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( ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is the sixth largest city of the People's Republic of Chinamarker in terms of urban population. Administratively it is one of the four municipalities that have provincial-level status, reporting directly to the central government. Also, its urban land area is the fifth largest in China, ranked only after Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhoumarker and Shenzhenmarker.

Tianjin's urban area is located along the Hai He Rivermarker, which connects to the Yellowmarker and Yangtzemarker Rivers via the Grand Canal in Tianjin. Its ports, some distance away, are located on Bohai Gulf in the Pacific Oceanmarker. Tianjin was once home to foreign concessions in the late Qing Dynastymarker and early Kuomintangmarker (KMT) era. The municipality now incorporates the coastal region of Tanggu, home to the Binhai and the Technology and Economic Developing Area (TEDAmarker). Tianjin Municipality borders Hebeimarker province to the north, south, and west; Chinese capital Beijing is to the northwest, and Bohai Gulf to the east.

History

The land where Tianjin lies today was created in historical times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf (渤海湾), including the Yellow Rivermarker, which entered the sea in this area at one point.

The opening of the Grand Canal of China during the Sui Dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. Until 1404, Tianjin was called "Zhigu" (直沽), or "Straight Port". In that year, the Yongle Emperor renamed the city Tianjin, literally means "the Heavenly Ford", to indicate that the Emperor (son of heaven) forded the river at that point. This is because he had indeed forded the river in Tianjin while on a campaign to scramble for the throne from his nephew. Later on, a fort was established in Tianjin, known as "Tianjin Wei" (天津卫), the Fort of Tianjin.

Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture in 1725. Tianjin County was established under the prefecture in 1731.

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kongmarker flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the Britishmarker and Frenchmarker sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku fortsmarker (大沽砲台) near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the Treaties of Tianjin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britainmarker and Francemarker were joined by Japanmarker, Germanymarker and Russiamarker, and even by countries without other Chinese concession such as Austria-Hungary, Italymarker and Belgiummarker, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. Today those villas provide an exotic flavor to Tianjin.

Tianjin old map
The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident (天津教案). In June 1870, Wanghailou Church (望海楼教堂) in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwash of Chinese children. The rumour was that nuns were preserving children's eyes (it seems that the confusion came from the jars of pickle with small onions in the kitchen). On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qingmarker government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, belligerent European forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfangmarker, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions also came under siege for several weeks.

In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance attacked and occupied Tianjin. They soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). Tianjin was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai headed efforts to remake Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force here.

Tianjin was established as a municipality of China (直辖市) in 1927.

Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Peking. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions there, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained understrength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tientsin from the Philippines.

Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tientsin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps contingent from the Embassy Guard at Peking.

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japanmarker, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing.

On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The small 47 man American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy) were allowed to continue by the Japanese. Japanese occupation lasted until August 15, 1945, the surrender of Japanmarker marking the end of World War II.

After 1945, Tianjin became base to Americanmarker forces.

Communist forces took Tianjin on January 15, 1949, following a 29-hour long battle. After the communist takeover, Tianjin remained a municipality of China, except between 1958 and 1967, when it became part of Hebeimarker province and its capital. The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 killed 23,938 people in Tianjin and wrought heavy damage on the city.

After China began to open up in the late 1970s, Tianjin has seen rapid development, though it is now lagging behind other important cities like Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhoumarker. Tianjin is now home to the Binhai New Area, a Pudongmarker-like special economic zone that is supposed to balance out Shanghai's obvious commercial superiority.

Geography

Tianjin is at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China(大运河), which connects with the Yellow Rivermarker (黃河) and Yangtze Rivermarker (长江).

Tianjin Municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yanshan Mountains (燕山) pass through the tip of northern Tianjin. The highest point in Tianjin is Jiushanding Peak on the northern border with Hebeimarker, at an altitude of 1078 m.

The Hai Hemarker River (海河) forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River(子牙河), Daqing River(大清河), Yongding River(永定河), North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal; and enters the Pacific Oceanmarker at Tianjin Municipality as well, in Dagu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north (in Ji Countymarker).

The urban area of Tianjin is found in the south-central part of the Municipality. In addition to the main urban area of Tianjin proper, the coast along the Bohai is lined with a series of port towns, including Tanggu (塘沽) and Hangu(汉沽).

