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The Toyota R family was a series of straight-4 engines produced from 1953 through 1995. It was designed for longitudinal use in such vehicles as the Celica and Cressida. OHC versions featured a chain-driven camshaft.

History of the R family

R

The 1.5 L (1453 cc) R family was produced from 1953 through 1964.

Bore was 77 mm (3.03 in) and stroke was 78 mm (3.07 in). In common with new engines of the time, it was made from cast iron (both the block and the head), water cooled, used a three bearing crank, 12V electrics and a side mounted gear-driven camshaft controlling overhead valves via pushrods in a non-cross flow head (exhaust and inlet manifolds being on the same side of the engine). Induction was by a twin throat down-draft carburettor, the compression ratio was 8.0:1 and the total weight was 155 kg. An LPG version, the R-LPG, was produced for the last two years.

The R engine was the Toyota engine used in the 1958 Toyota Crown, the first model to be exported to the United States. Road & Track was unimpressed with the engine on its introduction, noting that it idled quietly but was "not capable of very high revolutions per minute."

Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Years Comments
R 45 (60) at 4400 rpm 108 (79.5) & 2600 rpm 1953–1964
R-LPG 1962–1964 LPG


Applications:

2R

The 1.5 L (1490 cc) 2R family was produced from 1964 through 1969.

Again, an LPG version, the 2R-LPG, was produced alongside the gasoline version all five years.

Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Years Comments
2R 55 (74) at 5000 rpm 116 (85) at 2600 rpm 1964–1969
2R-LPG 1964–1969 LPG


3R

Toyota 3R-C
The 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R family was produced from 1959 through 1968.

When introduced it had a 7.7:1 compression ratio. In 1960 the 3R was uprated to 8:1 and the 3R-B version was offered from 1960 through 1968 with the old 7.7:1 compression ratio. The 3R-C was introduced to comply with Californian emissions laws. The 3R-LPG variant was made for the last five years.

Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Years Comments
3R 60 (80) at 4600 rpm 142 (105) at 2600 rpm 1959–1960 7.7 CR
3R 67 (90) at 5000 rpm 142 (105) at 3400 rpm 1960–1968 8.0 CR
3R-B 60 (80) at 4600 rpm 142 (105) at 2600 rpm 1960–1968 7.7 CR
3R-C emissions control - California
3R-LPG 1963–1968 LPG


Applications:

4R

The 1.6 L (1587 cc) 4R family was produced from 1965 through 1968.

Bore was 78 mm.

Applications:

5R

The 2.0 L (1994 cc) 5R family was produced from 1968 through 1986.

An LPG version, the 5R-LPG, was produced from 1968 through 1983.

It was a 2-valve OHV engine. Cylinder bore was 88 mm (3.46 in) and stroke was 82 mm (3.23 in).

Output was 106 hp (79 kW) at 5200 rpm and 125 ft·lbf (169 N·m) at 3000 rpm.

6R

The 1.7 L (1707 cc) 6R was produced from 1969 through 1974.

Output was 107hp at 5300 rpmThe 6R-B was produced those same years.

The 6R-LPG was produced from 1970 through 1973.

7R

The 1.6 L (1591 cc) 7R was produced from 1968 through 1971 with a twin throat down-draft carburettor.

The 7R-B was produced from 1968 through 1969 with dual SU carburettors and higher compression.

The 7R-LPG was produced from 1969 through 1970.

The 7R was similar in displacement and technology to the 4R except the wider 86 mm bore and shorter 68.5 mm stroke of the 7R gave different power characteristics.

Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Compression Years Comments
7R 63 (85) at 5500 rpm 123 (90) at 3800 rpm 8.5 1968–1971
7R-B 75 (100) at 6200 rpm 133 (98) at 4200 rpm 9.5 1968–1969 Dual SU carburettors
7R-LPG 1969–1971 LPG


Applications:

8R

The 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R The engine was produced from 1968 through 1973.

Cylinder bore was 85.9 mm (3.38 in) and stroke was 80 mm (3.15 in) with a five bearing crank.

It was also available as the 8R-D, dual SU 8R-B, EFI 8R-E, Californian-spec 8R-C and DOHC 8R-G.

It was a major departure for the R family. With a 2-valve SOHC head, it impressed contemporary reviewers - Road & Track praised its quietness and free-revving nature.

The Toyota upped the ante again with the DOHC (but still 2-valve) 8R-G, produced from 1969 through 1972. From 1969 to Feb 1971 it was known as the 10R.

Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Compression Years Comments
8R 81 (108) at 5500 rpm 153 (113) at 3800 rpm 9.0 1968–1972
8R-B 82 (110) at 6000 rpm 152 (112) at 4000 rpm 10.0 1969–1971 Dual SU carburettors
8R-D
8R-E EFI
8R-C 81 (108) at5500 rpm 174 (128) at 3600 rpm 9.0 Californian emissions controls
8R-G 104 (140) at 6400 rpm 166 (123) at 5200 rpm 1969–1972 DOHC, dual side-draft carburettors


Applications:

9R

The 1.6 L (1587 cc) 9R was produced from 1967 through 1968.

It was essentially a 4R with a DOHC head designed by Yamaha. The cam lobes activated the valves directly via a bucket over shim arrangement. This same arrangement was used on the 2M, 8R-G, 10R, 18R-G, 2T-G, 4A-GE and 3T-GTE engines (all designed by Yamaha).

Output was 110 hp (82 kW) at 6200 rpm and 101 ft·lbf (136 N·m) at 5000 rpm. It was a 2-valve DOHC design.

Applications:

10R

The 1.9 L (1858 cc) 10R was produced from 1967 through Feb 1971.In Feb 1971 it was renamed the 8R-G.Output was 140 hp (104 kW) at 6400 rpm and 123 ft·lbf (166 N·m) at 5200 rpm.

Applications:

12R

The 1.6 L (1587 cc) 12R was produced from 1969 through 1988.

Technical Specs (Finnish Owner's Manual from 1973 Corona Mark 1)

- Four cylinder, 4-stroke, OHV

- Bore & stroke: 80,5*78,0mm

- Compression ratio: 8,5:1

- Maximum power: 90hp/5400rpm SAE

The 12R-LPG, was produced from 1969 through 1983.

Technical Specs : 1975 59KW 80HP redline 4400Rpm

Applications:

16R

The 1.8 L (1808 cc) 16R was produced from 1974 through 1980.

The 16R-B was produced for the first two years.

18R

The 18R series shared a 2.0 L (1968 cc) block; cylinder bore was 88.5 mm (3.48 in) and stroke was 80 mm (3.15 in).

The 2 valve, SOHC versions were as follows:
Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Years Comments
18R 64–66 (86–89) 142–145 (105–107) 1971–1981
18R-C 72 (97) at 5500 rpm 143–145 (106–107) at 3600 rpm 1971–1981 emissions control - worldwide
18R-U 75 (100) at 5500 rpm 152 (112) at 3600 1975–1978 emissions control - Japan
18R-E 84 (113) at 5600 rpm 172 (127) at 4400 rpm 1974–1975 EFI, Japan only


Applications:

18R-G

The 2-valve DOHC 18R-G and its variations were produced from 1973 to 1982. While most 18R-Gs had a head designed and made by Yamaha, a very few had Toyota heads. Yamaha's tuning-fork logo can be seen on the Yamaha heads. Except for the head and related timing components, most parts were shared or interchangeable with the SOHC 18R.

In 1973, air injection was added to the Japan-market 18R-GR for improved emissions. A fuel injected Japan-market version, the 18R-GEU, was produced from 1978 through 1982.

Competition versions of the 18R-G and -GE include those used in rally Celicas of the period. Some of these engines had 4-valve heads and developed up to 240 HP (180 kW) of power.

Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Years Comments
18R-G 82–108 (110–145) at 6400 rpm 177 (131) at 5200 rpm 1973–1981
18R-GR 104 (140) at 6400 rpm 169 (124) at 4800 rpm 1973–1975 low compression for regular fuel
18R-GU 97 (130) at 6000 rpm 162 (119) at 4800 rpm 1975–1978 emissions control - Japan.
18R-GEU 101 (135) at 5800 rpm 172 (127) at 4400 rpm 1978–1982 EFI, emissions control (Japan).


Applications:

19R

The 2-valve SOHC 2.0 L (1968 cc) 19R was produced from 1974 through 1977.

Cylinder bore was 88.5 mm and stroke was 80 mm . The crank was shared with the 18R.

Applications:

20R

The 2-valve SOHC 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R was produced from 1975 through 1980.

Cylinder bore was 88.4 mm (3.48 in) and stroke was 88.9 mm (3.5 in). Aluminum alloy heads were used.

Initial output was 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 rpm (90 hp in Californiamarker) and 120 ft·lbf (162 N·m) at 2800 rpm. Power was down slightly from 1978 through 1979 at 95 hp (71 kW) at 4800 rpm and 122 ft·lbf (165 N·m) at 2400 rpm. The final version, from 1979 through 1980, was down again at 90 hp (67 kW) at 4800 rpm (95 HP Canada) and 122 ft·lbf (165 N·m) at 2400 rpm.

