The Full Wiki

Thomas Hardy: Map

  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Thomas Hardy, OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an Englishmarker novelist and poet of the naturalist movement, although in several poems he displays elements of the previous romantic and enlightenment periods of literature, such as his fascination with the supernatural.

While he regarded himself primarily as a poet who composed novels mainly for financial gain, during his lifetime, he was much better known for his novels which earned him a reputation as a great novelist. The bulk of his fictional works, intially published as serials in magazines, were set mainly in the semi-fictional land of Wessex (based on the Dorchester region where he grew up) and explored tragic characters struggling against their passions and social circumstances.

Hardy's poetry, first published in his 50s, has come to be as well-regarded as his novels and has had a significant influence over modern English poetry, especially after The Movement poets of the 1950s and 1960s cited Hardy as a major figure.

Biography

Thomas Hardy was born at Higher Bockhampton, a hamlet in the parish of Stinsfordmarker to the east of Dorchestermarker in Dorsetmarker, Englandmarker. His father (Thomas) worked as a stonemason and local builder. His mother Jemima was well-read and educated Thomas until he went to his first school at Bockhampton at age eight. For several years he attended a school run by a Mr Last. Here he learned Latin and demonstrated academic potential. However, a family of Hardy's social position lacked the means for a university education, and his formal education ended at the age of 16 when he became apprenticed to John Hicks, a local architect. Hardy trained as an architect in Dorchester before moving to Londonmarker in 1862; there he enrolled as a student at King's College, Londonmarker. He won prizes from the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Architectural Associationmarker. Hardy never felt at home in London. He was acutely conscious of class divisions and his social inferiority. However, he was interested in social reform and was familiar with the works of John Stuart Mill. He was also introduced to the works of Charles Fourier and Auguste Comte during this period by his Dorset friend Horace Moule. Five years later, concerned about his health, he returned to Dorsetmarker and decided to dedicate himself to writing.

In 1870, while on an architectural mission to restore the parish church of St Juliotmarker in Cornwallmarker, Hardy met and fell in love with Emma Lavinia Gifford, whom he married in 1874. Although he later became estranged from his wife, who died in 1912, her death had a traumatic effect on him. After her death, Hardy made a trip to Cornwallmarker to revisit places linked with their courtship, and his Poems 1912–13 reflect upon her passing. In 1914, Hardy married his secretary Florence Emily Dugdale, who was 39 years his junior. However, he remained preoccupied with his first wife's death and tried to overcome his remorse by writing poetry.

Hardy became ill with pleurisy in December 1927 and died in January 1928, having dictated his final poem to his wife on his deathbed. His funeral was on 16 January at Westminster Abbeymarker, and it proved a controversial occasion because Hardy and his family and friends had wished for his body to be interred at Stinsfordmarker in the same grave as his first wife, Emma. However, his executor, Sir Sydney Carlyle Cockerell, insisted that he be placed in the abbey's famous Poets' Cornermarker. A compromise was reached whereby his heart was buried at Stinsford with Emma, and his ashes in Poets' Corner.

Shortly after Hardy's death, the executors of his estate burnt his letters and notebooks. Twelve records survived, one of them containing notes and extracts of newspaper stories from the 1820s. Research into these provided insight into how Hardy kept track of them and how he used them in his later work. In the year of his death Mrs Hardy published The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1841–1891: compiled largely from contemporary notes, letters, diaries, and biographical memoranda, as well as from oral information in conversations extending over many years.

Hardy's work was admired by many authors including D. H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf. In his autobiography Goodbye to All That, Robert Graves recalls meeting Hardy in Dorset in the early 1920s. Hardy received him and his newly married wife warmly, and was encouraging about his work.

In 1910, Hardy was awarded the Order of Merit.

Hardy's cottage at Bockhamptonmarker and Max Gatemarker in Dorchestermarker are owned by the National Trust.

