (March to September 1901) were uneventful.
September 2, 1901, at the Minnesota State Fair, Roosevelt first used in a public speech a saying
that would later be universally associated with him: "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you
will go far."
September 6, President McKinley was shot while at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New
York. Initial reports in the succeeding days
suggested his condition was improving, so Roosevelt embarked on a
vacation at Mount
Marcy in upstate New York, across the state from
He was returning from a climb to the summit on
September 13 when a park ranger brought him a telegram informing
him that McKinley's condition had deteriorated, and he was near
Roosevelt and his family immediately departed to go to Buffalo.
reached the nearest train station at North
Creek, at 5:22am on September 14, he received another
telegram that McKinley had died a few hours earlier.
Roosevelt arrived in Buffalo that afternoon, and was sworn in there
as President at 3:30pm.
Roosevelt continued McKinley's cabinet and promised to continue
McKinley's policies. One of his first notable acts as president was
to deliver a 20,000-word address to Congress asking it to curb the
power of large corporations
"trusts"). For his aggressive attacks on trusts over his two terms
he has been called a "trust-buster."
In the 1904
, Roosevelt won the presidency in his own
right in a landslide victory. His vice president was Charles Fairbanks
Roosevelt dealt with union workers also. In May of 1902, United Mine Workers
went on strike to
get higher pay wages and shorter work days. He set up a
fact-finding commission which stopped the strike. It resulted in
the workers getting more pay for less hours.
In 1905, he issued a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
, which allows the United
States to "exercise international policy power" so they can
intervene and keep smaller countries on their feet.
Roosevelt helped the well-being of people by passing laws such as
The Meat Inspection Act
and The Pure Food and Drug
. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 banned misleading labels
and preservatives that contained harmful chemicals in them. The
Pure Food and Drug Act banned food and drugs, that are impure or
falsely label, from being made, sold, and shipped.
also came into play in 1907. This law banned all
school segregation, yet controlled Japanese immigration in
on McKinley's effective use of the press, Roosevelt made the
House the center of news every day, providing interviews
and photo opportunities.
After noticing the White House
reporters huddled outside in the rain one day, he gave them their
own room inside, effectively inventing the presidential press
briefing. The grateful press, with unprecedented access to the
White House, rewarded Roosevelt with ample coverage.
He chose not to run for another term in 1908
supported William Taft
presidency, instead of Fairbanks. Fairbanks withdrew from the race
(and in 1912
Taft for re-election, against Roosevelt).
Supreme Court appointments
appointed three Justices to the Supreme
Court of the United States:
States admitted to the Union
Roosevelt standing next to a dead
elephant during a safari
In March 1909, shortly after the end of his presidency, Roosevelt
left New York for a safari
. Roosevelt's party landed in Mombasa, British East
Africa (now Kenya), traveled
to the Belgian Congo (now Democratic
Republic of the Congo) before following the Nile up
to Khartoum in modern Sudan.
by Andrew Carnegie and by his own
proposed writings, Roosevelt's party hunted for specimens for the
Institution and for the American
Museum of Natural History in New York.
The group included scientists
from the Smithsonian and was led by the legendary hunter-tracker
R.J. Cunninghame and was joined from time to time by Frederick Selous
, the famous big game
hunter and explorer. Among other items, Roosevelt brought with him
four tons of salt for preserving animal hides, a lucky rabbit's
foot given to him by boxer John L.
, an elephant-rifle donated
by a group of 56 admiring Britons, and the famous Pigskin Library,
a collection of classics bound in pig leather and transported in a
single reinforced trunk.
All told, Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped over
11,397 animals, from insects
. These included 512 big game animals,
including six rare white rhinos
The expedition consumed 262 of the animals. Tons of salted
animals and their skins were shipped to Washington; the quantity was so large that it took years to
mount them all, and the Smithsonian was
able to share many duplicate animals with other museums.
the large number of animals taken, Roosevelt said, "I can be
condemned only if the existence of the National
Museum, the American Museum of Natural
History, and all similar zoological institutions are to be
However, although the safari was ostensibly
conducted in the name of science
, there was
another, quite large element to it as well. Along with many native
peoples and local leaders, interaction with renowned professional
hunters and land owning families made the safari as much a
political and social event, as it was a hunting excursion.
Roosevelt wrote a detailed account of the adventure in the book
African Game Trails
, where he describes the excitement of
the chase, the people he met, and the flora
he collected in the name of
Republican Party rift
Roosevelt certified William Howard
to be a genuine "progressive" in 1908
, when Roosevelt pushed
through the nomination of his Secretary of War for the Presidency.
