Those Magnificent Men in their
Flying Machines, Or How I Flew from London to Paris in 25 Hours 11
Minutes is a British comedy film
directed by Ken Annakin.
an original screenplay titled Flying Crazy, the story is
set in 1910, when Lord Rawnsley, an English press magnate, offers a
prize of £10,000 to the winner of the Daily Post air race
from London to Paris, to prove
that Britain is "number one in the air".
The film was rated PG by the MPAA.
Although director Ken Annakin
was not an
aviator, he had always been interested in aviation from his early
years when pioneering aviator Sir Alan
had given him a first flight in a biplane
. Along with co-writer Jack Davies, Annakin
had been working on an adventure film about transatlantic flights,
when the producer's bankruptcy aborted the production. Fresh from
his role as director of the British exterior segments in
The Longest Day
Annakin pitched the idea of recreating an actual event from the
dawn of aviation to Darryl F.
, his producer on the wartime
Zanuck agreed to bankroll an "epic" that would be faithful to the
era, even deciding upon the name Those Magnificent Men in Their
. He had come up with the name after Elmo
Williams, managing director of 20th Century Fox in Europe told him
his wife had written an opening lyric
Those magnificent men in their flying
They go up diddley up-up, they go down diddley
for a song that Annakin complained would eventually "seal the fate
of the movie".
However, after being put to music by composer Ron Goodwin, the Those Magnificent Men in
their Flying Machines song would become the "irresistible"
jingle-style theme music for the film and go on to have a "life of
its own", even released in singles and on the soundtrack
Annakin was born in 1914, just as the pioneer era of aviation
depicted in this movie was ending, and even though the movie is a
farce, it accurately depicts the international tensions brewing
between the European countries prior to the First World War
, as exemplified in the behaviour
of the various aviators.
The film opens with a brief, comic introductory segment on the
history of flight, narrated by James Robertson Justice
featuring American comedian Red Skelton
(in a cameo appearance) depicting a recurring character whose
aerial adventures span the centuries, in a series of silent
vignettes that incorporate
actual stock footage
attempts at early aircraft. This was Skelton's final feature film
appearance; coincidentally he was in Europe filming scenes for the
1964-1965 season of his television series, The Red Skelton Show
This is followed by a whimsical animated
opening credit sequence drawn by renowned satirical caricaturist
, accompanied by the
film's title song. (Another animated sequence closes the
A recurring "gag" suggested by Darryl F. Zanuck concerned his
girlfriend, Irina Demick
sequentially played Brigitte (who is French), Marlene (German),
Ingrid (Swedish), Françoise (Belgian), Yvette (Bulgarian) and Betty
(British) as a lookalike flirtatious character who is constantly
being pursued by pilot Pierre Dubois, played by Jean-Pierre Cassel
. The American lead,
was selected over the
first choice of Dick Van Dyke
agents never contacted him about the offer, but the majority of the
cast were British actors.
plays the daughter of Lord
Rawnsley (Robert Morley
), a newspaper
magnate whose favourite to win his race is his daughter's fiancé,
Richard Mays (James Fox
), flying an
Antoinette monoplane. Lord Rawnsley sums up the expectation that a
"Brit" should win the competition: "The trouble with these
international affairs is they attract foreigners." An international
cast plays the array of contestants, most of whom live up to their
national stereotypes, including the fanatically by-the-book,
monocle-wearing Prussian officer (Gert
) flying an Eardley-Billing biplane, impetuous Count
Emilio Ponticelli (Alberto Sordi
amorous Frenchman (Cassel) in a Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, the
rugged American cowboy Orvil Newton (Stuart Whitman) flying a
Bristol Boxkite (impersonating a "Curtiss"), who falls for Lord
Rawnsley's daughter Patricia, who was also Richard Mays'
girlfriend, causing a love
The main entertainment comes from the amusing dialogue and
characterisations and the daring aerial stunts, with a dash of
heroism and gentlemanly conduct thrown in for good measure.
plays the cheating Sir
Percival Ware-Armitage, an Avro
-flying rogue who "never leaves anything to chance".
