is a brand of portable laptop computers
manufactured and sold by IBM
. Since early 2005,
the ThinkPad range has been manufactured and marketed by Lenovo
, which purchased the IBM personal computer
division. Since its
release in 1992, the ThinkPad
has been regarded as one of
the most durable, secure, powerful, innovative, and reliable of
laptops targeting the common market.
The predecessor of the ThinkPad was the PS/55note 5523-S
released by IBM Japan in 1991.
IBM introduced the ThinkPad line in 1992. The name "ThinkPad" had
deep roots in IBM's corporate history and culture. Thomas J. Watson, Sr.
, had first introduced "THINK!"
as an IBM slogan in the 1920s. For decades IBM distributed small
notepads with the word "THINK" emblazoned on a brown leatherette
cover to customers and employees. Legend has it that the name
ThinkPad was suggested for mobile computers by an IBM researcher
who had a "THINK" notepad in his pocket.
The first three ThinkPad models introduced were the 700, 700C, and
700T, which debuted in October 1992. The 700C used the Microsoft Windows 3.1 operating system
, 25 MHz 486SLC
processor, 120 MB
hard disk drive, the industry's first 10.4″
color display, 2.2″ × 11.7″ × 8.3″
dimension (56 × 297 × 210 mm), and 3 kg (6.5 lb)
weight, cost US$ 4,350. The design of the commercial versions
differed significantly from the prototype's keyboard-less tablet design
. The bright red TrackPoint, a kind
of pointing stick
embedded in the
keyboard, enabled the notebook to be used on an airline tray table
without a mouse. An IBM researcher conceived the title "ThinkPad"
from a corporate-issued leather-bound pocket notebook with the
corporate motto 'Think' embossed on the cover. The name faced
disagreements from the IBM corporate naming committee because the
nomenclature system for the IBM computers was then numerical;
however, the brand name "ThinkPad" was kept as the press showed
appreciation for the title. The first ThinkPads were very
successful, and soon collected more than 300 awards for design and
The ThinkPad 750 flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour
mission to repair the Hubble
on December 2, 1993. The ThinkPad 750C's
task was to run a NASA test program
which determined if radiation inherent in the space environment
causes memory anomalies in the 750C or generates other unexpected
In 1995, the average number used was five, and in
1999 the average number was nine. Throughout 2006, a ThinkPad A31p
was being used in the Service Module Central Post of the
International Space Station and seven ThinkPad A31p laptops were in
service in orbit aboard the International Space
ThinkPads have been praised for exceptional build quality, system
reliability, services and design throughout their decade and a half
of presence in the consumer market. The original design was a collaboration
between Tom Hardy, corporate
head of the IBM Design Program, Italian-based designer Richard Sapper (noted for the design of
classic products such as the Tizio lamp
for Artemide, office chair for Knoll, kitchenwares for Alessi and ballpoint for Lamy) and Kazuhiko Yamazaki, lead notebook designer at
IBM's Yamato Design Center in Japan.
Sapper proposed a design inspired by the Shōkadō bentō
, a traditional
black-lacquered Japanese lunch box.
fold-out butterfly keyboard,
which appeared in the ThinkPad 701 series, is widely considered a
design masterpiece and is on display at the Museum of Modern
Art in New York.
The ThinkPad 760 series also
included an unusual keyboard design; the keyboard was elevated by
two arms riding on small rails on the side of the screen, tilting
the keyboard to achieve a more ergonomic design.
The 755CV featured another interesting design quirk: the screen
could be separated from the lid, allowing it to be used to project
the computer display using an overhead projector
, before data projectors
In 2005 the Chinese manufacturer, Lenovo, purchased the ThinkPad
brand from IBM, in a five year deal whereby IBM still helps in the
marketing and support of these products.
The following are some of the continued improvements to the
- Added Magnesium-alloy chassis roll cage to reduce motherboard
flex caused by holding the laptop one handed on a corner.
