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Tirunelveli ( ) is a large and ancient city in southern Tamil Nadu, which became a City Corporation in 1994 by the merging of the municipalities of Tirunelveli city, Palayamkottaimarker, Melapalayam and a few other Panchayat areas. It is the district headquarters of Tirunelveli district. Tirunelveli is the home of the first largest Shiva Temple in Tamil Nadu, the Nellaiappar Temple. The city is considered to be one of the oldest in the Indian subcontinent, with a history that dates back to 1000 BC. It is located on the west bank of the perennial Thamirabarani river, whereas its twin city Palayamkottai, is located on the East bank. Tirunelveli is also often called the "Halwa City" for its reputed confectionery, the Halwa.

History

Ancient temples in the river banks


Tirunelveli is an ancient city, as evidenced by the findings of archaeological excavations which have been going on since 1840s, in the outskirts of the city in Adichanallur (now under Tuticorinmarker district). At this site, the archaeologists have unearthed an urn which could date back to 500 B.C, containing a complete human skeleton and clay vessels with some rudimentary Tamil Brahmi script inscribed on them. Other ancient urns in which the elderly were buried have also been found in the same district. Along with skeletal finds, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and celts have also been found.

More recent excavations at this site has led to the discovery of a habitation site of the Iron Age people. Archaeologists opine that it is about 3000–3800 years old, from the Neolithic period. This has assured us that Tirunelveli has been an abode for human habitation for 3000 years or more. Now, Adhichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies..

The history of Tirunelveli (English name Tinnevelly) was extensively researched by Bishop Robert Caldwell. (Christian missions in the 19th century in Tinnevelly played a significant part in the development of education as well as religious conversion.)

The known history says that Tirunelveli had been under the prominence of the Pandya kings, serving as their secondary capital while Madurai remained its primary capital. It was an important city of the Chola kingdom (c.900–1200) and of the Vijayanagar empire. The city was the chief commercial town in the period of Arcot Nawabs and Nayaks. They were among the various ruling dynasties of Tamil Nadu. In fact, they called the city "Nellai Cheemai", with cheemai meaning a developed foreign town. It was the Nayaks who, in 1781, granted its revenues and local administration to the British. In 1801, it was annexed by the British, who governed it until India achieved independence in 1947.

On acquisition from the Nawab of Arcot in 1801, the British anglicized its name as Tinnevelly and made it the headquarters of Tirunelveli district. This happened despite the fact that their administrative and military headquarters was located in Palayamkottaimarker (which was also anglicized as Palankottah),during their operations against the Palayakars. Post-independence, both towns reverted from their anglicized names to their original names and grew together as twin cities.

The city's historic heritage includes the Swamy Nellaiappar temple and the Sri Kandimathi Ambal temple, both of which are ancient Saivite temples. It is also the site of Asia's second largest two-tiered bridge, the Tiruvalluvur Bridge, which connects Tirunelveli Town and Junction. Nellaiappar temple Car festival is conducted every year in the month of tamil month Audi. Nellaiappar car is third largest temple car in tamil nadu next to Tiruvaroor and Srivilliputtur. Also, a Golden Temple car (First Inaugural run of Nellaiappar Temple Golden Car is November 2, 2009) will run during important festivals like Thirukalyanam, Kaarthigai, Aaruthra Festival etc.

Cityscape

Etymology

Tirunelveli is also called Nellaimarker. The translation in Tamil for paddy (rice fields) is "Nell". Both the names, Tirunelveli and Nellai, directly associate it to rice fields. Even on satellite imagery, it can be seen that the city is surrounded by fertile paddy fields, enriched by the perennial river "Tamirabarani". The river has a wide network of canals and waterways which irrigate numerous rice fields and support the villages around the district which primarily thrive on cultivating rice. The region is also heavily dependent on the monsoon rains.

The etymology of Tirunelveli has a Puranic association also. It is said that a devotee was invited by God in his dream to settle with his family near the Tamirabarani river. There was a famine in the region for a long time, and the man had to beg and collect paddy from other people. He spread out the paddy to dry under the sunlight and went for his ritual ablution in the river. He then continued to pray to the Lord for rain. Suddenly a thunderstorm broke out and it rained heavily. Although his prayer was answered, he was worried about the paddy he had spread out to dry in the sun. So he ran to collect it but what he saw was nothing short of a miracle. Not a drop of rain had fallen on the paddy he had laid out to dry. Since then, the city has been called Tirunelveli -- 'Tiru' meaning respectable, 'Nel' meaning paddy, and 'Veli' meaning a protective fence. In other words, the etymology relates to the city having paddy fields as a protective fence.