Taft easily defeated three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan
. Taft had a
different progressivism, one that stressed the rule of law and
preferred that judges rather than administrators or politicians
make the basic decisions about fairness. Taft usually proved a less
adroit politician than Roosevelt and lacked the energy and personal
magnetism, not to mention the publicity devices, the dedicated
supporters, and the broad base of public support that made
Roosevelt so formidable. When Roosevelt realized that lowering the
tariff would risk severe tensions inside the Republican
Party—pitting producers (manufacturers and farmers) against
merchants and consumers—he stopped talking about the issue. Taft
ignored the risks and tackled the tariff boldly, on the one hand
encouraging reformers to fight for lower rates, and then cutting
deals with conservative leaders that kept overall rates high. The
resulting Payne-Aldrich tariff
of 1909 was too high for most reformers, but instead of blaming
this on Senator Nelson Aldrich
big business, Taft took credit, calling it the best tariff ever.
Again he had managed to alienate all sides. While the crisis was
building inside the Party, Roosevelt was touring Africa and Europe,
to allow Taft to be his own man.
Unlike Roosevelt, Taft never attacked business or businessmen in
his rhetoric. However, he was attentive to the law, so he launched
90 antitrust suits, including one against the largest corporation,
U.S. Steel, for an acquisition that Roosevelt had personally
approved. Consequently, Taft lost the support of antitrust
reformers (who disliked his conservative rhetoric), of big business
(which disliked his actions), and of Roosevelt, who felt humiliated
by his protégé. The left wing of the Republican Party began
agitating against Taft. Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin created the National Progressive Republican League
(precursor to the Progressive Party )
to defeat the power of political bossism at the state level and to
replace Taft at the national level.
More trouble came when
Taft fired Gifford Pinchot
leading conservationist and close ally of Roosevelt. Pinchot
alleged that Taft's Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger
was in league with big
timber interests. Conservationists sided with Pinchot, and Taft
alienated yet another vocal constituency.
Roosevelt, back from Europe, unexpectedly launched an attack on the
federal courts, which deeply upset Taft. Roosevelt was attacking
both the judiciary and the deep faith Republicans had in their
judges (most of whom had been appointed by McKinley, Roosevelt or
Taft.) In the 1910 Congressional elections, Democrats swept to
power, and Taft's reelection in 1912 was increasingly in doubt. In
1911, Taft responded with a vigorous stumping tour that allowed him
to sign up most of the party leaders long before Roosevelt
Election of 1912
The battle between Taft and Roosevelt
bitterly split the Republican Party; Taft's people dominated the
party until 1936.
Late in 1911, Roosevelt finally broke with Taft and LaFollette and
announced himself as a candidate for the Republican nomination.
Roosevelt, however, had delayed too long, and Taft had already won
the support of most party leaders in the country. Because of
LaFollette's nervous breakdown on the campaign trail before
Roosevelt's entry, most of LaFollette's supporters went over to
Roosevelt, the new progressive Republican candidate.
Roosevelt, stepping up his attack on judges, carried nine of the
states with preferential primaries, LaFollette took two, and Taft
only one. The 1912 Primaries represented the first extensive use of
the Presidential Primary, a reform achievement of the progressive
movement. However, these primary elections, while demonstrating
Roosevelt's popularity with the electorate, were in no ways as
important as primaries became later in the century. First, there
were fewer states where the common voter was given a forum to
express himself, such as a primary. Many more states selected
convention delegates either at party conventions, or in caucuses,
which were not as open as caucuses later became. While Roosevelt
was popular with the public, most professional Republican
politicians were supporting Taft, and they proved difficult to
upset in non-primary states.
Formation of the Bull Moose Party
Republican Convention in
Chicago, despite being the incumbent, Taft's victory was
not immediately assured.
After two weeks, Roosevelt,
realizing he would not be able to win the nomination outright,
asked his followers to leave the convention hall. They moved to the
Theatre, and then Roosevelt, along with key allies such as
Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party,
structuring it as a permanent organization that would field
complete tickets at the presidential and state level.
popularly known as the "Bull Moose
," which got its name after Roosevelt told reporters, "I'm
as fit as a bull moose." At the convention Roosevelt cried out, "We
stand at Armageddon
and we battle for the
Lord." Roosevelt's platform echoed his 1907–08 proposals, calling
for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from the
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass
case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace
Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 14, 1912, a saloonkeeper named John Schrank shot him, but the bullet lodged in
his chest only after penetrating both his steel eyeglass case and
passing through a thick (50 pages) single-folded copy of the speech
he was carrying in his jacket.
