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Toledo is a city in the U.S. state of Ohiomarker within the Great Lakes Region and the county seat of Lucas Countymarker. Named after Toledo, Spainmarker, it is located on the western end of Lake Eriemarker, on the Michiganmarker border. It is the principal city in the Toledo Metropolitan Statistical Area. In the 2000 census, the city proper had a population of 313,619, the fourth-largest in the state. According to the US Census, the metropolitan area had a population of 650,955, while the Toledo/Fremont Combined Statistical Area had a population of 711,952. Toledo is a city well known for its industry (especially in glass and auto parts production), art community, education, and local sports teams. Residents of Toledo are usually referred to as Toledoans, while the city itself has been nicknamed the Glass City.Toledo is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis which has 54 million residents.


The area was first settled by Americans in 1794, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, with the founding of Fort Industry. However, with the War of 1812, many settlers fled the area. Resettling began again around 1817 when a Cincinnatimarker syndicate purchased a tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence. Immediately to the north of that another syndicate founded the town of Vistula. These two towns physically bordered each other with Cherry Street dividing them (this is why present day streets on the northeast side of Cherry Street run at a slightly different angle from those to the southwest of it).

In 1825, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of Miami and Erie Canal and later its Wabash and Erie Canal extension in 1833. The canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Eriemarker because at that time no highways existed in the state and it was thus very difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountainsmarker. During the canal’s planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River heavily competed to be the ending terminus of the canal knowing it would give them a profitable status. The towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the towns of Waterville, Maumee, and Manhattan.

The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends. One recounts that Washington Irving, who was traveling in Spainmarker at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident; this explanation ignores the fact that Irving returned to the United States in 1832. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major who quaintly numbered his sons and named his daughters after States. The most popular version attributes the naming to Willard J. Daniels, a merchant, who reportedly suggested Toledo because it 'is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent." Despite Toledo’s efforts, the final terminus was decided to be built in Manhattan a half mile to the north of the Toledo because it was closer to the lake. As a compromise, the state placed two sidecuts before the terminus, one in Toledo at Swan Creek and another in Maumee.

An almost bloodless conflict between Ohio and the Michigan Territory, called the Toledo War (1835-1836), was "fought" over a narrow strip of land from the Indianamarker border to Lake Eriemarker, now containing the city and the suburbs of Sylvaniamarker and Oregonmarker. The strip—which varied between five and eight miles (13 km) in width—was claimed by the state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory due to old conflicting legislation about where the Ohio-Michigan state line should be. Militias from both states were sent but never engaged. The only casualty of the conflict was a Michigan deputy sheriff—stabbed in the leg by Two Stickney during the arrest of his elder brother, One Stickney—and the loss of two horses, two pigs and a few chickens stolen from an Ohio farm by lost members of the Michigan militia. In the end, the state of Ohio was awarded the land after the state of Michigan was given the Upper Peninsulamarker in exchange. Stickney Avenue in Toledo is named for One and Two Stickney.

Toledo was very slow to expand in its first two decades of existence. Its very first lot was sold in the Port Lawrence section of the city in 1833. It held 1,205 persons in 1835, and five years later it held just seven more men. Settlers came and went quickly through Toledo and between 1833 and 1836, ownership of land had changed so many times that none of the original parties still existed. Yet, completion of the canal and its additional sidecut entrance finally occurred in Toledo in 1843. Soon after the canal was functional, the canal boats became too large to use the shallow waters at the terminus in Manhattan, and soon more boats began using the Swan Creek sidecut rather than its official ending. This quickly put the Manhattan warehouses out of business and triggered a stampede to move business to Toledo.
A 1955 map of Toledo
Most of the Manhattan's residents moved out by 1844. The 1850 census shows Toledo had 3,829 residences and Manhattan had 541. The 1860 census shows Toledo with a population of 13,768 with Manhattan listing 788. Thus, although the towns were only a mile apart, Toledo grew by 359% in ten years while Manhattan only grew by 148%, the difference being Toledo had the canal entrance and Manhattan did not. By the 1880s, the vacant streets of Manhattan and also Tremainsville, a small town to the west, were reused when Toledo expanded over top of them.