With the help of his bullied and downtrodden servant Courtney
), he sabotages other aircraft
or drugs their pilots - only to get his comeuppance in the end. The
race sets out with 14 competitors but, one by one, the contenders
drop out, after stops at Dover and Calais, the few survivors land
triumphantly in Paris. Orvil Newton loses his chance to take first
place when he stops to rescue Emilio Ponticelli from his burning
aircraft. Richard Mays wins the race for Britain, but insists on
calling the race a tie with Orvil Newton. The final scene shows
Orvil and Patricia kissing.
DVD cover for the film, prominently
Cast credits in order of screen credits include onscreen and
A full cast and production crew list is too lengthy to include,
see: IMDb profile.
- Character actor Michael Trubshawe ("Niven, Lord Rawnsley's
aide") and David Niven served together
in the Highland Light
Infantry in the 1930s; they made it a point to refer to
uncredited characters in their films as "Trubshawe" or "Niven" as
an inside joke.
- Director: Ken Annakin
- Assistant Director: Clive Reed
- Producer: Stan Margulies
- Production designer: Tom N. Morahan
- Set Designer: Arthur Taksen
- Writers: Jack Davies and Ken
- Cinematographer: Christopher
- Colour: DeLuxe
- Editor: Gordon Stone and Anne V. Coates
- Music: Ron Goodwin (Musical
- Composer: Ron Goodwin (Music
- Sound Mixers: Jonathan Bates, Gordon K. McCallum and John W.
- Titles: Ronald Searle
- Art Director: Jim Morahan
- Animation: Ralph Ayres
- Costumes: Dinah Greet
- Costume Design: Osbert Lancaster
- Makeup: Biddy Chrystal, Stuart Freeborn, W.T. Partleton and
- Special Effects Supervisor: Ron Ballinger
- Special Effects Wireman: Richard
- Special Effects: Jimmy Harris, Fred Heather, Garth Inns,
Malcolm King, Nick Middleton and Jimmy Ward
- Visual Effects: Roy Field (uncredited)
- Production Assistant: Don Sharp
- Casting: Stuart Lyons
- Aerial Supervisor: Allen Wheeler
- Stunt pilot: Joan Hughes
- Stunt pilot: Mac Dougall
- Stunt pilot: Derek Piggott
- Stunt pilot: David Watson
One of the main strengths of the film was the extensive use of
British and international character actors who enlivened the
storyline by inspired performances lampooning each contestant's
nationality's foibles. British comedians Benny Hill
, Eric Sykes
and Tony Hancock
provided a madcap series of
misadventures; Hancock had broken his leg prior to principal
photography and was hobbled by a cast but Annakin decided to write
that misfortune into the storyline. The good-natured ribbing of all
the characters stand out, however, the two lead actors, Stuart
Whitman and Sarah Miles
had a falling
out early in the production. Director Ken Annakin commented that
"she hated his guts," and rarely deigned to speak if it wasn't part
of the script. Annakin had to employ various manipulations in order
to ensure the production proceeded smoothly despite his stars'
animosity towards each other.
Another intriguing aspect of the production was the fluid nature of
the writing and directing with Annakin and Davies able to "feed off
each other." Their collaboration had been long-standing and had
resulted in the two friends working together on the earlier
(1961), The Fast
(1962), and Crooks
(1962) . Even during the filming, Annakin and
Davies continued to develop the script with zany interpretations.
When the German character, Gert
has to contemplate piloting his country's flying entry,
he climbs into the cockpit, reaches down and retrieves a manual.
Annakin and Davies devised a quip on the spot, having him read out:
"No. 1. Sit down." The comic vein that infused the film continued
in the same light-hearted treatment.
Although decidedly a comedy feature, elements of Annakin's earlier
documentary background were evident as a backdrop of turn-of-the-20
Century aerial pioneers was obtained with authentic sets, props and
costumes. Production values were maintained at a high standard with
careful attention to details; over 2,000 extras decked out in
authentic period costumes were employed for the climactic race
was made early in the production planning to utilize life-size
working aeroplane models and replicas, forgoing scale models in
order to create a typical early 20 century airfield, the "Brookley
Motor Racing Track" (fashioned after the Brooklands race track where early aviators staged test
flights. All of Brookley's associated trappings of
structures, aircraft and vehicles (including a rare 1908 Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost estimated
to be worth at least 50 million dollars) was part of the Booker
Airfield set, High
Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, England.