Roosevelt, as an experienced
hunter and anatomist, correctly concluded that since he wasn't
coughing blood, the bullet had not completely penetrated the chest
wall to his lung, and so declined suggestions he go to the hospital
immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood
seeping into his shirt. He spoke
for ninety minutes
. His opening comments to the gathered crowd
were, "Ladies and gentlemen, I don't know whether you fully
understand that I have just been shot; but it takes more than that
to kill a Bull Moose." Afterwards, probes and X-ray showed that the
bullet had traversed three inches (76 mm) of tissue and lodged
in Roosevelt's chest muscle but did not penetrate the pleura
, and it would be more dangerous to attempt to
remove the bullet than to leave it in place. Roosevelt carried it
with him for the rest of his life.
Due to the bullet wound, Roosevelt was taken off the campaign trail
in the final weeks of the race (which ended election day, November
5). Though the other two campaigners stopped their own campaigns in
the week Roosevelt was in the hospital, they resumed it once he was
released. The overall effect of the shooting was uncertain.
Roosevelt for many reasons failed to move enough Republicans in his
direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to
Taft's 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson's 6.3 million
votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt
had 88 electoral votes to Taft's 8 electoral votes. (This meant that Taft
became the only incumbent President in history to come in
third place in an attempt to be re-elected.) But Pennsylvania was Roosevelt's only Eastern state; in the Midwest he
carried Michigan, Minnesota and South
Dakota; in the West,
California and Washington; he did not win any Southern states.
Although he lost, he won more votes than former presidents Martin Van Buren
and Millard Fillmore
who also ran again and
1913–1914 South American Expedition
Roosevelt's popular book Through the
Brazilian Wilderness describes his expedition into the
Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon
Scientific Expedition co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido
The book describes all the scientific discovery,
scenic tropical vistas and exotic flora, fauna and wild life
experienced on the expedition. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm
, had searched for
new adventures and found them in the forests of South America.
After a briefing of several of his own expeditions, he persuaded
Roosevelt to commit to such an expedition in 1912. To finance the
expedition, Roosevelt received support from the American
Museum of Natural History, promising to bring back many new animal
Once in South America, a new far more ambitious
goal was added: to find the headwaters of the Rio da Duvida, the
River of Doubt
, and trace it north to
the Madeira and thence to the Amazon
. It was later renamed Rio
(Rio Teodoro today, 640 km long) in honor of the
former President. Roosevelt's crew consisted of his
24-year-old son Kermit, Colonel Cândido Rondon, a naturalist sent by the
American Museum of Natural
History named George K.
Lieutenant Joao Lyra, team physician Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira,
and sixteen highly skilled paddlers (called camaradas in Portuguese
). The initial expedition
started, probably unwisely, on December 9, 1913, at the height of
the rainy season. The trip down the River of Doubt started on
February 27, 1914.
During the trip down the river, Roosevelt contracted malaria
and a serious infection resulting from a
minor leg wound. These illnesses so weakened Roosevelt that, by six
weeks into the expedition, he had to be attended day and night by
the expedition's physician, Dr. Cajazeira, and his son, Kermit. By
this time, Roosevelt considered his own condition a threat to the
survival of the others. At one point, Kermit had to talk him out of
his wish to be left behind so as not to slow down the expedition,
now with only a few weeks rations left. Roosevelt was having chest
pains when he tried to walk, his temperature soared to 103 °F
(39 °C), and at times he was delirious. He had lost over fifty
pounds (20 kg). Without the constant support of his son,
Kermit, Dr. Cajazeira, and the continued leadership of Colonel
Rondon, Roosevelt would likely have perished. Despite his concern
for Roosevelt, Rondon had been slowing down the pace of the
expedition by his dedication to his own mapmaking and other
geographical goals that demanded regular stops to fix the
expedition's position by sun-based survey.
Upon his return to New York, friends and family were startled by
Roosevelt's physical appearance and fatigue. Roosevelt wrote to a
friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years. He might
not have really known just how accurate that analysis would prove
to be, because the effects of the South America expedition had so
greatly weakened him that they significantly contributed to his
declining health. For the rest of his life, he would be plagued by
flareups of malaria and leg inflammations so severe that they would
When Roosevelt had recovered enough of his strength, he found that
he had a new battle on his hands. In professional circles, there
was doubt about his claims of having discovered and navigated a
completely uncharted river over 625 miles (1,000 km) long.
Roosevelt would have to defend himself and win international
recognition of the expedition's newly named Rio Roosevelt
. Toward this end, Roosevelt went
to Washington, D.C., and spoke at a standing-room-only convention
to defend his claims. His official report and its defense silenced
the critics, and he was able to triumphantly return to his home in
Later years and death
Roosevelt angrily complained about the foreign policy of President Wilson
, calling it "weak." This
caused him to develop an intense dislike for Woodrow Wilson.
World War I began in 1914, Roosevelt
strongly supported the Allies of
World War I and demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare.