Religious beliefs

Hardy's family were Anglican, but not especially devout. He was baptised at the age of five weeks and attended church, where his father and uncle contributed to music. However, he did not attend the local Church of England school, instead being sent to Mr Last's school, three miles away. As a young adult, he befriended Henry R. Bastow (a Plymouth Brethren man), who also worked as a pupil architect, and who was preparing for adult baptism in the Baptist Church, and Hardy flirted with conversion, but decided against it. Bastow went to Australia and maintained a long correspondence with Hardy, but eventually Hardy tired of these exchanges and the correspondence ceased. This concluded Hardy's links with the Baptists.

Hardy’s idea of fate in life gave way to his philosophical struggle with God. Although Hardy’s faith remained intact, the irony and struggles of life led him to question the traditional Christian view of God: Hardy's religious life seems to have mixed agnosticism, deism, and spiritism. Once, when asked in correspondence by a clergyman about the question of reconciling the horrors of pain with the goodness of a loving God, Hardy replied,

Nevertheless, Hardy frequently conceived of and wrote about supernatural forces that control the universe, more through indifference or caprice than any firm will. Also, Hardy showed in his writing some degree of fascination with ghosts and spirits. Despite these sentiments, Hardy retained a strong emotional attachment to the Christian liturgy and church rituals, particularly as manifested in rural communities, that had been such a formative influence in his early years, and Biblical references can be found woven throughout many of Hardy's novels.

Hardy's friends during his apprenticeship to John Hicks included Horace Moule (one of the sons of Henry Moule) and the poet William Barnes, both ministers. Moule remained a close friend of Hardy's for the rest of his life, and introduced him to new scientific findings that cast doubt on literal interpretations of the Bible, such as those of Gideon Mantell. Moule gave Hardy a copy of Mantell's book The Wonders of Geology (1848) in 1858, and Adelene Buckland has suggested that there are "compelling similarities" between the "cliffhanger" section from A Pair of Blue Eyes and Mantell's geological descriptions. It has also been suggested that the character of Henry Knight in A Pair of Blue Eyes was based on Horace Moule.

Novels



Hardy's first novel, The Poor Man and the Lady, finished by 1867, failed to find a publisher and Hardy destroyed the manuscript so only parts of the novel remain. He was encouraged to try again by his mentor and friend, Victorian poet and novelist George Meredith. Desperate Remedies (1871) and Under the Greenwood Tree (1872) were published anonymously. In 1873 A Pair of Blue Eyes, a novel drawing on Hardy's courtship of his first wife, was published under his own name. The term "cliffhanger" is considered to have originated with the serialized version of this story (which was published in Tinsley's Magazine between September 1872 and July 1873) in which Henry Knight, one of the protagonists, is left literally hanging off a cliff.

Hardy said that he first introduced Wessex in Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), his next novel. It was successful enough for Hardy to give up architectural work and pursue a literary career. Over the next twenty-five years Hardy produced ten more novels.

The Hardys moved from London to Yeovilmarker and then to Sturminster Newtonmarker, where he wrote The Return of the Native (1878). In 1885, they moved for a last time, to Max Gatemarker, a house outside Dorchester designed by Hardy and built by his brother. There he wrote The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), The Woodlanders (1887) and Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891), the last of which attracted criticism for its sympathetic portrayal of a "fallen woman" and was initially refused publication. Its subtitle, A Pure Woman: Faithfully Presented, was intended to raise the eyebrows of the Victorian middle-classes.

Jude the Obscure, published in 1895, met with even stronger negative outcries from the Victorian public for its frank treatment of sex, and was often referred to as "Jude the Obscene". Heavily criticised for its apparent attack on the institution of marriage through the presentation of such concepts as erotolepsy, the book caused further strain on Hardy's already difficult marriage because Emma Hardy was concerned that Jude the Obscure would be read as autobiographical. Some booksellers sold the novel in brown paper bags, and the Bishop of Wakefield is reputed to have burnt his copy. In his postscript of 1912, Hardy humorously referred to this incident as part of the career of the book: "After these [hostile] verdicts from the press its next misfortune was to be burnt by a bishop — probably in his despair at not being able to burn me".