- Added Magnesium-alloy lid roll cage for a sturdier lid while
replacing the lid material from magnesium-alloy to plastic for
better wireless signal reception.
- Added Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic to 15″ ThinkPad
- Reintroduced a line of Tablet PCs based on the X series.
- Moved the physical location of GPU to the edge of motherboard
near hinge to reduce the chance of damage caused by motherboard
- Introduced Widescreen displays with the Z series of ThinkPads
and added Widescreen to the T series models.
- Introduced a lower-priced laptop under the Z series of
- Added rubber cushion to the hard drive tray to reduce vibration
and to absorb shock.
- Added the Windows key to all 60-series and newer laptops making
all the Windows shortcuts possible. (Although possible before with
the keyboard remapping utility)
- Official support for Linux on select models.
- Added second drainage hole starting with the Z60 series
- Ported the ThinkPad keyboard into stand-alone keyboards for
desktop PCs in PS/2 or USB flavor.
- Added user forum on its website where actual ThinkPad
developers and engineers view and reply to posts.
The ThinkPad contains an intercooling mechanism that allows the
computer's innerworks to remain cool while in use. Its designers
also placed vents and a draining mechanism that allows any spilled
material to drain through the computer without destroying the
Current product line
14" to 15.6" with average performance, use Intel Core 2 Duo
14.1" or 15.4" with mainstream performance, uses Intel Core 2 Duo
14.1" or 15.4" premier performance, uses Intel Core 2 Duo
12.1" or 13.3" light-weight ultra-portable, uses Intel Core 2 Duo
|ThinkPad X Series
12.1" convertible tablet, uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors
15.4" or 17" ultimate mobile workstation, uses Intel Core 2 Duo,
Quad, or Extreme processors
Traditionally black, ThinkPads have commonly featured magnesium,
reinforced plastic or
composite cases. The ThinkPad has
introduced many innovations, including the TrackPoint
pointing device. ThinkLight
, an LED keyboard light at the top of
the LCD screen, Active Protection System, an accelerometer
sensor which detects when a
ThinkPad is falling and shuts the hard drive down to prevent
damage, Roll-cage design to eliminate motherboard flex, Biometric
fingerprint reader, Client Security Solution, which improves
security using a built-in TPM
and facilitates deployment in
corporate environment, ThinkVantage Technologies
computer management applications, and drain holes to help reduce
damages to the keyboard and components from accidental
Several ThinkPads in use aboard the
International Space Station, including 760, 770, and A21p
- ThinkPad 235: The Japan-only ThinkPad 235 (or Type 2607), is an
interesting product because it is a progeny of the IBM/Ricoh RIOS
project. Also known as Clavius or Chandra2, it contains unusual
features like the presence of 3 PCMCIA slots and the use of dual
camcorder batteries as a source of power. Features an Intel Pentium
MMX 233 MHz CPU, support for up to 160 MB of EDO memory,
and a built-in hard drive with UDMA support. Hitachi markets
Chandra2 as the Prius Note 210.
- ThinkPad 240: The ultraportable ThinkPad 240 (X, Z) started
with an Intel Celeron and went up to the 600 MHz Intel Pentium
III. The RAM was expandable to 320 MB max with a BIOS update. With
a screen and an 18 mm key pitch (A standard key pitch is
19mm). They were also one of the first ThinkPad series to contain a
built-in Mini PCI card slot (form factor
3b). The 240s have no optical drives and an external floppy drive.
An optional extended battery sticks out the bottom like a bar and
props up the back of the laptop. Weighing in at 2.9 pounds
(1.3 kg) these were the smallest and lightest ThinkPads ever
- ThinkPad 300 series: The 300 series (300, 310, 340, 350, 360, 365, 380, 385, 390 (all with various
sub-series)) was a long-running value series starting at the
386SL/25 processor, all the way to the Pentium III 450. They were
lower specified versions of the ThinkPad 700 series, available at a
An IBM Thinkpad 310ED and a 760ED,
both from the 1996-97 era.