In the last half of the 19th century, railroads slowly began to replace canals as the major form of transportation. Toledo soon became a hub for several railroad companies as well as being a hotspot for many other industries such as furniture production, carriage makers, breweries, glass companies, and others. At this time, a large number of immigrants came to the area attracted by the many factory jobs available and the city's easy accessibility. By 1880, Toledo was one of the largest cities in Ohio.

Toledo continued to expand in population and industry into the early 20th century, but because of a dependency on manufacturing, the city was hit hard by the Great Depression. The manufacturing dependency continued into World War II when Toledo became involved in wartime production of several products, particularly the Willys Jeep.


Toledo is located at (41.665682, -83.575337). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 84.1 square miles (217.8 km²), of which, 80.6 square miles (208.8 km²) of it is land and 3.5 square miles (8.9 km²) of it (4.10%) is water. The city sits astride the Maumee River at the southern end of Maumee Baymarker, which is the westernmost inlet of Lake Eriemarker. Toledo is north of what was formerly the Great Black Swamp, giving rise to another nickname, Frog Town. An important ecological site, Toledo sits within the borders of a sandy oak savanna called the Oak Openings Region that once took up over 300 square miles.


Toledo, like several other cities in the Great Lakesmarker region, experiences a lake-moderated continental climate, characterized by four distinct seasons varying significantly in temperature and precipitation. Lake Eriemarker moderates its climate somewhat, especially in late spring and fall, when air and water temperature differences are maximal. However, this effect is tempered in the winter by the fact that Lake Erie freezes over much more readily than the other Great Lakes, coupled with prevailing winds that are often westerly. Southerly and westerly prevailing winds combined with warm surface waters of Lake Erie in summer also negate the lake's cooling ability on the city, however the lake's presence increases humidity.

The warmest month of the year is July, when high temperatures average 87 °F (30 °C), and overnight low temperatures average 66 °F (19 °C), the warmest of any Great Lakes city. January is the coldest month, when high temperatures average 33 °F (1 °C), and low temperatures average 20 °F (-7 °C). The wettest month of the year is June, when 3.84 inches (97.5 mm) of precipitation falls. The driest month is January, when 2.00 inches (50.8 mm) of precipitation falls, mostly as snowfall. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Toledo was 105 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded was -20 °F (-29 °C), on January 21, 1984. The record high in the month of January in Toledo was set January 7, 2008 with the high temperature at which was broken at Toledo Express Airport.

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F 68 71 81 88 95 104 105 99 98 91 80 70
Norm High °F 31.4 35.1 46.5 58.9 70.7 79.5 83.4 81 74 62.1 48.3 36
Norm Low °F 16.4 18.9 27.9 37.7 48.6 58.2 62.6 60.7 52.9 41.6 32.6 22.3
Rec Low °F -20 -14 -6 8 25 32 40 34 26 15 2 -19
Precip (in) 1.93 1.88 2.62 3.24 3.14 3.8 2.8 3.19 2.84 2.35 2.78 2.64
Source:The Weather Channel. [5385]"
Source: [5386]


Neighborhoods and suburbs

Toledo consists of the following neighborhoods:

  • Scott Park
  • South End
  • South Toledo
  • Southwyck
  • WestWood
  • Wernert's Corner
  • Trilby
  • University Hills
  • Uptown
  • Warehouse District
  • Warren Sherman
  • Westgate
  • Westmoreland
Toledo Metropolitan Area
According to the US Census Bureau, the Toledo Metropolitan Area covers 4 Ohio counties and combines with other micropolitan areas and counties for a combined statistical area. Some of the suburbs in Ohio include:Bowling Greenmarker, Hollandmarker, Lake Townshipmarker, Maumeemarker, Millburymarker, Monclova Townshipmarker, Northwoodmarker, Oregonmarker, Ottawa Hillsmarker, Perrysburgmarker, Rossfordmarker, Springfield Townshipmarker, Sylvaniamarker, Walbridgemarker, Watervillemarker, Whitehousemarker, Washington Townshipmarker

There are also some suburbs in the State of Michigan including:Bedford Townshipmarker, Erie Townshipmarker, Lambertvillemarker,Ottawa Lakemarker, Temperancemarker, Whiteford Townshipmarker

The nine county Northwest Ohio/Toledo/Fremont media market includes over 1 million residents.