1916, he campaigned energetically for Charles Evans Hughes
denounced Irish-Americans and German-Americans who Roosevelt said
were unpatriotic because they put the interest of Ireland and
Germany ahead of America's by supporting neutrality. He insisted
one had to be 100% American, not a "hyphenated American
" who juggled
multiple loyalties. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917,
Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer infantry division, but Wilson
Roosevelt's attacks on Wilson helped the Republicans win control of
Congress in the off-year elections of 1918. Roosevelt was popular
enough to seriously contest the 1920 Republican nomination, but his
health was broken by 1918, because of the lingering malaria
. His son Quentin
, a daring pilot with the American
forces in France, was shot down behind German lines in 1918.
Quentin was his youngest son and probably his favorite. It is said
the death of his son distressed him so much that Roosevelt never
recovered from his loss.
Twenty-six steps leading to
Roosevelt's grave, commemorating his service as 26th
Despite his faltering health, Roosevelt remained active to the end
of his life. He was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting
movement. The Boy Scouts of America
gave him the
title of Chief Scout Citizen
, the only person to
hold such title. One early Scout leader said, "The two things that
gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the
uniform and Teddy Roosevelt's jingoism
Roosevelt was considering a third Presidential campaign in 1920
, and was
believed to have been the front-runner for the Republican
nomination until he was laid low by illness. His family and
supporters threw their support to Roosevelt's old military
companion, General Leonard Wood
was ultimately defeated by Warren
January 6, 1919, Roosevelt died in his sleep at Oyster
Bay of a coronary
thrombosis (heart attack), preceded by a 2 1/2-month illness
described as inflammatory rheumatism, and
was buried in nearby Youngs Memorial Cemetery.
receiving word of his death, his son Archie
telegraphed his siblings simply,
"The old lion is dead." The U.S. Vice-President at that time,
Thomas R. Marshall
, said that "Death had to take
Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been
In an 1894 article on immigration, Roosevelt said, "We must
Americanize in every way, in speech, in political ideas and
principles, and in their way of looking at relations between church
and state. We welcome the German and the Irishman who becomes an
American. We have no use for the German or Irishman who remains
such... He must revere only our flag, not only must it come first,
but no other flag should even come second."
Theodore Roosevelt introduced the phrase "Square Deal" to describe
his progressive views in a speech delivered after leaving the
office of the Presidency in August 1910. In this speech, he
stressed equality of opportunity for all citizens, and government
regulations to encourage such. Many of the specifics outlined in
the address anticipate Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal
Roosevelt was one of the first Presidents to make conservation a
national issue. In a speech that TR gave at Osawatomie, Kansas, on
August 31, 1910, he outlined his views on conservation of the lands
of the United States. He favored the use of America's natural
resources, but not the misuse of them through wasteful consumption
. See 'Conservationist
In the Eighth Annual Message to Congress (1908), TR mentioned the
need for federal government to regulate interstate corporations
using the Interstate Commerce Clause, also mentioning how these
corporations fought federal control by appealing to states' rights.
Roosevelt wrote many books, including several late in life. The
still referenced The Naval War of
was published the year after he graduated from
Harvard at twenty-four in 1882. His most ambitious work, written at
thirty-one, was the 4 volume narrative The Winning of the
which attempted to connect the origin of a new "race" of
Americans (i.e. what he considered the present population of the
United States to be) to the frontier conditions their ancestors
endured throughout the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries.
Character and beliefs
Roosevelt intensely disliked being called "Teddy," and was quick to
point out this fact to those who used the nickname, though it would
become widely used by newspapers during his political career. He
attended church regularly. Of including the motto "In God We Trust"
on money, in 1907 he wrote, "It seems to me eminently unwise to
cheapen such a motto by use on coins, just as it would be to
cheapen it by use on postage stamps, or in advertisements." He was
also a member of the Freemasons
Sons of the American
Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called, in an
1899 speech, "the strenuous
." To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing
, and horseback
. As governor of New York, he boxed with sparring
partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as
President until one blow detached his left retina
, leaving him blind in that eye (a fact not
made public until many years later). Thereafter, he practiced
attaining a third degree brown belt and
continued his habit of skinny-dipping
in the Potomac River
He was an enthusiastic singlestick
player and, according to Harper's
, in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with
his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood
. Roosevelt was also an avid
reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several a
day in multiple languages. Along with Thomas Jefferson
, Roosevelt is often
considered the most well read of any American politician
gallantry at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt's commanders recommended him
for the Medal of Honor, but his
subsequent telegrams to the War Department complaining about the
delays in returning American troops from Cuba doomed his
In the late 1990s, Roosevelt's supporters again
took up the flag for him and overcame opposition from elements
within the U.S. Army and the National Archives.