For their time, they were very mobile, powerful, and
The 760ED boasts the unique flip-up keyboard that was standard
on all 760 Thinkpads.
- ThinkPad 500 series: The 500 series (500, 510, 560 (E, X, Z),
570 (E)) were the main line of the ultraportable ThinkPads.
Starting with the 486SX2-50 Blue Lightning to the Pentium III 500,
these machines had only a hard disk onboard. Any other drives were
external (or in the 570's case in the ultrabase). They weighed in
at around 4 pounds (1.8 kg) and because of their excellent
design are still in use today.
- ThinkPad 600 series: The 600 series (600, 600E and 600X) are
the direct predecessors of the T series, and are known for their
portability, comfortable keyboard, and sturdy construction. The 600
series packed a 12.1" SVGA or a 13.3" XGA TFT LCD, Pentium MMX,
Pentium II or III processor, full-sized keyboard, and optical bay
into a package weighing roughly 2.3 kg (5 lb). IBM was
able to create this light, fully featured machine by using
lightweight but strong carbon fibre composite plastics. The battery
shipped with some 600 series models had a manufacturing defect that
left it vulnerable to memory effect
and resulted in poor battery life, but this problem can be avoided
by use of a third-party battery.
- ThinkPad 700 series: The 700 series (700, 701, 720, 730
(tablet), 750, 755, 760, 765, 770 (many with sub-models)) were the
cutting-edge Intel-based ThinkPads. They featured the best screens,
largest hard drives and fastest processors available at the time.
This was the first successful ThinkPad introduced in 1992 (the
first ThinkPad was a tablet PC without a
keyboard and a mouse).
- ThinkPad 800 series: The ThinkPad 800 series
(800/820/821/822/823/850/851/860) were unique in that they were
based on the PowerPC architecture, rather
than the Intel x86 architecture. They all used
the PowerPC 603e
CPU, at speeds of 100 MHz, or 166 MHz in the 860 model.
The 800 may have used a 603, and it is unclear if the 800 was
experimental or not. All units used SCSI 2
instead of IDE hard disks. The units are believed to have all been
extremely expensive, as the 850 cost upwards of $12,000. The 800
series can run Windows NT 3.5 (probably
4.0 as well), OS/2, AIX 4.14, Solaris Desktop 2.5.1 PowerPC
Edition, and Linux.
- ThinkPad TransNote: The ThinkPad TransNote was a pen-based PC
in a laptop. Data could be entered through the keyboard,
TrackPoint, paper notepad (with writing sensor below), or the
screen via stylus. This ThinkPad expanded on IBM's previous pen
based notebooks (360P(E), 730T(E), and 750(P)).
- ThinkPad A series: The A series was developed as an allround
productivity machine, equipped with hardware powerful enough to
make it a desktop replacement. Hence it was the biggest and
heaviest ThinkPad series at its time, but also had features not
even found in a T series of the same age. The A series was dropped
in favour of the G series and R series.
- ThinkPad G series: The G series consisted of only three models,
the G40, G41 and G50. Being large and heavy machines, equipped with
powerful desktop processors, this line of ThinkPads was
consequently specialised in serving as a desktop replacement.
- ThinkPad i series: The i series introduced the ThinkLight and
were also the first notebooks equipped with Wireless LAN.
Lenovo ThinkPad R500
Lenovo ThinkPad R500 (lid
- ThinkPad R40 series: This line of laptops comprised the R40 and
the R40e. These had Mobile Celeron, Pentium 4-M or Pentium M
processors, depending on sub-variant.
- ThinkPad R50 series: Based on the T40 series, this line of
laptops includes the R50, R50e, R50p, R51, R51e and R52. This
series of laptops is available with fingerprint-readers and uses
many components also found in T40-series models, such as batteries,
keyboards and planars (system boards). The R51e and the R52, both
based on the T43 system board, are the first R-series laptop to
utilize DDR2-memory and include a SATA-controller, however uses only
- ThinkPad S30 and S31: Japan & Taiwan-only Pentium III model
with no CD drive, a screen, 256MB Maximum RAM, PCMCIA slot, CF
slot, 2 USB 1.1 ports, Firewire port, RJ11 and
RJ45, and a keyboard with English and Japanese
shared keys. Battery with built-in stand, long life 5 hr run. HDD
20 GB upgradeable to 160 GB tested. Some models have built-in WiFi.
BIOS are interchangeable in S30 and S31 and tested to work. The
latest known BIOS is 1.82.
