(d. 1405), was the last khan
of the White
, who unified the White Horde and Blue Horde
subdivisions of the Golden Horde
into a single state. He was a
descendant of Genghis Khan
grandson, Orda Khan
Tokhtamysh appears in history in 1376, trying to overthrow his
uncle Urus Khan
, ruler of the White Horde
, and fleeing to the great Timur
. Tokhtamysh outlived Urus and both his sons and
forcefully ascended the throne of the White Horde in 1378 with
Tokhtamysh dreamed of emulating his ancestors and made plans to
reunite the Ulus Jochi. In 1380, he invaded the Blue Horde
by fording across the Volga
. The ruler of the Blue
Horde, Mamai, was killed shortly after the
Kulikovo, making Tokhtamysh's victory over the horde all the
united the Blue and White Hordes into the Golden Horde in 1382 Tokhtamysh led a successful campaign against
Russia as a punishment for the Kulikovo defeat - setting
back, though not ending, the Russian aspiration to free themselves
of Mongol rule. In just six years, Tokhtamysh had reunified
the Mongol lands from Crimea to Lake Balkhash.
Tokhtamysh in front of Moscow,
Wars against Tamerlane
he could emulate the successes of Genghis
Khan himself, in 1385 Tokhtamysh, with an army of 50,000 (or
five tumens), invaded Persia and took Tabriz.
north they took 200,000 slaves from Caucasus, including tens of
thousands of Armenians from the districts of Parskahayk, Syunik, and
Artsakh. As Tokhtamysh moved
north from the Caucasus, Timur annexed Azerbaijan and Persia to his own
Furious, Tokhtamysh turned back and made
war on his former ally.
Eventually, Tokhtamysh conceded defeat and withdrew to the steppe.
However, in 1387 he suddenly invaded Transoxiana
, the heart of Timur's realm.
Unfortunately for Tokhtamysh, heavy snow forced him back to the
In 1395, the scenario reached its climax as Timur attacked the
Golden Horde and defeated Tokhtamysh at the Terek
. Timur sacked the capital,
, vassalized the Golden
Horde, and placed a puppet ruler on the throne.
escaped to the Ukranian steppes and
asked for help from the Grand Duke Vytautas
In the great Battle of the Vorskla River
(1399) the combined forces of Tokhtamysh and Vytautas were defeated
by two of Timur's generals, khan Temur
(murza, visir) Edigu
. The defeated Tokhtamysh was killed in
Tyumen by Edigu's men in 1405.
He was the last khan who minted coins with Mongolian script
- The struggle against the Khan