The name Halwa City is the a more contemporary nickname of Tirunelveli. A wheat-based sweet called halwa has brought it fame across the southern Indian states.

Geography

Tirunelveli is located at . It has an average elevation of 47 metres msl(154 ft). It is located in the southern-most tip of the Deccan plateau. Tirunelveli is an important junction in the National Highway No 7 connecting India from the North to South (Kashmir to Kanyakumari). The nearest pivotal towns are: Gangaikondanmarker in the north, Tuticorinmarker in the east, Alangulam in the west, Kalakkad in the southwest and Nangunerimarker in the south. It is also flanked by the state of Kerala to the west, Gulf of Mannar and the districts of Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi and Kanniyakumari. Thamiraparani river roughly divides the city into the Tirunelveli quarter and the Palayamkottai area. The major lakes in the city are Nainar lake and Udayarpetti lake. Three rivers (Chitraru, Thamirabarani and Kothandarama river) converge at a place called Sivalai, making the area very fertile. The closest town to this location is Kuppakkurichi.

Climate



The climate of Tirunelveli is usually tropical- generally hot and humid.. The average temperature during summer (March to June) ranges from 23 to 36° Celsius and 18 to 30°C during the rest of the year. The average annual rainfall is 680 mm, most of which occurs during the northeast monsoon (October-December). Since the economy of the district is primarily based on agriculture, fluctuations in the monsoon rains or flooding of the Thamarabarani river has an immediate impact of livelihood in the area.

There have been no earthquakes in the recorded history of the region. However, there have been a few instances of floods and cyclones caused by the monsoons.

Demographics

 India census, Tirunelveli had a population of 411,298. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. The city has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, and female literacy is 73%. In Tirunelveli, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.Among the Municipal Corporations, Tirunelveli has been identified with a gender ratio skewed towards males, with 1024 females for every 1000 males. The growth rate of Urban Agglomeration is 20.22%.


The city spreads over an area of 128.65 km². The population density of the city had increased to 3781 persons per km² in 2001 from 2218 Persons per km² in 1971. The disabilities in the city as per the 2001 census are 1308246, out of which 645142 are males and 663104, female. Hindus are the most in urban population. They are followed by Muslims and then Christians. The language mainly spoken in the city is Tamil. The usage of English is relatively common. The vast majority of official dealings and the medium of instruction in most educational institutions is in English. The Tamil dialect spoken in this region is very lucid and is popular throughout Tamil Nadumarker.

Projected Population

Year Population Type Source
1991 345,772 census official
2001 431,603 census official
2009 431,603 597,979


no. Domain Population Rank Rank in UA Source
1 World n/a n/a n/a
2 Asia 440 400
3 India 89 87
4 Tamil Nadu 6 7


Economy

The economy of Tirunelveli district is chiefly agrarian in nature and people are engaged in the cultivation of spices and condiments (like cumbu, ragi) groundnut, pulses, gingelly, coconut, chillies, indigo and cotton. It is rich in mineral resources like limestone, sulphides and ilmenite-garnet sand. The city of Tirunelveli has quite a number of industries in its area[93240] like cement factories, cotton textile mills, spinning and weaving mills, beedi (tobacco) companies, steel products and so on. A large number of small scale industries supported by NELSIA (Nellai Small Scale Industries Association) are active. Tannery industries in small scale are also found here. In addition to these industries, a few small scale units of brick kilns and oil mills exist in the industrial area.

A vast majority of the middle class population in Tirunelveli city are either government employees, teachers, professors or others working in educational institutions. The living cost of the city is considerably low when comparing with other large cities in Tamil Nadu. Food items are easily available at affordable prices. Recently the Tata Group has signed for the opening of a titanium dioxide plant estimated at Rs.2500 crore in Tirunelveli and Tuticorinmarker districts. The project is expected to create job opportunities for over 1000 people directly and an estimated 3000 indirectly.