Fine art

The Stranahan Theatermarker is a major concert hall located on the city's south side. The Toledo Repertoire Theatre was created in 1933 and performs both Broadway hits and lesser-known original works. The Collingwood Arts Center is housed in a 1905 building designed by architect E. O. Fallis in the "Flemish Gothic" style. The parlor is used to showcase art exhibitions while the second and third floor rooms are rented to local artists. The Toledo Museum of Artmarker is an internationally-acclaimed museum located in a Greek Revival building. Its Center for Visual Arts addition by Frank Gehry was added recently and the Museum's new Glass Pavilion across Monroe Street opened in August 2006. The Ballet Theatre of Toledo provides an opportunity for area students to study ballet and perform their art.


The front page of Toledo Blade
The Blade, a daily newspaper, is the primary newspaper in Toledo and was founded in 1835. Page one of each issue asserts "One of America's Great Newspapers." The city's arts and entertainment weekly is the Toledo City Paper. In March 2005, the weekly newspaper Toledo Free Press began publication, and it has a focus on news and sports. Other weeklies include the West Toledo Herald, El Tiempo, La Prensa, Sojourner's Truth, Toledo Journal, and now Midwesturban Newspaper. Toledo Tales provides satire and parody of life in the Glass City. The Old West End Magazine is published monthly and highlights "The Best in Urban Historic Living". The Midwest Urban Newspaper and Toledo Journal are African-American owned newspapers. It is published weekly, and normally focuses on African-American issues. Monthly issues are also published on the Old West End Association web site. television stations licensed in Toledo including: 5 WT05 - CW, 11 WTOLmarker - CBS, 13 WTVGmarker - ABC, 24 WNWO-TVmarker - NBC, 30 WGTE-TVmarker - PBS, 36 WUPWmarker - Fox, 40 WLMBmarker - FN, and 48 WMNT-CAmarker - MNTVThere also fourteen radio stations licensed in Toledo.

Sites of interest

Toledo Zoo pedestrian bridge
  • The Toledo Zoomarker was the first zoo to feature a hippoquariummarker-style exhibit.
  • The Willis B Boyer is a former Cleveland-Cliffs lake freighter open to the public as a museum, located at International Park, across from downtown Toledo along the Maumee River.
  • The R. A. Stranahan Arboretum is a arboretum maintained by the University of Toledomarker.
  • The Old West End is a historic neighborhood of Victorian, Arts & Crafts, and other Edwardian style houses recognized by the National Register of Historic Places.
  • The Mansion View Inn, also known as the Reynolds-Secor home, built in 1887, was home to several prominent and wealthy Toledo families. It is listed on the Department of Interior’s National Historic Register.
  • Tony Packo's Cafe is located in the Hungarian neighborhood on the east side of Toledo known as Birmingham, and features hundreds of hot dog buns signed by celebrities.
  • The Veterans' Glass City Skywaymarker over the Maumee River on Interstate 280, just north-east of downtown Toledo. This tall bridge includes a glass covered pylon, which lights up at night, adding a distinctive feature to Toledo's skyline.
Looking onto Fifth Third Field


Club League Venue Established Championships
Toledo Mud Hens IL, Baseball Fifth Third Fieldmarker 1897 3
Toledo Walleye ECHL, Ice hockey Lucas County Arena 2009 0
Toledo Bullfrogs af2, Arena football Lucas County Arena 2010 0

  • Racing- Toledo Speedway is a local auto racetrack that features, among other events, stock car racing and concerts. Raceway Park hosts harness racing and features an enclosed grandstand.


As of the census of 2000, there were 313,619 people, 128,925 households, and 77,355 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,890.2 people per square mile (1,502.0/km²). There were 139,871 housing units at an average density of 1,734.9/sq mi (669.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.23% White, 23.55% African American, 0.31% Native American, 1.03% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.28% from other races, and 2.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.47% of the population. The top 5 largest ancestries include German (23.4%), Irish (10.8%), Polish (10.1%), English (6.0%), and French (4.6%).

In 2000 there were 128,925 households in Toledo, out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.0% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There was a total of 139,871 housing units in the city, of which 10,946 (7.8%) were vacant.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,546, and the median income for a family was $41,175. Males had a median income of $35,407 versus $25,023 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,388. About 14.2% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.