On January 16, 2001, President Bill Clinton
awarded Theodore Roosevelt the
Medal of Honor posthumously for his charge up San Juan Hill, Cuba,
during the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt's eldest son, Brigadier General
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.,
received the Medal of Honor for heroism at the Battle of
Normandy in 1944.
The Roosevelts thus became one of
only two father-son pairs to receive this honor.
1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's
multiple roles from 1899 to 1910
Roosevelt's legacy includes several other important commemorations.
was included with George
Washington, Thomas Jefferson
and Abraham Lincoln at the Mount
Rushmore Memorial, designed
in 1927. The United
States Navy named two ships for Roosevelt: the USS Theodore Roosevelt , a
submarine that was in commission from 1961 to 1982; and the
Theodore Roosevelt , an aircraft carrier that has been on active duty
in the Atlantic Fleet since 1986.
The Roosevelt Memorial
(later the Theodore Roosevelt
) or "TRA", was founded in 1920 to preserve
Roosevelt's legacy. The Association preserved TR's birthplace, "Sagamore
Hill" home, papers, and video film.
schools, neighborhoods, and streets named in Roosevelt's honor are
School in Seattle,
Washington, the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood, the
district's main arterial, Roosevelt Way N.E., and Roosevelt Middle
School in Eugene,
Overall, historians credit Roosevelt for changing the nation's
political system by permanently placing the presidency at center
stage and making character as important as the issues. His notable
accomplishments include trust-busting and conservationism. However,
he has been criticized for his interventionist and imperialist
approach to nations he considered "uncivilized". Even so, history
and legend have been kind to him. His friend, historian Henry Adams
, proclaimed, "Roosevelt, more
than any other living man ....showed the singular primitive quality
that belongs to ultimate matter the quality that mediaeval theology
assigned to God he was pure act." Historians typically rank
Roosevelt among the top five presidents.
Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles is named after him as well as the
Hotel in New York City.
Roosevelt's 1901 saying "Speak Softly
and Carry a Big Stick
" is still being occasionally quoted by
politicians and columnists in different countries – not only
in English but also in translation to various other
Roosevelt's lasting popular legacy, however, is the stuffed toy
—named after him
following an incident on a hunting trip in Mississippi in 1902.
Roosevelt famously refused to kill a captured black bear
simply for the sake of making
a kill. He would not shoot it because it was unsportsmanlike, and
ordered it to be released. A local toy maker heard the story and
asked TR if he could use his name on a toy bear. Roosevelt approved
and the teddy bear was born. Bears and later bear cubs became
closely associated with Roosevelt in political cartoons
On June 26, 2006, Roosevelt, again, made the cover of TIME
magazine with the lead story, "The
Making of America—Theodore Roosevelt—The 20th Century Express": "At
home and abroad, Theodore Roosevelt was the locomotive President,
the man who drew his flourishing nation into the future."
Coat of Arms
Roosevelt can trace his ancestry to Claes Maartenszen van
Rosenvelt, a Dutch burgher whose coat of
was white with a rosebush with three rose flowers growing
upon a grassy mound, and whose crest
was of three ostrich feathers divided
into red and white halves each. In heraldic terms, the heraldic
achievement could be described as, Argent upon a grassy mound a
rosebush bearing three roses gules barbed and seeded proper all
, and the crest that sits upon a torse argent and gules
as, three ostrich plumes each per pale gules and
The arms are in a style of heraldry
canting, which describes a family name pictorially, usually with a
pun. The surname van Rosenvelt
means "from the rose field"
in Dutch, and thus the rosebush and grassy mound are a clear play
on words with the name.
The coat of arms, and the symbolic rose, would be important to the
heritage of Roosevelt’s family. His daughter, Alice, said that her
father and family “had roses in book plates and crested rings.
Roosevelt babies always had cascades of roses tumbling down their
christening robes.” She would also wear a dress embroidered with
roses at her White House wedding.
Theodore Roosevelt was one of the first presidents whose voice was
recorded for posterity. Several of his recorded speeches survive.A
4.6-minute voice recording, which preserves Roosevelt's lower
timbre ranges particularly well for its time, is among those
available from the Michigan State University libraries. (This is
the 1912 recording of The Right of the People to Rule
recorded by Edison at Carnegie Hall). In what some consider the
best example of Roosevelt's animated oratorical style, an audio
clip sponsored by the Authentic History Center includes his defense
of the Progressive Party in 1912 wherein he proclaims it the "party
of the people" in contrast with the other major parties.
File:Teddy Roosevelt, San Francisco, 1903.ogg|Parade for
the school children of San Francisco, down Van Ness
AvenueFile:Teddy Roosevelt video montage.ogg|Collection of video
clips of Roosevelt
Notes and references
- "T.R.: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt", 1996, 'The
- John F.