Administration

CITY OFFICIALS (as of September 2009)


Mayor
A.L.Subramanian (DMK)
Deputy Mayor
K.Muthuramalingam (DMK)
Collectormarker
Jayaraman I.A.S
Commissioner of Police
Manjunatha I.P.S
MLA (Tirunelveli)
N.Malai Raja (DMK)
MLA (Palayamkottai)
T.P.M.Mohaideen Khan (DMK)


District Minister - Dr.Poongothai Aladi Aruna (DMK)
Member of Parliament
Rama Subbu (INC)


TOTAL VOTERS IN THE CITY


Number of Wards
55
Total population
411,832
Male population
203,232
Female population
208,599


Tirunelveli assembly constituency is part of Tirunelveli . The city is a Municipal Corporation as well as the district Headquarters. The city has a Mayor, Deputy Mayor and several councillors elected by people representing administrative wards, as well as a corporation Commissioner to administer the city headed by the District Collector. The total population in Tirunelveli City Corporation as per 2001 census is 411,832 of which the male to female ratio is in favour of women. In correlation, Tirunelveli has a relatively large number of womenfolk in the working community, right from teachers to civic administrators.

Transport

Tirunelveli city being the district headquarters of Tirunelveli, has an extensive transport network. It is well-connected to other cities of Tamil Nadu by the National Highway (NH7).

In terms of railways, Tirunelveli Junction (TEN) is one of the oldest and most popular stations in Indian Railway. Any train passing through the city halts in Tirunelveli Junction station.

A large network of interstate and intrastate buses ply to various destinations from Tirunelveli. There is a good co-existence of both private and public transport networks in the city round the clock. The Tirunelveli sub-division of the TNSTC (Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation), Madurai Division services the district's road transport needs with a string of local and mofussil (out-of-town) services.

The closest airport to Tirunelveli city is the Tuticorin airport (TCR), located at Vaagaikulam in Thoothukkudi district, 28 km East of Tirunelveli. Connections to Chennai are via Kingfisher Red, operating daily. The Madurai Airport and Thiruvananthapurammarker International Airport are about 150 km away by road. An unused runway between Gangaikondan and Kayathar, 22 km North of the city, will become operational once the IT park at Gangaikondanmarker is set up.

Cinema and Entertainment

Tirunelveli has numerous cinema theatres like other major cities of Tamil Nadu. These theatres, many of which were built in the 60s in Art Deco style, are the most popular landmarks in Tirunelveli. It is no wonder all bus routes have their bus stops at the locations of the city's theatres. Popular theatres include the Bombay Theatre, Parvathi, Perinbavilaas, Ram and Muthuram. The most recently constructed, and perhaps the best in Tirunelveli is the Bombay Theatre. Some of the old theatres that lies between Tirunelveli Town and Junction are Sivashakti, Central, Ratna and Parvathi. As mentioned earlier all these are bus stops between Town and Junction

Tirunelveli being the district headquarters hosts many events pertaining to entertainment. The Government Exhibition, a popular attraction visited by thousands of people from in and around Tirunelveli takes place annually. Other major events of entertainment include an annual Circus which draws huge crowds and many state and even national level sporting events in VOC ground and Anna Stadium.

Media & Communications

Print

Dina Thanthi, Dina Malar, Dinakaran, Dina Mani, Dina Vel, Tamil Sudar, Kathiravan, Tamil Murasu, Maalai Malar, Malai Murasu are the prominent Tamil news dailies currently printed in the city. The Hindu is the most widely read English daily. The news daily The Hindu published at Maduraimarker is being circulated here. Published at Trivandrummarker for Tamil Nadumarker editions are also being circulated occasionally. Both the cities are almost equidistance from the Tirunelveli city.Dina Thanthi and Dina Malar is the mostly commonly read Tamil Daily.

Radio stations

Tirunelveli is served on the FM dial by Suriyan FM, (frequency 93.5, run by the Sun TV Network), Malai Malar's 'Hello FM' (frequency 106.4 MHz),and Tirunelveli Vanoli Nilayam (AIR by the Government of India). Tirunelveli has been identified as one of just 40 cities in India to have its own FM stations. IGNOUmarker has planned to air its distance education lectures (named Gyan Vani) soon via FM.