Tianjin's climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dwa) characterized by hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters, due to the Siberianmarker anticyclone. Average highs in January and July are 2 °C (36 °F) and 31 °C (87 °F) respectively). Spring is windy but dry, and most of the precipitation takes place in July and August. Tianjin also experiences occasional spring sandstorms which blow in from the Gobi Desert and may last for several days.

Administrative divisions

Tianjin is divided into 18 county-level divisions, including 15 districts and 3 counties.






Tianjin Proper:
District Population (2006 census) Area (km²) Density (per km²)
Heping Districtmarker ( : Hépíng Qū) 470,000 9.97
Hexi District ( : Héxī Qū) 740,000 37
Hebei Districtmarker ( : Héběi Qū) 620,000 27
Nankai Districtmarker ( : Nánkāi Qū) 790,000 40.64
Hedong District ( : Hédōng Qū) 680,000 39
Hongqiao District ( : Hōngqiáo Qū) 620,000 21.3


Binhai:
District Population (2008 census) Area (km²) Density (per km²)
Tanggu Districtmarker ( : Tánggū Qū) 480,000 688
Hangu District ( : Hàngū Qū) 170,000 859
Dagang District ( : Dàgǎng Qū) 350,000 1113


Tianjin Suburbs:
District Population (2008 census) Area (km²) Density (per km²)
Jinnan District ( : Jīnnán Qū) 380,000 401
Dongli District ( : Dōnglì Qū) 320,000 460
Xiqing District ( : Xīqīng Qū) 330,000 545
Beichen District ( : Běichén Qū) 320,000 478


Tianjin Rural:
District Population (2008 census) Area (km²) Density (per km²)
Baodi District ( : Bǎodǐ Qū) 650,000 1,523
Wuqing District ( : Wǔqīng Qū) 840,000 1,570
Ji County ( : Jì Xiàn) 810,000 1,590
Jinghai County ( : Jìnghǎi Xiàn) 520,000 1,476
Ninghe County ( : Nínghé Xiàn) 360,000 1,414


In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Areamarker (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district.

These districts and counties are further subdivided, as of December 31, 2004, into 240 township-level divisions, including 120 town, 18 township, 2 ethnic townships and 100 subdistricts.

Politics

The politics of Tianjin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China.

The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin is a municipality, the Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the "Tianjin CPC Party chief".

Economy

The nominal GDP for Tianjin was 635.4 billion yuan (US$90 billion) in 2008, a year-on-year increase of 16.5%.

In 2008, per capita GDP was 55,473 yuan. The manufacturing sector was the largest (60.1%) and fastest-growing (18.2%) sector of Tianjin's economy. Urban disposable income per capita was 19,423 yuan, a real increase of 18.7% from the previous year. Rural pure income per capita was 9,670 yuan, a real increase of 10.5% from the previous year.

Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast. Tianjin is also an important industrial base. Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking.

Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.

EADS Airbus has already opened an assembly plant for its A320 series airliners, operational since 2009. AVIC I and AVIC II will be EADS' local partners for the site, to which subassemblies will be sent from plants around the world.


Economic and Technological Development Zones



Demographics

At the end of 2007, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 11.15 million, of which 9.59 million were residential holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.8 million were urban, and 3.79 million were rural. The population will grow to 14 million (out of which 11,5 million will be urban population

The majority of Tianjin residents are Han Chinese. There are also 51 out of the 55 minor Chinese ethnic groups living in Tianjin. Major minorities include Hui, Koreans, Manchus, and Mongols.

There is a growing South Koreans community in Tianjin. By 2009, there are approximately 50,000 South Korean immigrants working, studying and living in Tianjin.

Old Guanyinhao Bank
Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han 9,581,775 97.29%
Hui 172,357 1.75%
Manchu 56,548 0.57%
Mongol 11,331 0.12%
Korean 11,041 0.11%
Zhuang 4055 0.041%
Tujia 3677 0.037%


Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.

Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (國家統計局人口和社會科技統計司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (國家民族事務委員會經濟發展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中國民族人口資料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN )

Media

Tianjin People's Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million.Tianjin Television, the local television station, broadcasts in nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital channel, featuring home improvement programs. Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002.

Major local newspapers include the Tianjin Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group, respectively.

Culture

Confucian Temple in Tianjin


People from urban Tianjin speak Tianjin dialect, which comes under the Mandarin subdivision of spoken Chinese. Despite its proximity to Beijing, Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from Beijing dialect, which provides the basis for Putonghua, official spoken language of the People's Republic of Chinamarker.

Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (八大碗), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (粗), smooth (S: 细 / T: 細), and high (高). The Four Great Stews (四大扒) refers actually to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton.

Tianjin also has several famous snack items. Goubuli (狗不理包子) is a traditional brand of baozi (包子) (steamed buns with filling) that is famous throughout China. Guifaxiang (桂发祥麻花) is a traditional brand of mahua (麻花) (twisted dough sticks). Erduoyan (耳朵眼炸糕) is a traditional brand of fried rice cakes.

Tianjin is a respected home base of Beijing opera, one of the most prestigious forms of Chinese opera.

Tianjin is famous for its stand up [comedy] and comedians including Guo Degang and Ma Sanli. Ma Sanli (马三立) (1914 - 2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is paramountly respected in China for his xiangsheng (相声), a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to stand-up comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect (天津话).

Yangliuqing (Green Willows), a town about 15 km west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Tianjin's Xiqing District, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin is also famous for Zhang's clay figurine (泥人张) which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei's kites (风筝魏), which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.

Stereotypes and native performance art

People from Tianjin are stereotyped to be talkative, eloquent, humorous, open, and unfettered. There is a term for the stereotype of the always-eloquent and sometimes-humorous Tianjin native: wèizuǐzi (卫嘴子), which translates roughly as "the Tianjin mouth". Tianjin is famous for its native talking art - Xiangsheng, sometimes translated as crosstalk, is a traditional Chinesemarker comedy duo performance in the form of a dialogue, rich in puns and allusions, is used in a rapid, bantering style. Xiangsheng is one of China's foremost performing arts. Canadianmarker xiangsheng comedian Dashan (Mark Rowswell) says the closest equivalent in English would be Abbott and Costello's "Who's on First?" sketch.

Transportation



Subway

The Tianjin Subway consist of two rapid transit system: Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit is currently under heavy expansion from 3 lines to 9 lines. 4 lines are currently operating both in the City and the Binhai area.

As of October 2009, the entire network of Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit has 50 stations and 4 lines.

There are two primary subway operators in Tianjin:



Number & Name Terminals Interchange Opening Year
1 Line 1 Shuanglin - Liuyuan - 1970
9 Line 9 Zhongshanmen - Xinlizhen B1 2004




Number & Name Terminals Interchange Opening Year
B1 Line B1 Xinlizhen - Donghai Lu 9, T 2004
T TEDA MGRTmarker TEDA - North of College District B1 2007


Current map of Tianjin Subway

Tianjin Subway long term plan map
Current map of Tianjin Subway




Rail

There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin Railway Stationmarker being the principal one. It was built in 1888, initially, the station was located at Wangdaozhuang (S: 旺道庄 / T: 旺道莊). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (S: 老龙头 / T: 老龍頭) on the banks of the Hai Hemarker River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007 the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin transportation hub project involving Tianjin Metro lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin-Beijing High-speed rail.

Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu Districtmarker, and TEDA Railway Station located in TEDAmarker, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic.

Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.

The following rail lines go through Tianjin:

Starting from Aug. 1, 2008, all trains stopping at the previous Tianjin Temporary Passenger Station will now instead use the newly completed Tianjin Railway Stationmarker.

Also, the inter-city trains between Beijing and Tianjin will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for City in Chinese). The train numbers range between C2001~C2298:

  • C2001~C2198: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, non-stop.
  • C2201~C2268: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, with stops at Wuqing Station (武清站) or Yizhuang Station (亦庄站);
  • C2271~C2298: From Beijing South Station to Tanggu Station of Tianjin.


The new C trains take only 30 min between Beijing and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug. 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.

Tianjin Bus Route 606


Roads and expressways

Some spots in Tianjin, including roads and bridges, have names from Dr. Sun Yat-Sen's Three Principles of the People (for example, Minquan Gate on Zhonghuan Road). Names harkening back to the era of the Republic of Chinamarker on the mainland also appear (e.g. Beiyang Road). Many roads in Tianjin are named after a Chinese province or city. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four compass directions.

Tianjin has three ring roads. Unlike Beijing, the Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic and sometimes more than chaotic.



Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (道 avenue), xian (S: 线 / T: 線) line, more used for highways and through routes) and lu (路 road). Jie (街 street) is rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (S: 经 / T: 經) roads and wei (S: 纬 / T: 緯) roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.

The following seven expressways of China run in or through Tianjin:



The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:



The expressways are sometimes closed due to dense fog particularly in the Autumn and Spring.

