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Thomas Vaughan (17 April 1621 − 1666) was a Welsh philosopher.

A Royalist clergyman from Breconmarker, Walesmarker, Thomas was the twin brother of the poet Henry Vaughan, both being born at Newton, in the parish of St. Briget's, in 1621. Vaughan entered Jesus College, Oxfordmarker, in 1638, and remained there for a decade during the English Civil War. He became rector of the parish of Llansanffraidmarker (St. Briget) Wales and took up medical studies, motivated by the lack of doctors in Wales. In 1650, he was evicted from the parish because of his Royalist sympathies. He married his wife Rebecca in 1651 and spent the next period of his life in London. His wife died in 1658.

Although he did not practice medicine, Vaughan sought to apply his chemical skills to preparing medicines in the manner recommended by Paracelsus. He corresponded with Samuel Hartlib, and established a reputation with his book Anthroposophia Theomagica, a magico-mystical work.

Vaughan was unusual amongst alchemist of the time in that he worked closely with his wife Rebecca Vaughan, and valued and even saw as essential, their joint work.

By his own admission, he was a member of the famous Society of Unknown Philosophers . He was responsible for translating into English in 1652 the highly influential tract The Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis an anonymous Rosicrucian manifesto first published in 1614 in Kassel.

Vaughan later became involved with a plan of Dr. Robert Child to form a chemical club, with a laboratory and library, the main aim being to translate and collect chemical works. In the course of litigation with one Edward Bolnest, Vaughan was accused of spending 'most of his tyme in the study of Natuall Philosophy and Chimicall Phisick'. He is reported as having confessed that he had 'long sought and long missed ... the philosopher's stone'.

It is possible that Thomas Vaughan was the author of tracts published under the pseudonym "Eugenius Philalethes", although other alchemists and natural philosophers could also have been the author. However it seems that Vaughan is the most likely contender.


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