- ThinkPad T20 series: Comprising the T20, T21, T22 and T23,
these were Mobile Pentium III or Mobile Pentium III-M,
sub-5 lb (2.3 kg) class machines. Contained processors
ranging from 0.18 micrometre Mobile
Pentium III 650 MHz to 0.13 micrometre Mobile Pentium III-M
1.20 GHz. Typically had XGA screens, Ultrabay 2000 optical
drives, S3 Savage/IX-MV graphics chip and Cirrus Logic CS
4614/22/24 sound chips; although variations along the line existed.
Introduced the ThinkLight, a LED mounted inside the upper screen
lip that illuminates the keyboard (activated with Fn-PgUp, the
extreme diagonal keys); and titanium-reinforced and rubberized
screen lids. Used MiniPCI form factor cards,
which could be modem and/or Ethernet. With the T23, an internal
WiFi antenna became available, so WiFi miniPCI
cards could be used. These models did not contain the active hard
drive protection or touchpad pointing device which appeared in
later models. They were clad in black non-slip rubber with embedded
glitter. The case lid had tabs along the edge that interlocked with
depressions in the lower case when closed, to reduce case flexing.
Comparatively more stylish, functional, and rugged machines; and
easy to disassemble for repair or upgrades. The T23 machine, known
internally in IBM as the 'Toronto' model, the first to include
Windows XP, is acknowledged by many as
having the best keyboard on any laptop computer .
- ThinkPad T30: Features include an Intel Mobile Pentium 4
processor ranging from 1.6 GHz to 2.4 GHz. A T30 may
accommodate up to a 2.4 GHz processor with the latest BIOS and Embedded Controller upgrades. Graphics are
provided by ATI Radeon Mobility 7500 hardware with 16 MB of
discrete video memory, which supports external widescreen
resolutions. Users have even reported success with output
resolutions of 1920x1200 via DVI on the optional Port Replicator
II docking station, although IBM claims a limit of 1280x1024 due to
a weak TMDS transmitter. The T30 was available with a screen, with
resolutions of 1024 x 768 and 1400 x 1050. DVI video output is
available with the optional Port Replicator II docking station, but
resolution is officially limited to 1280x1024. Features available
include the embedded security subsystem, UltraNav touchpad,
256 MB standard memory (1 GB maximum according to IBM
manual, but it has been reported to accept 2 GB of RAM), a 20,
40 or 60 GB hard disk, Ultrabay Plus drive, wireless, and
Bluetooth. The T30 also contains a miniPCI
slot usable for a wireless card. The shell is titanium-reinforced
composite. The whole package was a bit heavier and thicker than the
- ThinkPad T40 series: Includes the T40, T41, T42, T43, and
associated "p" series (for "performance"; e.g., T43p). A typical T4x weighs
2.2 kg (4.9 lb), slightly less than the 600 series, and
features an Intel Pentium M
Processor (ranging from the Intel Pentium M at
1.3 GHz to the Intel Pentium M 770 at 2.13 GHz), a 14.1
or LCD (XGA, SXGA+), an
integrated GPU (Intel Graphics Media Adapter 900) or a discrete GPU
(Radeon 7500, 9000, 9600 (fastest for games), X300, Fire GL 9000,
Fire GL T2, and Fire GL V3200), and a hard drive ranging in size
from 30 to 100 GB with the Active Protection System to protect
the hard drive (T41 and later models). "p" (mobile
workstation) models typically offer FireGL CAD graphics, and are
also available with a SXGA+ or a SXGA+/UXGA
FlexView display with wide viewing angle and high density IPS
technology. These display models weigh slightly more than their
lesser brethren, with optical drive and battery, at 2.7 kg
(5.9 lb). One model of T42 also offered IPS SXGA+ 14"
technology. All T4x models use either 6-cell or 9-cell lithium-ion
batteries, as well as an optional 4-cell Ultrabay Slim
lithium-polymer battery. The 9-cell battery gives a runtime of 5+
hours and a crease allows the laptop to lay flat on an airplane
tray-table. Some T42 and T43 models feature a biometric security
system with built-in fingerprint reader. Some models also include
Bluetooth support. The T43 model offered DDR2 memory (vs DDR for
other T-series machines) but ran hotter and noisier, and so the T42
models were thought to have the best combination of ergonomics and
performance. The T40 was IBM's first ThinkPad to use the Pentium M
"Banias" CPU. The T42 employed a Pentium M "Dothan" processor with
a 400 MHz frontside bus, while the T43 used a later revision
of Dothan running a 533 MHz FSB.