Sports

Many sport events such as Hockey, Kabbadi, Volleyball, Kho-Kho tournaments are conducted at Anna stadium and VOC grounds. Both are situated in Palayamkottai and primarily used by school students for playing cricket during their leisure hours and holidays. An excellent public swimming pool and a well-maintained hockey field are among the facilities of the Anna stadium.

Religion

Tirunelveli has a rich religious heritage. Though the roots of the city can be traced to be associated with Hindu mythology, Tirunelveli has a harmoniously pluralistic society with followers of all the major Indian religions- Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Jainism. Consequently, the city has places of worship for people of all these religions, several of which are of historical importance like the Nellaiappar Temple and the Cathedral. Some areas of Tirunelveli have a disproportionately large religious demographic, like Melapalayam and Palayamkottai. While the former is a predominantly Muslim quarter the latter has a large proportion of Christians and Christian educational institutions. Palayamkottai area was a Christian missionary hub in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Nellaiappar Temple

Nellaiappar Gopuram
Nellaiappar Temple is famous as one of the largest Shiva Temples of Tamilnadu, steeped in tradition and also known for its sculptural splendours. The temple is situated in the centre of the city at a distance of two kilometres from the railway station. The Temple is situated in Tirunelveli Town. The main Railway station is situtaed in Tirunelveli Junction. It is a twin temple dedicated to Goddess Parvathi and Lord Shiva. Even from a considerable distance, one can have a good view of the gopurams (towers). Both the gopurams were built according to the rules laid down in the agama sastras by Rama Pandyan. It is the largest Shiva Temple in Tamil Nadu. Rare jewels, the Golden Lily Tank, Musical Pillars, and the hall of a Thousand Pillars are worth seeing. The temple dates back to 700 AD and contains inscriptions which can be traced to be made around 950 A.D. It is believed there were two distinct temples, built separately for Shiva and Parvati, the consort to Lord Shiva, by the Pandyan kings. The Sangili Mandapam, a big terraced hall, linking these two was built in the 17th century. The towers also date back to the early 17th century. Vishnu and Agastya are believed to have worshipped Shiva here. There is also an interesting legend that there exists a tunnel behind the Ravana sculpture in the temple corridor that connects Tirunelveli and Maduraimarker. This tunnel was supposed to have been used by the Pandya kings and their spies on secret missions.

The Nellaiappar temple car weighs approximately 400 tons and is the third largest temple car in Tamil Nadu. It is also said to be the largest human-powered car in South India. The car's axle was fabricated in steel during the British colonial period. Recently, steel rims were also used to reinforce the gigantic, yet aging wooden wheels. The Aani Car festival is the most popular festival associated with the temple, and the five cars (for Vinayakar, Murugan, Nellaiappar, Kanthimathi and Sandikaeswarar) by themselves are minor landmarks in the city.

Nindrasir Nedumaran (நின்றசீர் நெடுமாறன்), who reigned in the seventh century AD, contributed by constructing and renovating important parts in the temple. A beautiful garden founded in 1756, next to the Mandapam, welcomes visitors with many colourful and fragrant flowers. The garden was designed by Thiruvengadakrishna Mudaliar. A square vasantha mandapam with 100 pillars is found in the midst of this garden. The Nellaiappar Temple is bigger than the Maduraimarker Meenakshi Amman Templemarker, though the latter is much more popular owing to its historical importance.

Education

Tirunelveli district, or more specifically, Palayamkottaimarker, is called the Oxford of South India as the city has excellent educational institutions. The Manonmaniam Sundaranar University is named after the famous poet who penned the Tamil Thai Vazhthu, the official song of the state. This University has more than 24 departments, and offers some unique courses in Tamil Nadu, like Criminology and Criminal justice. Prof.R.T.Sabapathy Mohan is the current vice Chancellor.

Tirunelveli Medical College - Auditorium


In view of improving the quality of technical education in the southern parts of Tamil Nadu, Anna University Tirunelveli was established in 2007. The University offers a variety of engineering and technology courses in both undergraduate and postgraduate streams. Research facilities are being established in a start-of-the-art campus near Palayamkottai. Einstein College of Engineering at Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, in Tirunelveli.