Applications:

21R

The 2-valve SOHC 2.0 L (1972 cc) 21R was produced from 1978 through 1987.

Cylinder bore was 84 mm (3.31 in) and stroke was 89 mm (3.5 in).

Output in 1978, constrained by emissions, was 105 hp (78 kW) at 5200 rpm and 116 ft·lbf (157 N·m) at 3600 rpm. Air injection and Californiamarker emissions equipment for the 21R-C (1982-1985) dropped power down to 90 hp (67 kW) at 5000 rpm. The air-injected Japanese version, the 21R-U, produced 105 hp (78 kW) at 5200 rpm and 120 ft·lbf (162 N·m) at 3600 rpm but dropped to 101 hp (75 kW) at 5400 rpm and 114 ft·lbf (154 N·m) at 4000 rpm in 1986.

22R

The 2-valve SOHC 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R was produced from 1981 through 1995.

Cylinder bore was 91.9 mm (3.62 in) and stroke was 88.9 mm (3.5 in).

Initial output was 97 hp (72 kW) at 4800 rpm and 129 ft·lbf (174 N·m) at 2800 rpm.

By 1990 the 22R was producing 108 hp (81 kW) at 5000 rpm and 138 ft·lbf (187 N·m) at 3400 rpm.

The first fuel injected 22R-E engines appeared in 1983.

Output of these engines is commonly rated at 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 rpm and 137 ft·lbf (185 N·m) at 2800 rpm.

In 1985, the engine was significantly reworked, output was up to 112 hp (84 kW) at 4600 rpm and 142 ft·lbf (192 N·m) at 3400 rpm. Many parts from the newer 22R-E are not compatible with those from the older pre-1985 engine. Non-compatible parts include the cylinder head, block, pistons and many of the associated parts such as the timing chain and cover, and water and oil pumps (although the oil pump internals are the same).These changes also affected the 22R, therefore one can consider the 85-95 22R-E as a fuel injected version of the 85-90 22R with only minor differences if any.

Toyota swapped the dual row timing chain used in older engines for a single row chain with plastic guides in 1983. This system reduced drag on the engine, but was inherently problematic. Every 80,000 to 140,000 miles, the chain stretches to the point that the hydraulic-operated chain tensioner can not take up any more slack. When this happens, the timing chain impacts driver's side chain guide, breaking the plastic within a few hundred miles of driving. If the engine continues to be operated after the guide breaks, the chain will stretch rapidly (an unfortunate characteristic of single row chains.) The loose chain causes inaccurate ignition timing which usually results in noticeable rough running. In continued operation, the chain can jump a tooth on the drive sprocket or break entirely, with either case resulting in engine damage from valve-piston collisions. Also, the stretched chain will slap against the side of the timing cover due to the broken guide, and can wear through the cover and into the coolant passage behind the water pump. This will cause coolant to drain in to the crankcase / oil pan, possibly causing damage to internal engine components such as the bearings, crankshaft, camshaft as well as damage caused by overheating due to the lack of coolant (since it has drained into the engine oil).

The turbocharged 22R-TE (sold from late 1985 through 1988) produced 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 rpm and 173 ft·lbf (234 N·m) at 2800 rpm.

However, its weakness is high-end power. Thus, most performance enthusiasts usually prefer the Toyota 18R-G, 2T-G, 4A-GE and 3S-GE 4-cylinder engines, The 22R has a bigger displacement and a strong block, but its comparatively long stroke limits its use in high revving applications.

The engines are extremely well known for their durability, decent fuel efficiency and good low to mid range torque.

A popular modification to the 22R is to use a 20R head. This has a smaller combustion chamber, giving a higher compression ratio which then allows more power to be developed. This is a simple bolt-on modification for the early, pre 1985, block. For the later, 1985 onwards, 22R block, further modifications are required.

Code Power kW (HP) Torque N·m (ft·lbf) Years Comments
22R 72 (97) at 4800 rpm 174 (129) & 2800 rpm 1981–1990 carb, dual row timing chain ('81-'82)carb, single row timing chain ('83-'90)
22R 81 (108) at 5000 rpm 187 (138) & 3400 rpm 1990–1995
22R-E 78 (105) at 4800 rpm 185 (137) & 2800 rpm 1983–1984 EFI, single row timing chain
22R-E 84 (112) at 4600 rpm 192 (142) & 3400 rpm 1985–1995 EFI, single row timing chain
22R-TE 101 (135) at 4800 rpm 234 (173) & 2800 rpm 1986–1988 turbocharged, single row timing chain


Applications:

References

  1. Corona 1500 Parts Catalog, No.53282-67
  2. Toyota Corona Deluxe, Parts Catalog, No.53212-68


See also




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