- ThinkPad T60 series: Includes the T60, T61; and associated "p"
series (for "performance"; e.g. T60p); intended as the next
generation of the T4x Series ThinkPads; this is the first T Series
ThinkPad to include the Intel Core Duo "Yonah" Technology, and
later the Intel Core 2 Duo "Merom" Mobile
technology; and the first T-series ThinkPads to come in widescreen
resolution. This model has a VMX-enabled BIOS,
meaning that running fully virtualised operating systems via Xen or VMware is possible,
provided a VMX compatible CPU is installed. The T61, announced in
May 2007, features a widescreen resolution as the default
resolution, and incorporates the Intel Santa Rosa platform having a fully
64-bit chipset, and is the first T-series ThinkPad to have an
integrated web camera (optional), smart card reader (optional), and
media card reader (optional). Furthering innovation founded in the
T60, the T61 also sports a top-cover roll cage, aside from the
magnesium roll cage inside the main chassis. T61 extra features
include a fingerprint reader (some models, also available on T60)
and a new improved framing (all T61 models).
- ThinkPad T400 and T500 series: This series succeeded the T61
series. Some T400 models have an associated "s" (for "small"; e.g.
T400s) and lack some rarely used features such as modems. Notable
features include switchable graphics (ability to switch between
discrete and integrated graphics, only in Windows Vista and newer)
and optional LED backlit screens. The T400 models include 14.1"
screens but lack digital video out, while the T500 line includes
15.4" screens and a DisplayPort
interface. T400 and T500 use Penryn core processors and have DDR3
1066 memory by default on all models.
- ThinkPad W Series: A recent line of mobile workstations
designed to suit the needs of CAD/CAM users, 3D and Video artists
and photographers. These are the most powerful ThinkPads ever
- ThinkPad X20 series: Pentium III Mobile, sub-4 lb
machines. Contained Pentium III-M processors ranging from
500 MHz to 1.13 GHz. 12.1 inch XGA screens, and ATI
Rage Mobility M1 (X20, X21) or Radeon Mobility M6 (X22, X23, X24)
graphics chips. Used miniPCI form factor cards, which supports
modem and/or Ethernet. With the X22 and later machines, provisions
for wireless networking support are built into the chassis.
Ultrabay 2000 optical drive support can be fitted via the Ultrabase
portable docking station option, and extended batteries can give
the series a 5-hour running time.
- ThinkPad X30 series: Pentium III Mobile (X30), Pentium M Banias
(X31) or Pentium M Dothan (X32), 12.1 inch XGA screens,
dedicated Graphic Chip (ATI M6 with 16 MB, which means no
shared memory is cut from the RAM), Bluetooth on some models
(upgradable), WLAN (802.11b, b/g or even a/b/g), FireWire, CompactFlash
card slot. No built-in optical drive. Lots of options like second
battery, Mediaslice (for battery and UltraBay), port replicators,
docking stations (some with a PCI slot).