The city has many prestigious old government and private colleges in the medical, legal, engineering, arts, pharmaceutical and physiotherapic fields. Tirunelveli Medical Collegemarker and the Government College of Engineering, Tirunelveli are professional colleges run by the government of Tamil Nadu. St.Xavier's College run by Jesuits, St. John's College and Sarah Tucker College run by CSI Diocese, M.D.T. Hindu College and Sadakathulla Appa College are well-known arts colleges. St.Xavier's College Palayamkotai is one of the few colleges which became autonomous very early. The college takes pride in having amongst its large alumni, eminent people like the politician Vaiko, Peter Alphonse and Arunachalam (former cabinet minister).

Popular higher secondary schools in Tirunelveli are Pushpalatha School, Rose Mary Schools, Bell School, MDT Hindu College School (where the eminent Tamil poet Barathiyaar studied and worked as teacher), Schafter School, St.Xavier's School, St.John's School, Jeyandra Vidyalaya, Little Flower School, Chinmaya Vidhyalaya, Sarah Tucker School and St.Ignatius Convent. Some schools like Bell School, Jeyandra School and Sarah Tucker have managed to make international connections with foreign schools and run active student exchange projects. Educational activities of this kind, make learning in Tirunelveli a unique experience for the local students.

No Educational Institutions Total number of Institutions
1 Universities 2 (Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Anna University Tirunelveli)
2 Arts and Science Colleges 21
3 Medical Colleges 2 (Tirunelveli Medical Collegemarker, Siddha Medical College)
4 Physiotherapy Colleges 1 (Devendrar College of Physiotherapy)
5 Engineering Colleges 12
6 Law Colleges 1
7 Pre Kindergarten Schools 201
8 Primary Schools 1521
9 Middle Schools 394
10 High Schools 114
11 Higher Secondary Schools 148
12 Teacher Training Institutes 6


Science Centre

The city has a District Science Centre, a satellite unit of Visvesvaraya Industrial and Technological Museummarker, Bangalore. The centre is committed to the cause of science education through fun and entertainment. The centre has an evergreen science park in sylvan surroundings and is located adjacent to the perennial river Thamirabharani, along the highway to Kanyakumari. Permanent exhibitions, science shows, interactive guide tours, a mini-planetarium, sky observation through a telescope are some of the activities of the centre. Many scientific experiments prototypes planted in the campus. The building has two floors. Exhibitions and Competitions are also conducted here up to school levels. The visiting charges are nominal. `Fun science gallery' inaugurated in Tirunelveli — The Hindu.

Language

Traditionally, it has been noted that the Tamil language originated from the Pothigai Malai, a hill situated in the Western Ghats near Papanasammarker, a small village in the Tirunelveli district. As per Brahminical legend, Lord Shiva sent two saints, Vyasa and Agatyar (in Sanskrit Agastya) to create the divine languages of Sanskrit and Tamil. Agatyar came to Papanasam first and established the Tamil culture from the Pothigai Malai. Today, the Tamil language as spoken in the Tirunelveli district is called as Nellai Tamil. Nellai Tamil uses words like Annachi (a venerational salute to the elders), unique to the region. Nellai Tamil is also spoken relatively fast, in comparison with other dialects of the language. The Tirunelveli accent appeals to all Tamil speaking people and it is considerably different from the Madras Bashaimarker, which is a more anglicized Tamil dialect. Since Tamil is believed to have originated from the Pothigai Malai, Nellai Tamil is considered to be the first and purest form of Tamil. It is also said to be the sweetest form of Tamil . However, Tirunelveli accent is often satirically mocked in Tamil films.

Cuisine

Halwa

Tirunelveli is popular state-wide for its famous halwa (pronounced locally as alwa). The sweet dish is made primarily from wheat and sugar. Tirunelveli halwa is golden brown, has a jelly-like texture and contains a ghee (clarified butter), which gives it its distinctively greasy appearance. Best served hot, this popular sweet is generally enjoyed as a dessert. Tirunelveli halwa is said to owe its uniquely rich taste to a special recipe of this region, blended with the renowned sweetness of the Thamarabarani river. The halwa was made famous by a Marwari family settled here more than 300 years ago. The original shop started by them is the Lakshmi Vilas. Over time, other small businesses borrowed the recipe and now the halwa has become synonymous with the city.