Kennedy is the youngest person to be elected
President. Roosevelt was not elected into office as President until
1904, when he was 46.
- Pringle (1931) p. 11
- Roosevelt, Theodore An Autobiography, 1913, The MacMillan
Company, "On October 27, 1858, I was born at No. 28 East Twentieth
Street, New York City..."
- LOST IN TONE
- "TR's Legacy—The Environment". Retrieved March 6,
- Bishop, Joseph Bucklin,(1920) "Theodore Roosevelt and His Time Shown in His
Own Letters - Book I,p. 2
- Thayer, William Roscoe (1919). Theodore
Roosevelt: An Intimate Biography, Chapter I, p. 20.
- Roosevelt, Theodore (1913). Theodore Roosevelt: An
Autobiography, Chapter I, p. 13.
- Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time pg
- "The Film & More: Program Transcript Part
One". Retrieved March 9, 2006.
- Miller, Nathan, (1992) Theodore Roosevelt - A Life, pg
158, ISBN 9780688132200, ISBN 0688132200, New York, Quill/William
- Bishop, Joseph Bucklin,(1920) "Theodore Roosevelt and His Time Shown in His
Own Letters - Book I,p. 33-35
- Robinson Roosevelt, Corinne, 1921, My Brother Theodore Roosevelt, Kessinger
Publishing (March 2003), ISBN 0766143813, pg 240-241.
- Morris, Rise of, pg 232.
- Brands T. R. p. 49–50
- Brands p. 62
- Autobiography, pg 40
- Morris, Edmund, (1979) The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt,
pg 67, ISBN 0-698-10783-7, New York, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan
- Brands, pp 123–29
- Autobiography, pg 35
- Morris, Rise of, pg 565
- Morris, Rise of, pg 267.
- "Theodore Roosevelt, A Biography, by Henry Pringle", pg 61
- Morris, Rise of, 241–245, 247–250
- Thayer, Chapter V, pp. 4, 6.
- Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910 Edition, Topic: Theodore
- Although Roosevelt's father was also named Theodore Roosevelt,
he died while the future president was still childless and
unmarried, so the future President Roosevelt took the suffix of Sr.
and subsequently named his son Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Because
Roosevelt was still alive when his grandson and namesake was born,
his grandson was named Theodore Roosevelt III, and the
president's son retained the Jr. after his father's death.
- Thayer, ch. VI, pp. 1–2.
- Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time
Book I, pg 51
- Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time pg
- Andrews, William, "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public
Order - 1845 to 1870", - New York City Police Department History Site.
Retrieved August 28, 2006.
- Editors, "Leadership of the City of New York Police Department
1845–1901", - The New York City Police Department Museum.
Retrieved August 28, 2006.
- Riis, Jacob, A, The Making of an American
Chapter XIII, page 3.
- Brands ch 11
- Cartoon of the Day explanation, Robert C.
Kennedy, Harper's Weekly, September 6, 1902
- Brands ch 12
- Roosevelt, Theodore (1898). The Rough
Riders, Chapter III, p. 52. Bartleby.com.
- Soots Letter
- Brands ch 13
- Center of Military History
- Brands ch 14–15
- Theodore Roosevelt website
- O'Toole, Patricia (2005) When Trumpets Call, p. 67,
Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-684-86477-0
- Thayer, Chapter XXI, p. 10.
- Carl M. Cannon, The Pursuit of Happiness in Times of
War, Rowman & Littlefield: 2003, p. 142. ISBN
- Thayer, Chapter XXII, pp. 25–31.
- Wisconsin Historical Society
- Medical History of American Presidents
- Excerpt from the Detroit Free
Press, at Historybuff.com
- Roosevelt Timeline
- Hanson, David C. (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt: Lion in the White House".
Retrieved March 6, 2006.
- Thayer, Chapter XXIII, pp. 4–7.
- Brands 781–4; Cramer, C.H. Newton D. Baker (1961)
- Dalton, (2002) p. 507
- Larson, Keith (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
- Pietrusza, David. 1920: The Year of the
Six Presidents (2007). pp. 55-71 (on Roosevelt's propsective
candidacy), 167-175 (on Wood and his support by TR's family)
- "Business to Stop in Silent Tribute; Stock
Exchanges and Courts Will Suspend for Day at 1 o'clock This
Afternoon; Church Bells will Toll," New York Times.
January 8, 1919
- "Bury Roosevelt with Simple Rites as Nation
Grieves; Government's Representatives and Old Friends Pay Last
Tribute at His Bier," New York Times. January 9,
- Manners, William. TR and Will: A Friendship that Split the
Republican Party. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.,
- Page = 141-142.
- The Origins of the SAR Accessed 26 December 2008
- Thayer, Chapter XVII, pp. 22–24.