The completed set
featured a windmill as a lookout tower as well as serving as a
restaurant (the "Old Mill Cafe") and home for the hapless Fire
Brigade. A series of hangars were constructed in rows, bearing the
names of real and fictional aviation manufacturers: A.V. Roe & Co., The
Bristol: The British and Colonial Aeroplane Company,
Humber, Sopwith, Vickers, Ware-Armitage Manufacturing CoY (sic), and
Later an impressive grandstand was added for the race
locations included Dover where Dover Castle and the nearby cliffs and beaches played a
prominent role as well as mock-ups at the Buckinghamshire primary
film set that stood in for Calais and Paris sequences.
Exterior and interior footage of Lord Rawnsley's Manor House
residence was shot at Pinewood Studios property at Iver Heath,
Buckinghamshire, England. Interior and studio sets at Pinewood
Studios were also utilized for bluescreen and special effects
photography. The location where Sir Percy's aircraft lands
on a train is the now closed line from Bedford to
Hitchin. The railway tunnel into which they fly is the
Tunnel near the village of the same name in Bedfordshire; the tunnel had only recently been
closed, and in the panning shot through the railway cutting, the
cooling towers of the now demolished Bedford power
station can be seen.
The locomotive is former Highland
Railway Jones Goods No 103. About 1910 the French State Railways
had built some steam locomotives which were duplicates of a
Highland Railway class "The Castles" which were a passenger version
of the Jones Goods.
The film was photographed in 70 mm Todd-AO
by Christopher Challis. Consultation had
taken place with Royal Air Force
Allen H. Wheeler who had
been retained as a technical consultant during production planning.
His involvement in the subsequent film was critical as Wheeler had
the necessary background on early aviation having restored a 1900
with his son.
In order to create realistic flying sequences, a series of filming
platforms were utilized. The bevy of camera platforms included a
sedan, camera trucks,
helicopters and a unique "flying rig" constructed by Special
Effects "wizard" Richard "Dick" Parker. Parker had built the
apparatus for model sequences in Strategic Air Command
(1955); the flying rig consisted of two gigantic construction
cranes and a hydraulically operated device to tilt and position a
model, along with 200 ft of cables. Parker's rig allowed the actors
to sit inside the full scale models suspended approximately 50 ft
above the ground, yet provide safety and realism for staged flying
sequences. A further hydraulic platform was devised in order to do
away with matte shots of aircraft in flight. The platform was large
enough to mount an entire aircraft and either Parker or stunt
pilots could manipulate its controls for realistic bluescreen
sequences. Composite photography was still utilized
whenever scenes called for difficult or "dangerous" shots; these
sequences were completed at the Rank Studios facility of Pinewood
Some unique shots were actually created
with rudimentary cockpits and noses grafted onto a Alouette
aerial scene with three race craft over Paris was staged with small
models when Parisian authorities refused permission for an
overflight. However, for the majority of the flying scenes in the
film, an armada of flying full-scale "movie models" was
The film is notable for its use of specially constructed
reproductions of 1910-era aircraft, including a triplane
, as well as monoplanes
Air Commodore Wheeler insisted on using the authentic materials of
the originals, but with modern engines and modifications (where
necessary) to ensure safety. Of the 20 types built in 1964 at a
cost of about £5,000 pounds each, six were able to fly, flown by
six "regular" stunt pilots and maintained by a crew of 14 aviation
mechanics. (The race takeoff scene where seven aircraft are in the
air at once included a composite "addition" to the fleet.) Flying
conditions were carefully monitored with aerial scenes filmed
before 10 am each day or in the early evening when the air was
least turbulent for the flying replicas that were considered
"flimsy" by modern standards. Due to the necessity to get aerial
sequences "in the can," the "call sheet" each day was determined by
the prevailing weather conditions. If it was favourable to fly, all
the principal actors were made up for aerial scenes; if the weather
was poor, interiors or other incidental sequences were substituted.
Wheeler eventually served as the technical adviser and aerial
supervisor throughout the production and later wrote a
comprehensive background account of the film and the replicas that
were constructed to portray period aircraft.