Despite this criticism, Hardy had become a celebrity in English literature by the 1900s, with several highly successful novels behind him, yet he felt disgust at the public reception of two of his greatest works and gave up writing fiction altogether.

Literary themes

Although he wrote a great deal of poetry, most of it went unpublished until after 1898, thus Hardy is best remembered for the series of novels and short stories he wrote between 1871 and 1895. His novels are set in the imaginary world of Wessexmarker, a large area of south and south-west England, using the name of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom that covered the area. Hardy was part of two worlds. He had a deep emotional bond with the rural way of life which he had known as a child, but he was also aware of the changes which were under way and the current social problems, from the innovations in agriculture — he captured the epoch just before the Industrial Revolution changed the English countryside — to the unfairness and hypocrisy of Victorian sexual behaviour.

Hardy critiques certain social constraints that hindered the lives of those living in the 19th century. Considered a Victorian Realist writer, Hardy examines the social constraints that are part of the Victorian status quo, suggesting these rules hinder the lives of all involved and ultimately lead to unhappiness. In Two on a Tower, Hardy seeks to take a stand against these rules and sets up a story against the backdrop of social structure by creating a story of love that crosses the boundaries of class. The reader is forced to consider disposing of the conventions set up for love. Nineteenth-century society enforces these conventions, and societal pressure ensures conformity. Swithin St Cleeve's idealism pits him against contemporary social constraints. He is a self-willed individual set up against the coercive strictures of social rules and mores.

Hardy’s stories take into consideration the events of life and their effects. Fate plays a significant role as the thematic basis for many of his novels. Characters are constantly encountering crossroads, which are symbolic of a point of opportunity and transition. Far From the Madding Crowd tells a tale of lives that are constructed by chance. “Had Bathsheba not sent the valentine, had Fanny not missed her wedding, for example, the story would have taken an entirely different path.” Once things have been put into motion, they will play out. Hardy's characters are in the grips of an overwhelming fate.

Hardy paints a vivid picture of rural life in the 19th century, with all its joys and suffering, as a fatalistic world full of superstition and injustice. His heroes and heroines are often alienated from society and are rarely readmitted. He tends to emphasise the impersonal and, generally, negative powers of fate over the mainly working class people he represents in his novels. Hardy exhibits in his books elemental passion, deep instinct, and the human will struggling against fatal and ill-comprehended laws, a victim also of unforeseeable change. Tess of the d'Urbervilles, for example, ends with:

In particular, Hardy's novel Jude the Obscure is full of the sense of crisis of the later Victorian period (as witnessed in Matthew Arnold's 'Dover Beach'). It describes the tragedy of two new social types, Jude Fawley, a working man who attempts to educate himself, and his lover and cousin, Sue Bridehead, who represents the 'new woman' of the 1890s.

His mastery, as both an author and poet, lies in the creation of natural surroundings making discoveries through close observation and acute sensitiveness. He notices the smallest and most delicate details, yet he can also paint vast landscapes of his own Wessex in melancholy or noble moods. (His eye for poignant detail — such as the spreading bloodstain on the ceiling at the end of Tess of the d'Urbervilles and little Jude's suicide note — often came from clippings from newspaper reports of real events).

Poetry

For the full text of several poems, see the External links section


In 1898 Hardy published his first volume of poetry, Wessex Poems, a collection of poems written over 30 years. Hardy claimed poetry as his first love, and published collections until his death in 1928. Although not as well received by his contemporaries as his novels, Hardy's poetry has been applauded considerably in recent years, in part because of the influence on Philip Larkinmarker who included many of Hardy's poems in the edition of the Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse that Larkin edited in 1973.

In a recent biography on Hardy, Claire Tomalin argues that Hardy became a truly great English poet after the death of his wife, beginning with the elegies he wrote in her memory, calling these poems, "one of the finest and strangest celebrations of the dead in English poetry."