- ThinkPad X40 Series: An example of the lightweight X series,
weighing in at 1.2 kg (2.7 lb), 25% lighter than its
predecessor, the X31. The last variant of the X40 series, the X41
Tablet, was the first ThinkPad tablet PC
since the original pen-based ThinkPad. It is the lightest 12"
Tablet PC with a keyboard from any manufacturer. It was also the
final released ThinkPad designed by IBM before the brand was
purchased by Lenovo. (The X40 was known internally in IBM as the
- ThinkPad X60 series: Includes the X60 and X61, with their
associated "s" and "Tablet" series.
The X60 is first X Series ThinkPad to feature Intel chips using the
Intel Core architecture. The Core Duo L2400 (Low Voltage) CPU on
the X60s model achieves 7+ hours of battery life on standard
benchmarks, and can reach around 10 hours under light use, when
using the extended-life battery. Note this model lacks a built-in
optical drive, unlike the larger T60. The X61, like the T61, also
is the first X-series ThinkPad to use Intel's Santa Rosa platform and to be available
with a 3G WWAN option. This series includes the Thinkpad Reserve
Edition, a 5,000 model limited edition laptop designed for
executive class professionals. It was clad in hand-stitched
leather, and came with a 3 year 24/7 service warranty.
Lenovo ThinkPad x60
- ThinkPad X300/301: Codenamed "Kodachi". Released February 26,
2008. Distinguished from other ultraportable laptops by its usage
of LED backlighting, removable battery, solid state drive, and integrated DVD
burner, it is the flagship model for the X-series. It also
integrates GPS, WWAN, and a webcam in the top lid. The thickest
part of the laptop is 2.34 cm (0.92 inches)and the
thinnest part is 1.85 cm (0.73 inches). The X301
is a revision with newer, more powerful Intel processors.
- ThinkPad X200/X200s: Successor to the X60 series, the ThinkPad
X200 laptop leverages the new technology from the X300, including
the options of a Solid State Drive (SSD), an optional integrated
camera, 12.1" widescreen display, optional 3G WWAN, a new 9-cell
battery for extended running time up to 9.8 hours, weight as low as
, and CPU up to 2.66 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo. The X200s
is a newer model of the X200 which is lighter and thinner, and has
the option of a WXGA+ screen with LED Backlighting for increased
battery performance. The X200 series included Tablet PC
- ThinkPad Z60 series: This is the first ThinkPad laptop to
feature a widescreen (16:10 aspect ratio) display. The Z Series is
also the first ThinkPad equipped with a titanium lid (on some
models). Integrated WWAN and/or webcam also found on some
configurations. The series includes, as of 2006, the Z60 (Z60m and Z60t) and Z61; the latter of which is
the first Z Series ThinkPad with Intel "Yonah"
Dual Core Technology. The processor supports Intel VT; this is disabled in the BIOS but can be
turned on thanks to a BIOS update. Running fully virtualised
operating systems via Xen or VMware is therefore
Lenovo R61 Is a thinkpad version of Lenovo Electronics. This Laptop
has Intel pentium Dual Core processor and 15.6" LCD monitor.
Both IBM and Lenovo-manufactured ThinkPads have been recognized by
the press for their reliability. Laptop Magazine
that the ThinkPad has the highest-quality laptop computer keyboard
available. The ThinkPad
was ranked #1 in reliability and support according to PC Magazine's
2007 Survey. The Lenovo ThinkPad is the PC Magazine 2006 Reader's
Choice for PC based laptops, and ranked number 1 in Support for PC
based laptops. The ThinkPad Series is the first product line that
has received PC World's Hall of Fame award. The ThinkPad X Tablet
series is PC Magazine Editor's Choice for tablet PCs. The ThinkPad
X60s is ranked number 1 in ultraportable laptops by PC World. It
lasted 8 hours and 21 minutes on a single charge with its 8 cell
battery. The Lenovo ThinkPad X60s Series is on PC World's Top 100
Products of 2006. The 2005 PC
Reliability and Service survey ranked ThinkPad products
ahead of all other brands for reliability. In the 2004 survey, they
were ranked second (behind eMachines
Lenovo was named the most environment-friendly company in the
electronics industry by Greenpeace
2007. Lenovo ThinkPad T60p received the Editor's Choice award for
Mobile Graphic Workstation from PC Magazine. Lenovo ThinkPad X60 is
the PC Magazine Editor's Choice among ultra portable laptops. The
Lenovo ThinkPad T400 Series is on PC World's Top 100 Products of
There have been concerns and complaints about the service, support,
hardware, and security before and after Lenovo acquired the
ThinkPad line. For example:
- IBM EasyServ has been outsourced to Solectron. The default depot repair is now handled
by Solectron, and there have been complaints about unsatisfactory
repairs and charges from users.