- Shaw, K.B. & Maiden, David (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 7,
- Amberger, J Christoph, Secret History of the Sword Adventures
in Ancient Martial Arts 1998, ISBN 1-892515-04-0.
- David H. Burton, The Learned Presidency 1988, p
- The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (2005).
"Biography: Impact and Legacy". Retrieved March
- "Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
- "History of the Teddy Bear". Retrieved March 7,
- Vincent Voice Library at Michigan State University.
Retrieved September 23, 2007.
- Auchincloss, Louis, ed. Theodore Roosevelt, The Rough
Riders and an Autobiography (Library of America, 2004) ISBN
- Auchincloss, Louis, ed. Theodore Roosevelt, Letters and
Speeches (Library of
America, 2004) ISBN 978-1-93108266-2
- Brands, H.W. ed. The Selected Letters of Theodore
- Harbaugh, William ed. The Writings Of Theodore
Roosevelt (1967). A one-volume selection of Roosevelt's
speeches and essays.
- Hart, Albert Bushnell and Herbert Ronald Ferleger, eds.
Cyclopedia (1941), Roosevelt's opinions on many issues;
online version at 
- Morison, Elting E., John Morton Blum, and Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., eds., The Letters
of Theodore Roosevelt, 8 vols. (1951–1954). Very large,
annotated edition of letters from TR.
- Roosevelt, Theodore (1999). Theodore Roosevelt:
An Autobiography. online at Bartleby.com.
- Roosevelt, Theodore. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt
(National edition, 20 vol. 1926); 18,000 pages containing most of
TR's speeches, books and essays, but not his letters; a CD-ROM
edition is available; some of TR's books are available online
through Project Bartleby
- Theodore Roosevelt books and speeches on Project
- Roosevelt, Theodore, The Naval
War of 1812 Or the History of the United States Navy during the
Last War with Great Britain to Which Is Appended an Account of the
Battle of New Orleans (1882) (New York: The Modern Library,
1999). ISBN 0-375-75419-9.
- Blum, John Morton. (1954).
The Republican Roosevelt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Series of
essays that examine how TR did politics OCLC 310975
- Brands, Henry William. (1997).
T.R.: The Last Romantic. New York: Basic Books. Reprinted
2001, full biography OCLC 36954615
- Brinkley, Douglas. (2009).
The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for
America. New York: HarperCollins. 10-ISBN 0-060-56528-4;
- Chace, James. 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Debs - The
Election That Changed the Country. (2004). 323 pp.
- Cooper, John Milton The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow
Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. (1983) a dual scholarly
- Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous
Life. (2002), full scholarly biography
- Fehn, Bruce. "Theodore Roosevelt and American Masculinity."
Magazine of History (2005) 19(2): 52–59. Issn: 0882-228x
Fulltext online at Ebsco. Provides a lesson plan on TR as the
historical figure who most exemplifies the quality of
- Gluck, Sherwin. "T.R.'s Summer White House, Oyster Bay." (1999)
Chronicles the events of TR's presidency during the summers of his
- Goldman, Eric F. Rendezvous with Destiny: A History of
Modern American Reform. (1952) Bancroft Prize, 1953, ISBN 1566633699
- Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
(1991), standard history of his domestic and foreign policy as
- Harbaugh, William Henry. The Life and Times of Theodore
Roosevelt. (1963), full scholarly biography
- Keller, Morton, ed., Theodore Roosevelt: A Profile
(1967) excerpts from TR and from historians.
- Kohn, Edward. "Crossing the Rubicon: Theodore Roosevelt, Henry
Cabot Lodge, and the 1884 Republican National Convention."
Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2006 5(1):
18–45. Issn: 1537-7814 Fulltext: in History Cooperative
- Millard, Candice. River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt's
Darkest Journey. (2005)
- McCullough, David. Mornings
on Horseback, The Story of an Extraordinary Family. a Vanished Way
of Life, and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt.
(2001) popular biography to 1884
- Mellander, Gustavo A.
(1971). The United States in Panamanian Politics: The
Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate
Publishers. OCLC 138568.
- Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999).
Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras,
Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC
- Morris, Edmund The
Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, to 1901 (1979); vol 2:
Theodore Rex 1901–1909. (2001); Pulitzer prize for Volume
- Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern
America, 1900–1912. (1954) general survey of era; online
- Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive
Movement. (2001) focus on 1912
- O'Toole, Patricia. When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt
after the White House. (2005). 494 pp.
- Pearson, Edmund. Theodore
- Powell, Jim. Bully
Boy: The Truth About Theodore Roosevelt's Legacy (Crown Forum,
2006). Examines TR policies from conservative/libertarian
perspective. ISBN 0307237222
- Pringle, Henry F. Theodore Roosevelt (1932; 2nd ed.
