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The Metropolitan Borough of Trafford is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchestermarker, England. It has a population of 211,800, covers , and includes the towns of Altrinchammarker, Partingtonmarker, Salemarker, Stretfordmarker, and Urmstonmarker.

The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 as a merger of the municipal boroughs of Altrincham, Salemarker, and Stretfordmarker, the urban districts of Bowdonmarker, Halemarker, and Urmstonmarker and part of Bucklow Rural Districtmarker. All were previously in Cheshiremarker, apart from Stretford and Urmston which were in Lancashiremarker. The River Merseymarker flows through the borough, separating North Trafford from South Trafford. Historically the Mersey also acted as the boundary between the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire.

The Trafford area has a long heritage, with evidence of Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Roman activity. Amongst the relics of the past are two castles – one of them a Scheduled Ancient Monument – and over 200 listed buildings. The area underwent change in the late 19th century and the population rapidly expanded with the arrival of the railway. Trafford is the home of Manchester United F.C. and Lancashire County Cricket Club and since 2002 the Imperial War Museum Northmarker.

Trafford has a strong economy with low levels of unemployment and contains both Trafford Parkmarker industrial estate and the Trafford Centremarker, a large out-of-town shopping centre. Apart from the City of Manchestermarker, Trafford is the only borough in Greater Manchester to be above the national average for weekly income. Socially, the area includes both working class areas like Old Traffordmarker and Stretfordmarker and middle class ones like Bowdonmarker and Halemarker. Altrincham and Sale Westmarker is the only parliamentary constituency in Greater Manchester to be held by the Conservative Party. Trafford has the best record for education in Greater Manchester.

History

The choice of the name Trafford for the borough was a "compromise between Altrincham, Stretford and Sale", and "seemed to have wide support". A Liberal councillor for the Municipal Borough of Salemarker suggested "Crossford ... as Trafford meant slums and factories", whilst "Watlingford" was suggested by councillors in Hale, after the supposed name of an ancient Roman road in the district. Those names were rejected in favour of Trafford, because of the district's "famous sports venue, a major employer as well as historic associations", referring to Old Traffordmarker, Trafford Parkmarker and the de Trafford Baronets respectively.

As a place name, Trafford is an Anglo-French version of Stratford, deriving from the Old English words stræt (a street, more specifically a Roman road) and ford (a river crossing). The Metropolitan Borough of Trafford has existed since 1974, but the area it covers has a long history. Neolithic arrowheads have been discovered in Altrinchammarker and Salemarker, and there is evidence of Bronze Age habitation in Timperleymarker. Fragments of Roman pottery have been found in Urmstonmarker, and Roman coins have been found in Sale. The Roman road between the legionary fortresses at Chestermarker (Deva Victrixmarker) and Yorkmarker (Eboracummarker) crosses Trafford, passing through Stretford, Sale, and Altrincham. The settlements in Trafford have been based largely around agriculture, although Altrincham was probably founded as a market town. Although the Industrial Revolution affected Trafford, the area did not experience the same rate of growth as the rest of Greater Manchestermarker. A 100% increase in population in the Trafford area between 1841 and 1861 was a direct result of an influx due to the construction of the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway, which allowed residents to more easily commute from Trafford into Manchester. The area developed its own centres of industry in Broadheathmarker (founded in 1885) and Trafford Parkmarker (founded in 1897). They have since declined, although Trafford Park still employs 40–50,000 people. Today, Trafford is mostly a commuter area. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 as one of the ten metropolitan districts of Greater Manchester.

Geography

The metropolitan boroughs of the City of Salfordmarker and the City of Manchestermarker border Trafford to the north and east respectively; the Cheshire East area of Cheshiremarker lies to the south. The geology of South Trafford is Keuper marl with some Keuper waterstone and sandstone, whilst the geology of North Trafford is Bunter sandstone. The River Merseymarker runs east to west through the area, separating North Trafford from South Trafford; other rivers in Trafford include the Bollinmarker, the River Irwell, Sinderland Brook, and Crofts Bank Brook. The Bridgewater Canal, opened in 1761 and completed in 1776, follows a course through Trafford roughly north to south and passes through Stretford, Sale, and Altrincham. The Manchester Ship Canal, opened in 1894, forms part of Trafford's northern and western boundaries with Salfordmarker.