Airport

Tianjin Binhai International Airportmarker (ZBTJ) is located in the east of the urban area, in Dongli District.

Public transit

The Tianjin tram network was awarded to a Belgian company in 1904 and opened in 1906. It was the first city-wide tramway system in China. There were 402 bus lines in the city as of 2004. [8159]

Construction work on the Tianjin Metro started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track is 7.4 kilometers. The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 and is currently being rebuilt. This new metro is now called Tianjin Metro Line 1. It was opened to the public in June 2006. The track was extended to 26.188 kilometers and there will be a total of 22 stations. Previously, there were 8 stations. Several new metro lines are planned. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 are ongoing.

There is also a light railway line in the city, the Binhai Mass Transit line. The line runs between downtown Tianjin and TEDAmarker (Tianjin Economic Development Area) in the seaside region. The eastern part of the line began service on March 28, 2004. The western part of the line is scheduled to be completed in 2006.

There is also a guided rail tram system in TEDA, called TEDA Modern Guided Rail Trammarker.

Tourism

Entrance to Ancient Culture Street
Italian District
Jin Wan square


Sights and landmarks within the Tianjin urban area include:

Sights outside the Tianjin urban area, but within the municipality, including Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Areamarker:



Sports teams

Sports teams based in Tianjin include:

Chinese Super League China Baseball League China Women Volleyball League

Education

Tianjin Foreign Studies University


Colleges and universities

Under the National Ministry of Education: Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:


Under the government of Hebei Province: Under the municipal government:

Foreign institutions:

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High schools

Tianjin No.
42 High School, part of the Hexi District


International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Tianjin is twinned with:
City Country Sister city since:
Kobe Japanmarker June 24, 1973
Fitchburgmarker United Statesmarker
Philadelphiamarker United Statesmarker February 10, 1980
Dallasmarker United Statesmarker
Greenvillemarker United Statesmarker
Rishon LeZionmarker Israelmarker
Melbournemarker Australia May 5, 1980
Yokkaichi Japanmarker October 28, 1980
Sarajevomarker Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker May 28, 1981
Nord-Pas de Calaismarker Francemarker October 10, 1984
Milanmarker Italymarker May 9, 1985
Groningenmarker Netherlandsmarker September 12, 1985
Chiba Japanmarker May 7, 1986
Kutaisimarker Georgiamarker
Plovdiv Regionmarker Bulgariamarker October 15, 1989
İzmirmarker Turkeymarker September 23, 1991
Abidjanmarker Côte d'Ivoiremarker September 26, 1992
Ulan Batormarker Mongoliamarker September 27, 1992
Kharkivmarker Ukrainemarker June 14, 1993
Jönköpingmarker Swedenmarker September 23, 1993
Incheonmarker South Koreamarker December 7, 1993
Łódźmarker Polandmarker October 1, 1994
Rio de Janeiro marker Brazilmarker April 18, 1995
Amazonas Statemarker Brazilmarker October 20, 1997
Haiphongmarker Vietnammarker January 8, 1999
Turkumarker Finlandmarker August 17, 2000
Clarencemarker United Statesmarker November 10, 2001
Thessalonikimarker Greecemarker March 4, 2002
Nampomarker North Koreamarker August 11, 2002


Astronomical phenomena

At , the previous total solar eclipse was the solar eclipse of October 28, 1277, the next total solar eclipse will be on July 6, 2187.

Total solar eclipses from 1001 to 3000 are:

  • 1277-Oct-28 13:21 CST
  • 2187-Jul-06 17:13 CST
  • 2415-Apr-10 10:49 CST
  • 2636-May-27 05:09 CST
  • 2762-Aug-12 09:43 CST


Annular solar eclipses from 1001 to 3000 are:

  • 1189-Feb-17 11:37 CST
  • 1292-Jan-21 13:30 CST
  • 1665-Jan-16 16:42 CST
  • 1802-Aug-28 15:48 CST
  • 2118-Mar-22 15:33 CST
  • 2439-Jun-12 07:52 CST
  • 2686-Sep-10 07:12 CST
  • 2739-Apr-30 08:41 CST
  • 2894-Dec-18 14:38 CST


Wikisource has an article about solar eclipses as seen from Tianjin from 2001 to 3000.

See also



References

Further reading

  • Ruth Rogaski. Hygienic Modernity: Meanings of Health and Disease in Treaty-Port China. University of California Press, 2004.


Economic data


External links






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