The U.S. Census Bureau estimated Toledo's population as 297,806 in 2006 and 295,029 in 2007. In response to an appeal by the City of Toledo, the Census Bureau's July 2007 estimate was revised to 316,851, slightly more than in 2000.


One SeaGate, the tallest building in Toledo, is the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters.
Historically, before the industrial revolution, Toledo was a port city on the Great Lakesmarker. But with the advent of the automobile, the city became best known for industrial manufacturing, although these industries have declined considerably in past decades. Both General Motors and Chrysler have factories in metropolitan Toledo, and automobile manufacturing has been important at least since Kirk began operations early in the 20th Century. The city is home to three Fortune 500 companies: Dana Corporation, Owens Corning and Owens Illinois. Formerly located at One SeaGate, O-I has recently relocated to suburban Perrysburgmarker. One SeaGate is currently the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters. HCR Manor Care is an up and coming Fortune 1000 company headquartered in Toledo. Though the largest employer in Toledo was Jeep for much of the 20th century, this honor has recently gone to the University of Toledomarker. Manufacturing as a whole now employs fewer Toledoans than does the healthcare industry, now the city's biggest employer. In 2001, a taxpayer lawsuit was filed against Toledo that challenged the constitutionality of tax incentives it extended to DaimlerChrysler for the expansion of its Jeep plant. The case was won by the city on a technical issue after it reached the U.S.marker Supreme Courtmarker in DaimlerChrysler Corp. v. Cuno, 547 U.S. ___ (2006).

Toledo is home to several other large companies. Faurecia Exhaust Systems, which is a $2 billion subsidiary to France's Faurecia SA, and Pilkington North America, which is a $900 million subsidiary to Britain's Pilkington Ltd., are located in Toledo.

Toledo is the primary market city for northwest Ohio, a region of nine counties with a population in excess of one million. As such there is a high concentration of retail establishments and medical facilities in Toledo.

Toledo is known as the Glass City because of its long history of innovation in all aspects of the glass industry: windows, bottles, windshields, construction materials, and glass art, of which the Toledo Museum of Artmarker has a large collection. Several large glass companies have their origins here. Owens-Illinois, Owens Corning, Libbey Glass, Pilkington North America (formerly Libbey Owens Ford), and Therma-Tru have long been a staple of Toledo's economy. Other off-shoots and spinoffs of these companies also continue to play important roles in Toledo's economy. Fiberglass giant Johns Manville's two plants in the metro area were originally built by a subsidiary of Libbey Owens Ford. Many other companies that service the glass industry also began in Toledo, such as Toledo Engineering and Glasstech.

Several large, Fortune 500 automotive related companies had their headquarters in Toledo. Electric AutoLite, Sheller-Globe Corporation, Champion Spark Plug, Questor, and Dana Corporation are examples of large auto parts companies that began in Toledo. Only Dana Corporation is still in existence as an independent entity. The Jeep vehicle has been manufactured in Toledo since 1941 as well. Willys-Overland was a major automaker headquartered in Toledo until 1953.

While Toledo has a "rust belt" reputation due to its manufacturing history, in the 2000s, the city received a lot of interest and growth in "green jobs" due to economic development around solar energy. For example, the University of Toledomarker and Bowling Green State University received Ohio grants for solar energy research. Also, companies like Xunlight opened plants in Toledo and the surrounding area.

The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Toledo as a Tree City USA.


Colleges and universities

These higher education institutions operate campuses in Metro Toledo:

Primary and secondary schools

Toledo Public Schools operates public schools within much of the city limits, along with the Washington Local School District in northern Toledo.Toledo is also home to several public charter schools including two Imagine Schools.

Additionally, several private and parochial primary and secondary schools are present within the Toledo area. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Toledo operates Roman Catholic primary and secondary schools.

Private high schools in Toledo include Maumee Valley Country Day School, Central Catholic High Schoolmarker, St. Francis de Sales High Schoolmarker, St. John's Jesuit High School and Academymarker, Notre Dame Academy, St. Ursula Academymarker (Ottawa Hills), Cardinal Stritch High Schoolmarker (Oregon), the Toledo Islamic Academy, Freedom Christian Academy, Toledo Christian Schools, Emmanuel Christian, the David S. Stone Hebrew Academy (Sylvania), and Apostolic Christian Academy.