The following competitors were listed:
- Number 1: Richard Mays, "Antoinette IV" (Aircraft number
- Number 2: Sir Percy Ware-Armitage, "Avro Triplane" (Aircraft
- Number 3: Orvil Newton, "Bristol Boxkite" nicknamed "The
Phoenix Flyer" (Aircraft number 7)
- Number 4: Lieutenant Parsons, "Picaut Dubrieul" nicknamed "HMS
Victory" (Aircraft number 4)
- Number 5: Harry Popperwell, "Little Tiddler" (Aircraft number
- Number 6: Colonel Manfred von Holstein and Captain Rumpelstoss,
"Eardley Billing Tractor Biplane" (Aircraft number 11)
- Number 7: Mr Wallace. (Aircraft number 14)
- Number 8: Charles Wade. (Aircraft number unknown)
- Number 9: Mr Yamamoto, "Japanese Eardley Billing Tractor
Biplane" (Aircraft number 1)
- Number 10: Count Emilio Ponticelli, "Philips Multiplane,"
"Passat Ornithopter," "Lee Richards Annular Biplane" and "Vickers
22 Monoplane" (Aircraft number 2)
- Number 11: Henri Monteux. (Aircraft number unknown)
- Number 12: Pierre Dubois, "Santos-Dumont Demoiselle" (Aircraft
- Number 13: Mr Mac Dougall, "Blackburn Monoplane" nicknamed
"Wake up Scotland" (Aircraft number 6)
- Number 14: Harry Walton (no number assigned).
While each aircraft was an accurate reproduction, some
“impersonated” other types. For instance, The Phoenix
built by F.G.
Miles Engineering Co.
Sussex, was used to represent a typical American biplane of 1910.
The Bristol was chosen because Director Annakin thought it was a
lookalike for a Wright
the era, although the "American pilot" character, Orvil Newton
describes it as a "Curtiss Pusher
with an Anzani engine", it actually is a British derivative of the
French 1909 Farman
biplane. For the purposes
of the "impersonation", the replica had the name "The Phoenix
Flyer" painted on its outer rudder surfaces and it was identified
as a "Gruber-Newton Flyer."
F. George Miles, chiefly responsible for its design and
manufacture, incorporated a third rudder for controllability and
powered the replica with a Rolls-Royce
(90 hp) engine that provided a 45 mph top speed. The
Boxkite was extremely tractable and when pilot Derek Piggott lost a
main wheel, he managed a smooth landing and subsequently repeated
the wheel-off takeoff and landing successfully over 20 times for
the cameras. In the penultimate flying scene, a stuntman was
carried in the Boxkite's undercarriage and easily carried out a
fall and "roll" (the stunt had to be repeated in order to match the
principal actor's roll and revival). Slapstick stunts both on the
ground and in the air were a major element in the film and often
the directors requested repeated stunts with trepidation; the
stuntmen were more than accommodating, they considered the
repetition "more money in the bank."
The Eardley Billing Tractor Biplane
by David Watson appeared in two different guises, as the German
pilot's aircraft, in more or less authentic form, but impersonating
an early German tractor biplane, and with boxkite-like side
curtains over the interplane struts
and other decoration, as the Japanese pilot's mount.
Santos-Dumont flying his Demoiselle in
In addition to the “flying” aircraft - several of the unsuccessful
aircraft of the period were represented by “non-flying” replicas
including a number of unlikely "contraptions" such as an ornithopter
) flown by the Italian contender in the race,
the Walton Edwards Rhomboidal
, Philips Multiplane
(a backwards-facing design).
Regardless, the movie models all "flew" with the help of "movie
magic." The Lee Richards Annular Biplane
circular wings was built by Denton Partners on Woodley Aerodrome
near Reading. In flight, the Lee Richards Annular Biplane actually
surpassed the performance of its 1910 namesake, although the movie
model "flew" by means of the flying rig that simulated its flight
by towing the model into the air.
The types that were chosen for the “flying” replicas were all of
distinctly different layouts, so as to be easily distinguishable
for the least aeronautically sophisticated member of the audience.
They were also chosen from types that were reputed to have flown
well, in or about 1910.
In most cases this decision to choose specific types as "flying"
models worked well, but there were a few surprises, adding to an
accurate historical reassessment of the aircraft concerned. For
example, the Santos-Dumont
, one of the forerunners of today's ultralight aircraft
at first could not
be made to leave the ground properly, but only in brief "hops".