Most of his poems deal with themes of disappointment in love and life, and mankind's long struggle against indifference to human suffering. Some, like "The Darkling Thrush" and "An August Midnight", appear as poems about writing poetry, because the nature mentioned in them gives Hardy the inspiration to write those. A vein of regret tinges his often seemingly banal themes. His compositions range in style from the three-volume epic closet drama The Dynasts to smaller, and often hopeful or even cheerful ballads of the moment such as the little-known "The Children and Sir Nameless", a comic poem inspired by the tombs of the Martyns, builders of Athelhamptonmarker. A particularly strong theme in the Wessex Poems is the long shadow that the Napoleonic Wars cast over the nineteenth century, for example, in "The Sergeant's Song" and "Leipzig", and the way those memories wind through the English landscape and its inhabitants.

A few of Hardy's poems, such as "The Blinded Bird" (a melancholy polemic against the sport of ), display his love of the natural world and his firm stance against animal cruelty, exhibited in his antivivisectionist views and his membership in the RSPCA.

Composers who have set Hardy's text to music include Gerald Finzi, who produced six song-cycles for poems by Hardy, Benjamin Britten, who based his song-cycle Winter Words on Hardy's poetry, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. Holst also based one of his last orchestral works, Egdon Heath, on Hardy's work. Composer Lee Hoiby's setting of "The Darkling Thrush" became the basis of the multimedia opera Darkling and Timothy Takach, a graduate of St. Olaf, has also put "The Darkling Thrush" into arrangement for a four-part mixed choir.

Works

Prose

Hardy divided his novels and collected short stories into three classes:

Novels of Character and Environment



Romances and Fantasies



Novels of Ingenuity



Hardy also produced a number of minor tales and a collaborative novel, The Spectre of the Real (1894). An additional short-story collection, beyond the ones mentioned above, is A Changed Man and Other Tales (1913). His works have been collected as the 24-volume Wessex Edition (1912–1913) and the 37-volume Mellstock Edition (1919–1920). His largely self-written biography appears under his second wife's name in two volumes from 1928–1930, as The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840–1891 and The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928, now published in a critical one-volume edition as The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy, edited by Michael Millgate (1984).

Short stories (with date of first publication)

  • "How I Built Myself A House" (1865)
  • "Destiny and a Blue Cloak" (1874)
  • "The Thieves Who Couldn't Stop Sneezing" (1877)
  • "The Duchess of Hamptonshire" (1878)
  • "The Distracted Preacher" (1879)
  • "Fellow-Townsmen" (1880)
  • "The Honourable Laura" (1881)
  • "What The Shepherd Saw" (1881)
  • "A Tradition of Eighteen Hundred and Four" (1882)
  • "The Three Strangers" (1883)
  • "The Romantic Adventures Of A Milkmaid" (1883)
  • "Interlopers At The Knap" (1884)
  • "A Mere Interlude" (1885) (republished in Penguin Great Loves series)
  • "A Tryst At An Ancient Earthwork" (1885)
  • "Alicia's Diary" (1887)
  • "The Waiting Supper" (1887-88)
  • "The Withered Arm" (1888)
  • "A Tragedy Of Two Ambitions" (1888)
  • "The First Countess of Wessex" (1889)
  • "Anna, Lady Baxby" (1890)
  • "The Lady Icenway" (1890)
  • "Lady Mottisfont" (1890)
  • "The Lady Penelope" (1890)
  • "The Marchioness of Stonehenge" (1890)
  • "Squire Petrick's Lady" (1890)
  • "Barbara Of The House Of Grebe" (1890)
  • "The Melancholy Hussar of The German Legion" (1890)
  • "Absent-Mindedness in a Parish Choir" (1891)