Charter Schools Include : Horizon Science Academy and Toledo School for the Arts (TSA)


Major roads

The Veterans' Glass City Skyway over the Maumee River
*(northbound) - Erie Street (Anthony Wayne Trail to Cherry Street), Cherry Street (Erie Street to Greenbelt Parkway)
*(southbound) - Michigan Avenue (Spielbusch Avenue to Anthony Wayne Trail), Spielbusch Avenue (Greenbelt Parkway to Michigan Avenue)
  • SR 51 Monroe Street (Sylvania Township, Lucas County, Ohiomarker to Summit Street), Summit Street (Monroe Street to Clayton Street), Clayton Street (turns into Woodville Road on the Anthony Wayne Bridge), Woodville Road (Clayton Street to Oregon, Ohiomarker)
  • SR 65 Miami Street (Rossford, Ohiomarker to Fassett Street), Fassett Street (Miami Street to Oak Street), Oak Street (Fassett Street to Woodville Road), Woodville Road (turns into Clayton Street on the Anthony Wayne Bridge), Clayton Street (Woodville Road to Summit Street), Summit Street (Clayton Street to Craig Memorial Bridge), Craig Memorial Bridge (Summit Street to Front Street/I-280) ends at Interstate 280
  • SR 120 Central Avenue (Ottawa Hills, Ohiomarker and Sylvania Township, Lucas County, Ohiomarker to Cherry Street), Cherry Street (Central Avenue to Maumee River), ends at Maumee River
  • SR 184 Alexis Road (Sylvania Township, Lucas County, Ohiomarker to Interstate 75), ends at Interstate 75
  • SR 246 Dorr Street (Reynolds Road/US 20 to 17th Street), 17th Street (to Monroe Street), ends at Monroe Street

In addition to the above highways, the Ohio Turnpike carries long distance east-west traffic through the area on Interstate 80 and Interstate 90, and is the major east-west highway through the area. The Turnpike is connected to Toledo via highways leading to the city from 5 exits on the Turnpike (Exits 52, 59, 64, 71, and 81, although only Exits 59, 64, and 71 are signed on the Turnpike as leading to Toledo). The Turnpike connects Toledo to South Bendmarker and Chicagomarker to the West and Clevelandmarker to the East. While the Turnpike enters Lucas County and the city limits of Toledo, due to the fact that the 5 Toledo area exits are spaced widely apart (2 are in Lucas County, 2 are in Wood County, and 1 is in Ottawa County, with none of the 5 exits within the city limits of Toledo), the Turnpike itself has only a limited role in the local transportation infrastructure.

CN SD60-F sits in Toledo, Ohio


Toledo Express Airportmarker serves the city. For international flights and expanded destinations, the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airportmarker is a 50 minute drive north.

Rail transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Toledo under the Capitol Limited and the Lake Shore Limited. Both lines stop at Martin Luther King, Jr. Plaza marker which is the train station in Toledo.

Freight rail service in Toledo is operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX Transportation, Canadian National Railway, Ann Arbor Railroad, and Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway. All except the Wheeling have local terminals; The Wheeling operates into Toledo from the east through trackage rights on Norfolk Southern to connect with the Ann Arbor and the CN.

References in popular culture

  • John Denver sang a disparaging song about visiting Toledo entitled "Saturday Night In Toledo, Ohio" which was composed by Randy Sparks. It was written in 1967 when Sparks and his group arrived in Toledo at 10pm on a Saturday night, and found everything closed. The song was written as they drove down to Kansas City and their next gig.

Notable residents

Toledo has produced a number of famous artists, including actors Jamie Farr (as well as his character from M*A*S*H, Maxwell Q. Klinger) and Katie Holmes, musicians Tom Scholz and Scott Shriner, and jazz pianist Art Tatum. Famous writers and journalists from the city include P. J. O'Rourke and Gloria Steinem. Famous athletes include Baseball Hall of Fame members Roger Bresnahan and Addie Joss, U.S. boxing Olympian Devin Vargas, and professional basketball player John Amaechi.

Sister cities

Toledo linked with Toledo, Spainmarker as sister cities in 1931, creating the first Sister Cities relationship in North America. In total Toledo has eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI):

Toledo also has five "friendship cities":

See also


External links

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