- Many IBM ThinkPad models give a no-1802 error when trying to
install "unauthorized" wireless cards. This prevents users from
starting up their computers unless the wireless mini-PCI card is
removed, or an IBM-authorized card is used. However, there are
- The latest SL series lacks several of the otherwise common key
features of a ThinkPad, such as the Roll Cage or the ThinkLight.
- 15" displays with 1400 x 1050 and 1600 x 1200 pixel resolution
are no longer offered, including the popular IPS flexview.
- For the T500, Lenovo switched from using the keyboard's
stiffener plate to using a stiffer chassis to reduce weight, which,
Lenovo claims, results in a more rigid keyboard. The keyboard
change was also made in R500, W500, and W700 Thinkpad models. Many
feel that the new keyboard flexes more, even though Lenovo's own
deformation test shows the new keyboard to perform better by .
- ThinkPads.com documents on ThinkPads
- Hamm, Steve, (2008) The Race for Perfect: Inside the Quest
to Design the Ultimate Portable Computer, New York: McGraw
- Metz, C., ″25 Years of PC Magazine: Year Eleven/1992″, PC
Magazine, May 2, 2007, available online
- Business Wire, "IBM announces new ThinkPad notebooks;
"See-Through-Screen" projects new level of innovation", May
1995, available online.
- Lenovo ThinkPad T61 Review
- Lenovo Preloading SUSE Linux on ThinkPad Posted by
Zonk (Aug 04, 2006) Slashdot
- Lenovo Support & downloads - USB Keyboard with
UltraNav - Overview
community - lenovo community
- Problem with DVI throughput - ThinkWiki
- Upgrading the IBM T30 Thinkpad
- Computer memory upgrades for IBM ThinkPad T30
Series (Type 2366) Laptop/Notebook from Crucial.com
- Lenovo ThinkPad X200 Tablet (Multitouch)
- Building the Perfect Laptop
- Lenovo ThinkPad T60 Review by LAPTOP
- Is Tech Support Getting Worse? - Notebooks -
Reviews by PC Magazine
- The 19th Annual Reader Satisfaction Survey -
Readers' Choice: Notebooks Survey - News and Analysis by PC
- PC World - Best of 2004
- Buying Guide: Business Laptops - Lenovo ThinkPad
X60 Tablet - Reviews by PC Magazine
- PC World - Lenovo ThinkPad X60s Review
- PC World - The 100 Best Products of 2006
- PC World - Reliability and Service: The Best
Companies to Buy From
- PC World - Reliability and Service: Readers Rate
- Chinese company tops Greenpeace "Green Ranking" of
electronics industry | Greenpeace International
- Lenovo ThinkPad T60p - Reviews by PC
- Lightning-Fast Surfing, To Go - Lenovo ThinkPad X60
(Vista) - Reviews by PC Magazine
- The PC World 100: Best Products of 2009
- InternetNews Realtime IT News – IBM Outsourcing to
- thinkpads.com Support Community :: View topic - IBM
- thinkpads.com Support Community :: View topic -
- thinkpads.com Support Community :: View topic -
Lenovo Botched My T41p Repair
- Command-Tab : Unauthorized Wireless Cards