When Doug Bianchi and the Personal Planes production staff who
constructed the replica consulted with Alan Wheeler, he recalled
that its designer and first pilot, Alberto Santos-Dumont
was a very tiny
man. A suitably small pilot, Joan
, a wartime member of the Air Transport Auxiliary
who was the
Airways Flying Club Chief Flying Instructor, was hired. With the
reduced payload, and a replacement Ardem 50 hp engine, the
diminutive Demoiselle flew "fantastically" as Hughes also proved to
be a consummate stunt flyer.
The Shuttleworth Collection's replica
Bianchi had earlier in 1960, created a one-off Vickers 22
(Bleriot type) Monoplane
, utilizing Vickers company
drawings, originally intended for use by the Vickers Flying Club in
1910. The completed prototype was available and 20th Century Fox
purchased the replica, even though it required a new engine and
extensive modifications including replacing the entire wooden
fuselage structure with welded steel tubing as well as
incorporating ailerons instead of wing-warping. The Vickers 22
became the final type used by the Italian contestant in the film.
Sometime after the film was released, the Vickers was sold to an
owner in New Zealand. It is believed to have flown once in NZ, a
brief hop at Wellington Airport in the hands of Keith Trillo, and
may now be seen at the SouthWard Museum.
Peter Hillwood of the Hampshire Aero Club constructed an authentic
Avro Triplane Mk IV
using drawings provided by Geoffrey Verdon Roe, the son of A.V. Roe
, the original
designer. The construction of the triplane followed A.V. Roe's
specifications and was the only replica that utilized wing-warping
successfully. With a more powerful 90 hp Cirrus II replacing the 35
hp Green engine that was in the original design, the Avro Triplane
proved to be a lively performer even with a stuntman dangling from
The Antoinette IV
movie model closely replicated the slim, graceful monoplane that
was very nearly the first aircraft to fly the English Channel, in
the hands of Hubert Latham
, and won
several prizes in early competitions. When the Hants and Sussex
Aviation Company from Portsmouth Aerodrome undertook its
construction, the company followed the original structural
specifications carefully, although an out-of-period de Havilland Gypsy
I engine was used. The
Antoinette's wing structure proved, however, to be dangerously
flexible, and lateral control was very poor, even after the wing
bracing was reinforced with extra wires, and the original
wing-warping was replaced with "modern" ailerons (hinged on the
rear spar rather than from the trailing edge, as in the "real"
Antoinette). The final configuration was still considered marginal
in terms of stability and lateral control.
The realism and the attention to detail in the replicas of vintage
machines are a major contributor to the enjoyment of the film, and
although a few of the flying stunts were achieved through the use
of models and cleverly disguised wires, most aerial scenes featured
actual flying aircraft. One of the few vintage aircraft used,
including a Deperdussin used as "set dressing",
the flyable 1912 Blackburn Monoplane “D” (the
oldest "genuine" British aircraft still flying) belonged to the
Trust based at Old Warden, Bedfordshire.
filming was completed, the "1910 Bristol Boxkite" and the "1911 Roe
IV Triplane" were retained in the Shuttleworth Collection. Both
replicas are still in flyable condition, albeit flying with
different engines. For his role in promoting the film, the
non-flying "Passat Ornithopter" was given to aircraft restorer,
Cole Palen who displayed it at the
Rhinebeck Aerodrome, New
York, where it still exists.
During the promotional "junkets" accompanying the film in 1965, a
number of the vintage aircraft and film replicas used in the
production were flown in both the United Kingdom and the United
States. The pilots who had been part of the aerial team readily
agreed to accompany the promotional tour in order to have a chance
to fly the movie models again.
Contemporary reviews judged the film as "good fun", and even the
usually hyper-critical New York
reviewer Bosley Crowther was effusive in that the
film was a good-natured "large-canvas" comedy with costumes,
authentic-looking props and good character acting. Variety
had a similar reaction: "As
fanciful and nostalgic a piece of clever picture-making as has hit
the screen in recent years, this backward look into the pioneer
days of aviation, when most planes were built with spit and bailing
wire, is a warming entertainment experience." When the film turned
up on television for the first time in 1969, TV Guide
summed up most critical reviews:
"Good, clean fun, with fast and furious action, good
cinematography, crisp dialogue, wonderful planes, and a host of
some of the funniest people in movies in the cast."
Running at over two hours' length, Those Magnificent Men In
Their Flying Machines...