1956), full scholarly biography
- Putnam, Carleton Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography, Volume I:
The Formative Years (1958), only volume published, to age
- Renehan, Edward J. The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and
His Family in Peace and War. (Oxford University Press, 1998),
examines TR and his family during the World War I period
- Strock, James M. Theodore Roosevelt on Leadership.
Random House, 2003.
- Watts, Sarah. Rough Rider in the White House: Theodore
Roosevelt and the Politics of Desire. 2003. 289 pp.
- Beale Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America
to World Power. (1956). standard history of his foreign
- Holmes, James R. Theodore Roosevelt and World Order: Police
Power in International Relations. 2006. 328 pp.
- Marks III, Frederick W. Velvet on Iron: The Diplomacy of
Theodore Roosevelt (1979)
- David McCullough. The Path between the Seas: The Creation
of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914 (1977).
- Ricard, Serge. "The Roosevelt Corollary." Presidential
Studies Quarterly 2006 36(1): 17–26. Issn: 0360-4918 Fulltext:
in Swetswise and Ingenta
- Tilchin, William N. and Neu, Charles E., ed. Artists of
Power: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Their Enduring
Impact on U.S. Foreign Policy. Praeger, 2006. 196
- Tilchin, William N. Theodore Roosevelt and the British
Empire: A Study in Presidential Statecraft (1997)
- Testi, Arnaldo (1995). "The Gender of Reform Politics: Theodore
Roosevelt and the Culture of Masculinity," Journal of American
History, Vol. 81, No. 4, pp. 1509–1533.
- THE WILDERNESS WARRIOR; Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for
America, By Douglas Brinkley, 2009
- Theodore Roosevelt Association - Founded in 1920 by
Roosevelt's friends and admirers to preserve his legacy.
Extensive online resources and bibliography
- Extensive essay on Theodore Roosevelt and shorter
essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller
Center of Public Affairs
- Theodore Roosevelt: A Resource Guide from the
Library of Congress
- NY Times Headline, January 6, 1919, Theodore
Roosevelt Dies Suddenly at Oyster Bay Home; Nation Shocked, Pays
Tribute to Former President; Our Flag on All Seas and in All Lands
at Half Mast
- "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public Order -
1845 to 1870", by William Andrews, New York City Police Department
- "Leadership of the City of New York Police Department
1845–1901", - The New York City Police Department Museum
"American Experience" Theodore Roosevelt
- My Brother Theodore Roosevelt, 1921 By Corinne
Roosevelt Robinson, a bestseller with a woman's and sister's point
of view on TR. Full text and Full text Search, Free to Read and
- Almanac of Theodore Roosevelt
- Downloadable audio recordings of Roosevelt in MP3
- Audio clips of Roosevelt's speeches
- Roosevelt podcasts Audio Recording of Roosevelt's Progressive Party
Acceptance Speech, "Progressive Covenant with the People" with text
- Theodore Roosevelt Works - Bartleby's Online
- Presidential Biography by Stanley L. Klos
- Works by/about Theodore Roosevelt at Internet
- Index of T. Roosevelt Etexts
- Detailed biography of Theodore Roosevelt from the
1911 version of Encyclopedia Britannica
- Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Address
- State of the Union addresses for 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, and 1908
- Nobel Peace Prize 1906: Theodore Roosevelt
- Theodore Roosevelt Papers at the Library of
- Theodore Roosevelt: His Life & Times on Film
Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site
Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site
- Sagamore Hill National Historic Site
- Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site: Birthplace
of the Modern Presidency, a National Park Service Teaching
with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
- NobelPrize.org's entry on Theodore
- Congressional Medal of Honor's entry on Theodore
Roosevelt; including citation and pictures
- Medal of Honor Recipients on Film
- White House biography
- Family and Descendants of Theodore
- Ron Schuler's Parlour Tricks: Teddy
- Theodore Roosevelt Links
- Theodore Roosevelt Quotes, Pictures and Biography at
- Theodore Roosevelt cylinder recordings, from
Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa
- On Theodore Roosevelt's progressive vision from
Roosevelt Institution, a student think
tank inspired in part by Theodore Roosevelt.
and Crockett Club, founded by Theodore Roosevelt
- How to pronounce Theodore Roosevelt
- Yesterday's News blog 1901 newspaper account of
Roosevelt's "Big Stick" speech at the Minnesota State Fair
- Archive of Theodore Roosevelt Pictures
- still of Theodore Roosevelt going on first
- different view of Theodore Roosevelt &
Arch Hoxsey in Wright aeroplane St Louis
- Retrieved on 2008-07-03
- Theodore Roosevelt with video, audio, pictures and
other sources from Library of Congress and National