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The Timber and Stone Act of 1878 (45th Congress, Sess. 2, ch. 151, ) in the United Statesmarker sold Western timberland for $2.50 per acre ($618/km²) in 160 acre (0.6 km²) blocks.

Land that was deemed "unfit for farming" was sold to those who might want to "timber and stone" (logging and mining) upon the land. The act was used by speculators who were able to get great expanses declared "unfit for farming" allowing them to increase their land holdings at minimal expense.

In theory the purchaser was to make affidavit that he was entering the land exclusively for his own use and no association was to enter more than 160 acres (0.6 km²). In practice wealthy companies fraudulently obtained title for up to twenty thousand acres (80 km²) by hiring men to enter 160 acre (0.6 km²) lots which were then deeded to the company after a nominal compliance with the law.

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