(most theatre marquees abbreviated
the full title and it was eventually re-released with the shorter
title) was treated as a major production, one of only three
full-length 70 mm Todd-AO
in 1965 with an intermission and musical interlude spliced into the
original screenings. Due to the Todd-AO process, Those
Magnificent Men In Their Flying Machines
was considered an
exclusive feature shown in deluxe Cinerama venues where customers
needed reserved seats purchased ahead of time to see it. Considered
one of the most popular exemplars of the '60s "epic comedy" genre,
it was an immediate box-office success, far outgrossing the similar
car-race comedy The Great
and even eclipsing the perennial favorite
It's a Mad, Mad,
Mad, Mad World
. Audience reaction both in first release
and even today is nearly universal in assessing the film as one of
the "classic" aviation films.
Awards and honors
Those Magnificent Men In Their Flying Machines
nominated and received awards in both the United States and the
United Kingdom. The original screenplay written by Ken Annakin and
Jack Davies was nominated for an Academy
for Best Writing Directly for the Screen (1966). The film
was also nominated in the category of Best Writing, Story and
Screenplay - Written. At the 1966 Golden
, the film won Best Motion Picture Actor - Musical/Comedy
for Alberto Sordi, as well as being nominated in Best Motion
Picture - Musical/Comedy and Most Promising Newcomer - Male for
James Fox. Those Magnificent Men In Their Flying Machines
went on to win 1966 British Academy of
Film and Television Arts
Awards (BAFTA) for Best British
Costume (Colour), winners: Osbert Lancaster and Dinah Greet, Best
British Art Direction (Colour), winner: Thomas N. Morahan and Best
British Cinematography (Colour), winner: Christopher Challis. The
film also was nominated for Best Comedy in the 1966 Laurel Awards
where it was awarded a fourth
The success of the film prompted Annakin to write (again with Jack
Davies) and direct another race movie, Monte Carlo or Bust
Daring Young Men in Their Jaunty Jalopies
), released in
, this time involving vintage cars
with the story set around the Monte
Ronald Searle's sketches on the film's
soundtrack album cover
- Those Magnificent Men in their Flying
- Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines VHS
- Lee 1974, p. 490.
- Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines Full
- Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines DVD,
- Wheeler 1965
- Ellis 2005, p. 38.
- Avro Triplane
- Ellis 2005, p. 39.
- Variety Review
- TV Guide Review
- reviews for Those Magnificent Men In Their Flying
- Munn 1983, p. 161.
- Hardwick and Schnepf 1989
- Burke, John. Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines
or How I Flew from London to Paris in 25 hours 11 minutes. New
York: Pocket Cardinal, Pocket Books, 1965.
- Ellis, Ken. "Evenin' All." Flypast No. 284, April
- Hallion, Richard P. Taking Flight: Inventing the Aerial Age
from Antiquity through the First World War. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-516035-5.
- Hardwick, Jack and Ed Schnepf. "A Viewer's Guide to Aviation
Movies". The Making of the Great Aviation Films, General
Aviation Series, Volume 2, 1989.
- Hodgens, R.M. "Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines
or How I Flew from London to Paris in Twenty-Five Hours and Eleven
Minutes." Film Quarterly October 1965, Vol. 19, No. 1, p.
- Lee, Walt. Reference Guide to Fantastic Films: Science
Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror. Los Angeles, CA: Chelsea-Lee
Books, 1974. ISBN 0-91397-403-X.
- Munn, Mike. Great Epic Films: The Stories Behind the
Scenes. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1983. ISBN
- Those Magnificent Men In Their Flying Machines (1965)
DVD (Including bonus features on the background of the film.) 20th
Century Fox, 2004.
- Those Magnificent Men In Their Flying Machines (1965)
VHS Tape. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 1969.
- Searle, Ronald, Bill Richardson and Allen Andrews. Those
Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines: Or How I Flew from London
to Paris in 25 Hours 11 Minutes. New York: Dennis Dobson/ W.W.
- Temple, Julian C. Wings Over Woodley - The Story of Miles
Aircraft and the Adwest Group. Bourne End, Bucks, UK: Aston
Publications, 1987. ISBN 0-946627-12-6.
- Wheeler, Allen H. Building Aeroplanes for "Those
Magnificent Men.". London: G.T. Foulis, 1965.