The best places to buy Tirunelveli halwa is around the Nellaiyappar temple and avenue leading to the central railway station. Two of the most famous halwa stores are Irutu Kadai Halwa (Transliterated as the Dark Halwa store), situated near the Nellaiyappar temple and the other being Shanthi Sweets. The name Irutu Kadai of the former store derives itself from the fact that the looks of the store have been kept unchanged from the date it was started. Till date, there are no bright electrical lights or even a board to display the shop's brand. Besides this, there are also many other excellent sweet stalls in Tirunelveli town that sell this delectable local delicacy.One of the best shop ischandra sweetsin tirunelveli jn

Local dishes

Some of the unique and popular dishes in Tirunelveli are Sodhi, Kootan Choru and Ulunthamparupu choru with yellu thovayal. Sothi is a delicious gravy made of coconut milk and vegetables. This is served at marriage feasts, especially during the Maruveedu (reception) ceremony which takes place the day after a marriage. Kootan Choru is a hot spicy vegetable rice made with dhal, rice, vegetables and a mixture of coconut and red chillies. Ulunthamparupu choru is rice and ulunthamparupu (Urad Dhal) cooked together. Ulunthamparupu choru is taken with yellu (sesame seeds) and thovayal(spicy chutney). Amongst vegetarians, avial is a local variant of spicy stir-friend local vegetables. Tirunelveli avial tastes a bit sour and sometimes called as Nellai avial.

Engineering Marvel

The Thiruvalluvar Bridge at Tirunelveli Junction was constructed in 1973 to ease the heavy traffic at the railway junction. The two tier bridge has a length of 800m. The first of its kind ever constructed in India, it consists of 25 spans, of which 13 are bowstring arch (each with a width of 30.3m) and 12 are single tier RCC girders, each with a width of 11.72m.

Local problems

Although Tirunelveli is one of the major cities in Tamil Nadu, the dearth of prospective new industries has resulted in most young people migrating to other parts of Tamil Nadu like Chennaimarker, Coimbatoremarker and Tirupurmarker for higher education and better job opportunities. It has been speculated that the failure of the Government to create job opportunities could also be a factor in this migration, which has subsequently resulted in one of the slowest growth rates of the city among the major cities in Tamil Nadu. Major project proposals initiated by the government or large private organizations suddenly coming to a standstill is not uncommon in Tirunelveli. Even though Nanguneri Special Economic Zone was announced in the year 2000, it is yet to take off successfully.

Despite having numerous hospitals, maternity care centres, dispensaries and reputed medical colleges (government medical college and Siddha college), only basic medical facilities are readily available. Tirunelveli lacks specialized medical facilities and for most major surgeries and complicated medical procedures, one has to travel to the bigger cities like Madurai and Chennai.

Even though the highly profitable Madurai-Kanyakumarimarker rail stretch of the Southern Railways passes through Tirunelveli, it has neither been double tracked nor electrified- hampering the railway traffic heavily. People are forced to opt for alternate modes of transport like Buses and hence many private buses prey on this opportunity. Moreover, the city does not have an airport, which is instrumental for the development of IT parks and other major industrial developments.

Palayamkottai

Tirunelveli's twin city

Tirunelveli and Palayamkottai being located on either banks of the river Thamirabarani, they are often referred to as twin cities. Palayamkottai is widely known for its educational infrastructure and is called the Oxford of South India. The city has a rich heritage in pedagogy with its wide array of highly competitive and dynamic schools, colleges and institutions of higher education. Some of these institutions have been in existence for more than 150 years, and have had their eminence during the British Raj. Amongst the most eminent are the Tirunelveli Medical College, Government Siddha College, Government Engineering College, St.Xavier's College, St.John's College and Sarah Tucker College (the first women's college in Tamil Nadu).

