600 AD In first wave Croats migrated together with Avars from the region that is now (roughly)
Galicia and areas of the
Pannonian plain, to the province of
Dalmatia ruled by the Roman Empire. Croats were led into the Roman
province of Dalmatia by a group of five brothers, Klukas, Lobel,
Kosenc, Muhlo and Hrvat, and their two sisters, Tuga and Buga.
620 In second wave Croats migrated when
the they were invited by the Emperor Heraclius to counter the Avar threat on the
Byzantine Empire, or Croats weren't
actually invited by Heraclius, but instead defeated the Avars and
settled on their own, after migrating from an area near today's
Silesia. This record is supported by the
writings of one Thomas the archdeacon, Historia Salonitana
from the 13th century.
Croatia (Porin) was one of the first known princes ( ) of
Dalmatian Croatia, who had been invited
into Dalmatia by ByzantiumEmperor Heraclius. At Porga's request to
Heraclius for Christian teachers, Pope John IV (640-642) sent Christian teachers
and missionaries to the Croatian
Provinces. These missionaries had converted Porga and great many of
the clan that was under his immediate authority, to the Christian
faith in 640. Porga ruled in what is today Dalmatia, and his region
consisted of 11 counties ( ) which were:
Hlebiana, Tzenzena, Emota, Pleba, Pesenta, Parathalassia, Brebere,
Nona, Tnena, Sidraga, Nina.
785 - 802 Višeslav of
Littoral Croatia left behind a baptistery
( ), surviving to this day, which remains an important symbol of
early Croatian history and the
people's conversion to Christianity.
The incription is in Latin mentions the name
of a priest named John ( ) who baptized people during "the time of
Prince Višeslav" in the honor of John
the Baptist. The Croats from Littoral Croatia warred against
the Franks during his rule and avoided defeat
until 803 - a year after his death.
840-846 When Pietro's military assault on
the Pagania in 840 failed, the Neretvians ( , ) continued to push against him and in
846 breached Venice itself, and
raided the neighboring lagoon city of Caorle.
March 852 Croatian DukeTrpimir I issued a charter in Biaći
(in loco Byaci dicitur) in Latin
language, confirming Mislav's
donations to the Archbishopric in
this document Trpimir named himself the "by the mercy of God, Duke
of Croats" ( ) and his realm as the "Realm of the Croats"
September 887 Croats from principality of Pagania defeated Venetians near the town of Makarska, killing the Venetian doge Pietro I Candiano in open battle.
Venetians start paying prince Branimir (879-892), an annual tribute
for the right to travel and trade in the Adriatic Sea.
948 With the weakening of Byzantium, Venice began to see Dubrovnik as a
rival who needed to be brought under her control, but the attempt
to conquer the city failed. The citizens of the city attributed
this to Saint Blaise whom they adopted as the patron saint.
1020 When king Krešimir III of Croatia
allegedly killed his brother Gojslav, the Pope has send Mainard like
church representative for investigation of Gojslav death, which
turned Croatia into an anarchy. After oath claiming innocent, the
Pope has returned royal power to Krešimir III
1102 Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of
Hungary formed a personal union of
two kingdoms united under the Hungarian king. The act of union was
deal with Pacta conventa,
by which institutions of separate Croatian statehood were
maintained through the Sabor (an assembly
of Croatian nobles) and the ban
(viceroy). In addition, the Croatian nobles retained their
lands and titles.
1205 Republic of Venice invaded Dalmatia
with the forces of the Fourth Crusade. Ragusa was forced to pay a
tribute and became a source of supplies for Venice, thus saved
itself from being sacked like Zadar.
March, 1242 The Mongols under the
leadership of Kadan (Qadan) at Klis Fortress in Croatia, experienced their first European
military failure, while in pursuit for the head of Béla IV of
1390 Probably the greatest ruler of Bosnia,
son of Croatian Princess Jelena
Šubić and Regent of Bosnia Vladislav Kotromanić, Tvrtko I (reigned 1353–91) extended his
power into Croatia and to the Dalmatian islands in the Adriatic
Sea, and claimed the titles “king of Dalmatia and Croatia”.
1409 Ladislaus of Naples
sells his "rights" on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for 100,000
ducats. Dalmatia would with some
interruptions remain under Venetian rule for nearly four centuries,
January 1, 1527 The Croatian nobles at
Cetin unanimously elected Ferdinand, Archduke of
Austria as their king, and confirmed the succession to him and
his heirs. In return for the throne Archduke Ferdinand at
Parliament on Cetin ( ) promised
to respect the historic rights, freedoms, laws and customs the
Croats had when united with the Hungarian kingdom and to defend
Croatia from Ottoman invasion.
A great fire destroys two thirds of Varaždin.Following the disaster, one third of the
population, their entire governments, and many of the nobility,
move out of the city, mostly to Zagreb.
Varaždin never regained its prominence, making Zagreb the de
facto capital of Croatia.
1848 Croatian Parliament
under BanJosip Jelačić proclaimed the union
of Croatian provinces (Croatian-Slavonian Kingdom, Istria and
Dalmatia), and the separation from Kingdom of Hungary.
Furthermore, it issues a proclamation abolishing serfdom, full civil rights and affirmation of the
equality of nations within Croatian provinces.