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Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Mosellemarker department in north-eastern Francemarker.

It is a sub-prefecture of the department.

Geography

Toul is located between Commercymarker and Nancymarker, and situated between the Moselle Rivermarker and the Canal de la Marne au Rhinmarker.

History

Toul was known to the Romans as Tullum Leucorum, and was the capital of the Gaulish tribe of the Leuci.

In 612, King Theudebert II of Austrasia was defeated by King Theuderic II of Burgundy near Toul. By the Treaty of Meerssen of 870, Toul became part of East Francia, the later Holy Roman Empire. During the High Middle Ages, it became a Free Imperial City. Toul was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552; this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It then was a part of the French province of the Three Bishoprics.

During the siege of 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, the last time that Toul's defenses were used as a classical fortress, 64 guns opened fire at 6am on 23 September, and the fortress surrendered at 3pm after 2,433 shells had been fired.

Toul was the seat of the bishops of Toul; the diocese was founded around 365 and existed until 1807.

The city was also the primary base of the United States Air Service - predecessor to the United States Air Force - during World War I. As such, it was a base for many of the 45 war time squadrons including the squadrons of the 1st Pursuit Group, 1st Observation Group and others. The Americans referred to the area around Toul as the Toul Sector. Two large operations were launched from this area: the St. Mihiel offensive and the Meuse-Argonne offensive, both in September.

Sights

The most striking features are the impressive stone rampart. It is not known precisely when they were first built, but there appears to have been a fortified town at this location since the earliest recorded history. Today, the ramparts encircle and define the old town. They are built of dressed white stone, and topped with grass, and in places are over five metres high.

There is a great deal of Roman archæology in the area and allegedly some in the town. The Roman fortified town of Grandmarker is some 30 km away, with its great amphitheatre and temple to the Cult of Apollo.

The cathedral is a magnificent example of Gothic architecture.

Facade


The old town's architecture is dominated by past glories in various states of decay, including a major gothic cathedralmarker, which is in a poor condition and is being slowly restored. Many of the houses were built as canonical residences in the Late Middle Ages and bear vestiges in the form of ornamental stonework.

There is no trace of the monastery, however its wine-cellars still exist, under the shops on the North side of the Rue Gambetta. (Access is possible via the Camera Shop).

Transportation

Toul is at the intersection of the Moselle Rivermarker (which divides into the river proper and the Moselle Canalisée just outside the town) with the Canal de la Marne au Rhinmarker, and was once, consequently, an important port. The barges known as péniches still navigate these watercourses commercially, typically carrying steel, though in the summer much more of the water traffic is for pleasure.

There is a main-line railway station at Toul, the last major station before the (once vast, and still very large) marshalling yards at Nancymarker. However, the Paris-Strasbourg TGV line, now under construction, will pass about 20 km north of Toul, approximately mid-way between Metzmarker and Nancy. Its completion will likely reduce Toul's importance as a station.

Economy

The surrounding countryside is a wine-growing region, in which the AOC Côtes de Toul vintage is produced. Particularly notable is the Gris de Toul.

Administration

Toul is the seat of two cantons: Toul-Nord with a population of 27,102, and Toul-Sud with a population of 13,215. The following table shows the communes in each canton:

Toul-Nord Toul-Sud
Aingeraymarker Bicqueleymarker
Boucqmarker Blénod-lès-Toulmarker
Bouvronmarker Bullignymarker
Bruleymarker Charmes-la-Côtemarker
Dommartin-lès-Toulmarker Chaudeney-sur-Mosellemarker
Écrouvesmarker Choloy-Ménillotmarker
Fontenoy-sur-Mosellemarker Crézillesmarker
Fougmarker Domgermainmarker
Gondrevillemarker Gyemarker
Lagneymarker Mont-le-Vignoblemarker
Laneuveville-derrière-Fougmarker Moutrotmarker
Lay-Saint-Remymarker Ocheymarker
Luceymarker Pierre-la-Treichemarker
Ménil-la-Tourmarker Sexey-aux-Forgesmarker
Pagney-derrière-Barinemarker Villey-le-Secmarker
Sanzeymarker
Sexey-les-Boismarker
Trondesmarker


Twin towns

  • Hammmarker (GER) , since 1987


Notable people



See also



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