Trafford is generally flat, with most of the land lying between and above sea level, apart from Bowdon Hill in South Trafford which rises above sea level. The lowest point in Trafford, near Warburtonmarker, is above sea level. There are areas of mossland in low lying areas: Warburton Moss, Dunham Moss, and Hale Moss. Greenspace accounts for 51.8% of Trafford’s total area, domestic buildings and gardens comprise 25.6%, the rest is made up of roads and non-domestic buildings.

Localities within the boundaries of Trafford include:

North Trafford: Cornbrookmarker, Davyhulmemarker, Firswoodmarker, Flixtonmarker, Gorse Hillmarker, Lostock, Old Traffordmarker, Stretfordmarker, Trafford Parkmarker and Urmstonmarker.

South Trafford: Altrinchammarker, Ashton-Upon-Merseymarker, Bowdonmarker, Broadheathmarker, Brooklandsmarker, Carringtonmarker, Dunham Masseymarker, Halemarker, Hale Barnsmarker, Oldfield Brow, Partingtonmarker, Salemarker, Sale Moor, Timperleymarker, Warburtonmarker and West Timperley.

Governance

Parliamentary constituencies

The residents of Trafford Metropolitan Borough are represented in the British Parliamentmarker by Members of Parliament (MPs) for three separate parliamentary constituencies. Altrincham and Sale Westmarker is represented by Graham Brady MP (Conservative). This is one of only a small number of seats in the North West held by the Conservative Party, and the only one in Greater Manchester. Stretford and Urmstonmarker is represented by Beverley Hughes MP (Labour). Wythenshawe and Sale Eastmarker, which also covers parts of the City of Manchestermarker, is represented by Paul Goggins MP (Labour). Trafford is part of the North West England constituency in the European Parliamentmarker. North West England elects nine MEPs, as at 2009 made up of three Conservatives, two from the Labour Party, one Liberal Democrat, and one member of the United Kingdom Independence Party and one for the British National Party.

Council

In 1974, Trafford Council was created to administer the newly formed Trafford Metropolitan Borough. Trafford's centre of administration is Trafford Town Hall – named Stretford Town Hall before 1974 – designated a Grade II listed building in 2007. On its formation in 1974, the council was controlled by the Conservative Party; the Conservatives have been in control 1973–85, 1988–94, and 2004 to the present. The only time the Labour Party was in control was 1996–2002. The rest of the time were periods of no overall control. The council meets to decide policy and allocate budget. Its duties include setting levels of council tax, monitoring the health service in Trafford, providing social care, and providing funding for schools. David Higgins is Mayor of Trafford for 2009–10.

Trafford Council was assessed by the Audit Commission and judged to be "improving strongly" in providing services for local people. Overall the council was awarded "three star" status meaning it was "performing well" and "consistently above minimum requirements", similar to 46% of all local authorities. In 2008–09, Trafford council had a budget of £150.5 million. This was collected from council tax (57%) and government grants (43%). The council spent £31.8 million on children and young people's services (21%); £60.1 million on community services and social care (40%); £34.4 million on "prosperity, planning, and development" (23%); and £33.8 million on customer and corporate services (22%).

Civil parishes form the bottom tier of local government; the parish councils are involved in planning, management of town and parish centres, and promoting tourism. In 2001, 8,484 people lived in Trafford's four civil parishes, 4.0% of the borough's population.

• Retrieved on 14 September 2007.

• Retrieved on 25 September 2007.