  • "The Winters And The Palmleys" (1891)
  • "For Conscience' Sake" (1891)
  • "Incident in Mr. Crookhill's Life"(1891)
  • "The Doctor's Legend" (1891)
  • "Andrey Satchel and the Parson and Clerk" (1891)
  • "The History of the Hardcomes" (1891)
  • "Netty Sargent's Copyhold" (1891)
  • "On The Western Circuit" (1891)
  • "A Few Crusted Characters: Introduction" (1891)
  • "The Superstitious Man's Story" (1891)
  • "Tony Kytes, the Arch-Deceiver" (1891)
  • "To Please His Wife" (1891)
  • "The Son's Veto" (1891)
  • "Old Andrey's Experience as a Musician" (1891)
  • "Our Exploits At West Poley" (1892-93)
  • "Master John Horseleigh, Knight" (1893)
  • "The Fiddler of the Reels" (1893)
  • "An Imaginative Woman" (1894)
  • "The Spectre of the Real" (1894)
  • "A Committee-Man of 'The Terror'" (1896)
  • "The Duke's Reappearance" (1896)
  • "The Grave By The Handpost" (1897)
  • "A Changed Man" (1900)
  • "Enter a Dragoon" (1900)
  • "Blue Jimmy: The Horse Stealer" (1911)
  • "Old Mrs. Chundle" (1929)
  • "The Unconquerable"(1992)


Poetry

(not a comprehensive list)

Drama



Locations in novels

Berkshire is North Wessex,Devonmarker is Lower Wessex,Dorsetmarker is South Wessex,Somersetmarker is Outer or Nether Wessex,Wiltshiremarker is Mid-Wessex,

Bere Regismarker is King's-Bere of Tess,Bincombe Downmarker cross roads is the scene of the military execution in A Melancholy Hussar. It is a true story, the deserters from the German Legion were shot in 1801 and are recorded in the parish register.Bindon Abbeymarker is where Clare carried her.Bournemouthmarker is Sandbourne of Hand of Ethelberta and Tess of the d'Urbervilles,Bridportmarker is Port Bredy,Charborough Housemarker and its folly tower at is the model for Welland House in the novel Two on a Tower.Corfe Castle is the Corvsgate-Castle of Hand of Ethelberta.Cranborne Chasemarker is The Chase scene of Tess's seduction. (Note — Bowerchalkemarker on Cranborne Chase at was the film location for the great fire in John Schlesinger's 1967 film Far from the Madding Crowd.)Milborne St Andrewmarker is "Millpond St Judes" in Far From the Madding Crowd. Weatherby Castle is the location for the "Tower" in "Two on a Tower" with Little England Cottage, Milborne St Andrew being the location of Swithin St Cleeves home and remains as described to this dayDorchester, Dorsetmarker is Casterbridge, the scene of Mayor of Casterbridge.Dunster Castlemarker in Somersetmarker is Castle De Stancy of A Laodicean.Fordington moormarker is Durnover moor and fields.Greenhill Fairmarker near Bere Regismarker is Woodbury Hill Fair,Lulworth Covemarker is Lulstead Cove,Marnhullmarker is Marlott of Tess of the D'Urbervilles,Melbury Housemarker near Evershotmarker is Great Hintock Court in A Group of Noble Dames.Minternemarker is Little Hintock,Owermoignemarker is Nether Moynton in Wessex Tales.

Piddlehintonmarker and Piddle Trenthidemarker are the Longpuddle of A Few Crusted Characters.Puddletownmarker Heath, Moretonmarker Heath, Tincletonmarker Heath and Beremarker Heath are Egdon Heath.Poolemarker is Havenpool in Life's Little Ironies.Portlandmarker is the scene of The Pursuit of the Well-Beloved.Puddletownmarker is Weatherbury in Far from the Madding Crowd,River Frome valley is the scene of Talbothays dairy in Tess.Salisburymarker is Melchester in On the Western Circuit, Life's Little Ironies and Jude the Obscure etc.Shaftesburymarker is Shaston in Tess of the d'Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure.Sherbornemarker is Sherton-Abbas,Sherborne Castlemarker is home of Lady Baxby in A Group of Noble Dames.Stonehengemarker is the scene of Tess's apprehension.Sutton Poyntzmarker is Overcombe.Swanagemarker is the Knollsea of Hand of Ethelberta.Tauntonmarker is known as Toneborough in both Hardy's novels and poems.Wantagemarker is Alfredston, of Jude the Obscure. Fawley, Berkshiremarker is Marygreen of Jude the Obscure.Weyhillmarker is Weydon Priors,Weymouthmarker is Budmouth Regis, the scene of Trumpet Major & portions of other novels;Winchestermarker is Wintoncester where Tess was executed. Wimbornemarker is Warborne of Two on a Tower.Wolfeton Housemarker, near Dorchester is the scene of The Lady Penelope in a Group of Noble Dames.Woolbridgemarker old Manor House, close to Wool station, is the scene of Tess's confession and honeymoon.

