Berliner Tiergarten (German for Animal Garden) is the
name of both a large park (210 hectares) in the centre of Berlin and a
locality within the borough of
Location of the Tiergarten locality
within the Mitte borough of Berlin.
Before German reunification
, it was a part of
. Until Berlin's 2001 administrative
reform, Tiergarten was also the name of a borough, consisting
of the current Bezirk of Tiergarten (formerly called
Tiergarten-Süd) plus Hansaviertel and Moabit.
system of road and rail tunnels runs under the park towards
Station in nearby Moabit.
The Rousseau Island in the Großer
Tiergarten, early 19th century engraving
Once a hunting ground of the Electors
park of today was designed in the 1830s by
landscape architect Peter Joseph
. At its center the Siegessäule
was erected from which avenues radiate. In 1894 the Reichstag
building by architect Paul Wallot
opened as the seat of the German
parliament. The lawn between the contemporary
Kulturen der Welt (House of World Cultures) and the Reichstag
building was the site of the Krolloper opera house, built in 1844, which served as
parliament house after the Reichstag
fire on 27 February 1933 and was demolished by air raids in
On 15 January 1919 the socialist Karl
was shot by Freikorps
soldiers within the park near the lake Neuer See
of Rosa Luxemburg, murdered on the
same day, was found in the nearby Landwehrkanal on 1 June 1919.
The first Institut für
(Institute for Sex Research) of
was situated at
the former In den Zelten
street, near the contemporary
Haus der Kulturen der Welt
, from 1919 until it was closed
by the Nazis in 1933.
St Matthew Church.
After 1944 the park was largely deforested, because it served as a
source of firewood for the devastated city. In 1945, the Soviet Union built a war memorial along the Straße des 17. Juni, the Tiergarten's main east-west artery, near the
Luiseninsel in autumn
houses many parliamentary and governmental institutions, among
others the Bundestag in the Reichstag building and the new German
Chancellery. The residence of the German President, Schloss
Bellevue and the Carillon are also located in the Tiergarten park.
contains several notable sculptures including the four-tiered
Column (Siegessäule), the Bismarck Memorial and several other
memorials to prominent Prussian generals, all of which were located
in the ceremonial park facing the Reichstag before they were moved
to their present location by the Nazis.
In addition, the tree-lined pedestrian avenues
emanating from the
Victory Column contain several ceremonial sculptures of Prussian
aristocrats enacting an 18th century hunt.
Gate and the Potsdamer Platz are situated on the eastern rim of the locality,
the former frontier between East and
West Berlin. Nearby is the Kulturforum
stretching from the Berliner Philharmonie, a 1963 concert hall by architect Hans Scharoun and home of the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra to the
Nationalgalerie built by Ludwig
Mies van der Rohe in 1968. In between are the
neoclassical Saint Matthew
Church, built in 1845 by Friedrich August Stüler, the
Gemäldegalerie as well as the new branch of the Berlin State
A villa that
stood in the place of the bus station next to the Berliner
Philharmonie at Tiergartenstraße
No. 4 was the seat of
the Nazi killing of disabled persons (euthanasia
) program Action
. A memorial marks the site.
adjacent area between the park and the Landwehrkanal is home to
Emil Fahrenkamp's 1932 Shell-Haus, numerous embassies and the Bendlerblock, where in 1944 Claus Schenk Graf von
Stauffenberg and the conspirators of the July 20 plot were shot by a firing
View in the Tiergarten.
Today the building serves as second office of the
. Nearby are the headquarters of the Christian Democratic
Party, the Konrad
Adenauer Foundation and Friedrich Ebert Foundation
academies as well as the Bauhaus Archive and the high schools Französisches Gymnasium and Canisius-Kolleg. The adjacent western area at the border to
Charlottenburg houses the Berlin Zoo.
At the Victory Column and the Straße des 17. Juni the Love parade
from 1996-2003 and 2006 took place
as well as the German Live 8
concert on 2
July 2005. Since 1987, the annual Berlin
On 24 July 2008, Barack Obama spoke at the Victory Column in front
of a crowd of over 200,000 people.
- Among urban gardens of Germany, only the Englishe
Garten of Munich (417 hectares) is larger.