References

  1. http://tirunelvelicorp.tn.gov.in
  2. The Hindu: National: `Rudimentary Tamil-Brahmi script' unearthed at Adichanallur
  3. The Telegraph - Calcutta: Nation
  4. Stone Pages Archaeo News: 3,800-year-old Indian skeletons throw light on evolution
  5. Stone Pages Archaeo News: Iron Age settlement found in India
  6. The Hindu: National: Iron Age habitational site found at Adichanallur
  7. More earthenware unearthed
  8. History of Tinnevelly by Bishop R. Caldwell
  9. Christian mission in Tinnevelly
  10. A brief history of Tinnevelly By Rev. Dyron B. Daughrity
  11. Tirunelveli
  12. Chola's Imperial town
  13. 400 years sugar cane press
  14. Thamirabarani
  15. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Tirunelveli
  16. http://www.nellai.tn.nic.in/general.html#ori_dist
  17. Climatic condition of Tirunelveli
  18. Census of Govt of India
  19. Urban Agglomeration growth rate
  20. [1]
  21. World-gazetter population estimation of Asian cities- Proper Place
  22. World-gazetter population estimation of Asian cities-Agglomeration
  23. World-gazetter population estimation of Indian cities - Proper Place
  24. World-gazetter population estimation of Indian cities- Agglomeration
  25. World-gazetter population estimation of Tamil Nadu cities - Proper Place
  26. World-gazetter population estimation of Tamil Nadu cities - Agglomeration
  27. Economy of Tirunelveli
  28. Railway Map of India - 1893
  29. List of Popular Railway stations in India
  30. Kayatar Air Strip
  31. Tirunelveli Medical College -TvMC
  32. Government College of Engineering, Tirunelveli
  33. http://www.thehindu.com/2009/01/21/stories/2009012155090600.htm
  34. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/11/15/stories/2007111564081100.htm
  35. "Tourists amused" — The Hindu
  36. Start work at Nanguneri SEZ immediately
  37. http://tirunelveli.nic.in/education.html A Brief History of Missions in Tirunelveli
  38. http://southindianstates.com/tamilnadu_districts/tirunelveli/
  39. http://www.southindiaonline.com/tamilnadu/thirunelveli.htm
  40. http://www.sarahtuckercollege.org/college%20web/index.htm
  41. http://mycollege.in/college.php?id=564&name=Sarah-Tucker-College-Palayamkottai---627-007
  1. http://tirunelvelicorp.tn.gov.in
  2. The Hindu: National: `Rudimentary Tamil-Brahmi script' unearthed at Adichanallur
  3. The Telegraph - Calcutta: Nation
  4. Stone Pages Archaeo News: 3,800-year-old Indian skeletons throw light on evolution
  5. Stone Pages Archaeo News: Iron Age settlement found in India
  6. The Hindu: National: Iron Age habitational site found at Adichanallur
  7. More earthenware unearthed
  8. History of Tinnevelly by Bishop R. Caldwell
  9. Christian mission in Tinnevelly
  10. A brief history of Tinnevelly By Rev. Dyron B. Daughrity
  11. Tirunelveli
  12. Chola's Imperial town
  13. 400 years sugar cane press
  14. Thamirabarani
  15. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Tirunelveli
  16. http://www.nellai.tn.nic.in/general.html#ori_dist
  17. Climatic condition of Tirunelveli
  18. Census of Govt of India
  19. Urban Agglomeration growth rate
  20. [1]
  21. World-gazetter population estimation of Asian cities- Proper Place
  22. World-gazetter population estimation of Asian cities-Agglomeration
  23. World-gazetter population estimation of Indian cities - Proper Place
  24. World-gazetter population estimation of Indian cities- Agglomeration
  25. World-gazetter population estimation of Tamil Nadu cities - Proper Place
  26. World-gazetter population estimation of Tamil Nadu cities - Agglomeration
  27. Economy of Tirunelveli
  28. Railway Map of India - 1893
  29. List of Popular Railway stations in India
  30. Kayatar Air Strip
  31. Tirunelveli Medical College -TvMC
  32. Government College of Engineering, Tirunelveli
  33. http://www.thehindu.com/2009/01/21/stories/2009012155090600.htm
  34. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/11/15/stories/2007111564081100.htm
  35. "Tourists amused" — The Hindu
  36. Start work at Nanguneri SEZ immediately
  37. http://tirunelveli.nic.in/education.html A Brief History of Missions in Tirunelveli
  38. http://southindianstates.com/tamilnadu_districts/tirunelveli/
  39. http://www.southindiaonline.com/tamilnadu/thirunelveli.htm
  40. http://www.sarahtuckercollege.org/college%20web/index.htm
  41. http://mycollege.in/college.php?id=564&name=Sarah-Tucker-College-Palayamkottai---627-007


External links



See also




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