In other literature

Hardy provides the springboard for D. H. Lawrence's Study of Thomas Hardy (1936). Though this work became a platform for Lawrence's own developing philosophy rather than a more standard literary study, the influence of Hardy's treatment of character and Lawrence's own response to the central metaphysic behind many of Hardy's novels helped significantly in the development of The Rainbow (1915, suppressed) and Women in Love (1920, private publication). Hardy was clearly the starting point for the character of the novelist Edward Driffield in W Somerset Maugham's novel Cakes and Ale. Thomas Hardy's works feature prominently in the narrative in Christopher Durang's The Marriage of Bette and Boo, in which a graduate thesis analysing Tess of the d'Urbervilles is interspersed with analysis of Matt's family's neuroses.

Notes

  1. Claire Tomalin, Thomas Hardy: the Time-torn Man(Penguin, 2007) pp.30,36.
  2. Gibson, James (ed.) (1975) Chosen Poems of Thomas Hardy, London: Macmillan Education; p.9.
  3. Hardy, Emma (1961) Some Recollections by Emma Hardy; with some relevant poems by Thomas Hardy; ed. by Evelyn Hardy & R. Gittings. London: Oxford University Press
  4. "Thomas Hardy — the Time-Torn Man" (a reading of Claire Tomalin's book of the same name), BBC Radio 4, 23 October 2006
  5. "Thomas Hardy at Stourhead" BBC.co.uk, 10 March 2004 (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  6. "Homeground: Dead man talking" BBC.co.uk, 20 August 2003 (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  7. Claire Tomalin, Thomas Hardy, The Time Torn Man(Penguin, 2007), pp.46–47.
  8. "Biography: Thomas Hardy" wps.Ablongman.com, (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  9. Adelene Buckland: Thomas Hardy, Provincial Geology and the Material Imagination
  10. "Far from the Madding Crowd, Thomas Hardy — Introduction" (Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Linda Pavlovski. Vol. 153. Gale Group, Inc., 2005. eNotes.com. 2006. 12 March 2008) eNotes.com (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  11. Words Words Words, La Spiga Languages, 2003 p.482
  12. A Short History of English Literature, Emile Legouis, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1934
  13. Tomalin, Claire. "Thomas Hardy." New York: Penguin, 2007.
  14. (Google Books)


References

  • Armstrong, Tim. "Player Piano: Poetry and Sonic Modernity" in Modernism/Modernity 14.1 (January 2007), 1–19.
  • Blunden, Edmund. Thomas Hardy. New York: St. Martin's, 1942.
  • Brennecke, Jr., Ernest. The Life of Thomas Hardy. New York: Greenberg, 1925.
  • D'Agnillo, Renzo, "Music and Metaphor in Under the Greenwood Tree, in The Thomas Hardy Journal, 9, 2 (May 1993), pp.39–50.
  • D'Agnillo, Renzo, “Between Belief and Non-Belief: Thomas Hardy’s ‘The Shadow on the Stone’”, in Thomas Hardy, Francesco Marroni and Norman Page (eds), Pescara, Edizioni Tracce, 1995, pp.197-222.
  • Deacon, Lois and Terry Coleman. Providence and Mr. Hardy. London: Hutchinson, 1966.
  • Draper, Jo. Thomas Hardy: A Life in Pictures. Wimborne, Dorset: The Dovecote Press.
  • Ellman, Richard & O'Clair, Robert (eds.) 1988. "Thomas Hardy" in The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, Norton, New York.
  • Gatrell, Simon. Hardy the Creator: A Textual Biography. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.
  • Gibson, James. Thomas Hardy: A Literary Life. London: Macmillan, 1996.
  • Gittings, Robert. Thomas Hardy's Later Years. Boston : Little, Brown, 1978.
  • Gittings, Robert. Young Thomas Hardy. Boston : Little, Brown, 1975.
  • Gittings, Robert and Jo Manton. The Second Mrs Hardy. London: Heinemann, 1979.
  • Halliday, F. E. Thomas Hardy: His Life and Work. Bath: Adams & Dart, 1972.
  • Hands, Timothy. Thomas Hardy : Distracted Preacher? : Hardy's religious biography and its influence on his novels. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
  • Hardy, Evelyn. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography. London: Hogarth Press, 1954.
  • Hardy, Florence Emily. The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840-1891. London: Macmillan, 1928.
  • Hardy, Florence Emily. The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928. London: Macmillan, 1930.
  • Harvey, Geoffrey. Thomas Hardy: The Complete Critical Guide to Thomas Hardy. New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2003.
  • Hedgcock, F. A., Thomas Hardy: penseur et artiste. Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1911.
  • Holland, Clive. Thomas Hardy O.M.: The Man, His Works and the Land of Wessex. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1933.
  • Jedrzejewski, Jan. Thomas Hardy and the Church. London: Macmillan, 1996.
  • Kay-Robinson, Denys. The First Mrs Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1979.
  • Marroni, Francesco, "The Negation of Eros in 'Barbara of the House of Grebe’ ", in "Thomas Hardy Journal", 10, 1 (February 1994) pp. 33-41
  • Marroni, Francesco and Norman Page (eds.), Thomas Hardy. Pescara: Edizioni Tracce, 1995.
  • Marroni, Francesco, La poesia di Thomas Hardy. Bari: Adriatica Editrice, 1997.
  • Marroni, Francesco, "The Poetry of Ornithology in Keats, Leopardi, and Hardy: A Dialogic Analysis", in "Thomas Hardy Journal", 14, 2 (Mayy 1998) pp. 35-44
  • Millgate, Michael (ed.). The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy by Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1984.
  • Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography. New York: Random House, 1982.
  • Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • O'Sullivan, Timothy. Thomas Hardy: An Illustrated Biography. London: Macmillan, 1975.
  • Orel, Harold. The Final Years of Thomas Hardy, 1912–1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1976.
  • Orel, Harold. The Unknown Thomas Hardy. New York: St. Martin's, 1987.
  • Phelps, Kenneth. The Wormwood Cup: Thomas Hardy in Cornwall. Padstow: Lodenek Press, 1975.
  • Pinion, F. B. Thomas Hardy: His Life and Friends. London: Palgrave, 1992.
  • Pite, Ralph. Thomas Hardy: The Guarded Life. London: Picador, 2006.
  • Seymour-Smith, Martin. Hardy. London: Bloomsbury, 1994.
  • Stevens-Cox, J. Thomas Hardy: Materials for a Study of his Life, Times, and Works. St. Peter Port, Guernsey: Toucan Press, 1968.
  • Stevens-Cox, J. Thomas Hardy: More Materials for a Study of his Life, Times, and Works. St. Peter Port, Guernsey: Toucan Press, 1971.
  • Stewart, J. I. M. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1971.
  • Turner, Paul. The Life of Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
  • Weber, Carl J. Hardy of Wessex, his Life and Literary Career. New York: Columbia University Press, 1940.
  • Wilson, Keith. Thomas Hardy on Stage. London: Macmillan, 1995.
  • Wilson, Keith, ed. Thomas Hardy Reappraised: Essays in Honour of Michael Millgate. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.
  • Wotton, George. Thomas Hardy: Towards A Materialist Criticism. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield, 1985.
  • Letter from Hardy to Bertram Windle, transcribed by Birgit Plietzsch, from CL, vol 2, pp.131-133


External links




Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message