• Retrieved on 31 August 2007. The civil parishes are: Carrington, Dunham Massey, Partington (Town), and Warburton; they were all previously part of Bucklow Rural Districtmarker. A rural district was a type of local government district for the administration of predominantly rural areas. The rest of Trafford is unparished. The unparished areas are: Altrincham (Municipal Borough), Bowdon (Urban District), Hale (Urban District), Sale (Municipal Borough), Stretford (Municipal Borough), and Urmston (Urban District). The status of each area prior to 1974 is shown in brackets. An urban district was a type of local government district which covered an urbanised area.

Party political make-up of Trafford Council
   Party Seats Current Council (2008–09)
2007 2008
  Conservative 39 39                                                                                                                              
  Labour 20 19                                                                                                                              
  Lib Dems 4 5                                                                                                                              


Electoral wards

There are 21 electoral wards in Trafford, each with 3 councillors, giving a total of 63 councillors with one-third elected three years out of four. In the following table, the populations for each ward are based on 2006 population estimates.

Ward name Localities covered (approximate) Population Ref.
Altrinchammarker Altrincham, Broadheath, and Oldfield Brow 9,570
Ashton upon Merseymarker Ashton upon Mersey and Sale 9,519
Bowdonmarker Altrincham, Bowdon, Dunham Masseymarker, and Warburtonmarker 8,806
Broadheathmarker Altrincham, Broadheath, Sale, Timperley, and West Timperley 10,601
Brooklandsmarker Brooklands and Sale 9,773
Bucklow-St. Martins Ashton upon Mersey, Carringtonmarker, and Partingtonmarker 9,655
Clifford Old Traffordmarker 10,106
Davyhulme East Davyhulmemarker and Urmston 10,414
Davyhulme West Davyhulme and Flixton 9,595
Flixtonmarker Flixton 10,796
Gorse Hillmarker Gorse Hill and Stretford 10,306
Hale Barnsmarker Halemarker, Hale Barns and Timperley 9,143
Hale Central Altrincham and Hale 9,100
Longford Firswoodmarker, Old Trafford, and Stretford 11,357
Priory Sale 9,439
St. Mary's Ashton upon Mersey and Sale 11,160
Sale Moor Sale and Sale Moor 9,899
Stretfordmarker Stretford 10,334
Timperleymarker Brooklands and Timperley 10,666
Urmstonmarker Flixton and Urmston 10,159
Village Brooklands and Timperley 9,747
Trafford All 211,800


Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Trafford Metropolitan Borough Council
The coat of arms of Trafford depicts a griffin on a shield flanked by two unicorns. The line bisecting the shield horizontally symbolises the River Merseymarker running through Trafford from east to west and the canals in the borough. The griffin is split into two parts; the lower part – the white legs of a lion on a red background – represent the parts of Trafford previously controlled by the De Massey family, and the upper part – the red body and head of an eagle on a white background – represents the parts of Trafford previously controlled by the De Traffords. Both elements were taken from the coats of arms of the respective families. The fist holding bolts of lightning represents Stretford and the electrical industry; the cog on the arm represents Altrincham's engineering industry. The unicorns stand for Sale and Altrincham. The oak branches represent Urmston and symbolise the rural areas of Trafford.

Demography

Trafford compared
2001 UK Census Trafford Greater Manchester England
Population 210,145 2,514,757 49,138,831
White 91.6% 91.2% 90.9%
Asian 4.0% 5.6% 4.6%
Black 2.0% 1.2% 2.3%


As of the 2001 UK census, the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford had a total population of 210,145.Of the 89,313 households in Trafford, 36.5% were married couples living together, 31.6% were one-person households, 7.8% were co-habiting couples and 9.7% were lone parents, following a similar trend to the rest of England.

The population density was and for every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Trafford, 24.7% had no academic qualifications, significantly lower than the 28.9% in all of England. 8.2% of Trafford’s residents were born outside the United Kingdom, lower than the English average of 9.2%. The largest minority group was Asian, at 4.0% of the population.

In 1841, 11.6% of Trafford's population was middle class compared to 14% in England and Wales; this increased to 21.2% in 1931 (15% nationally) and 54.8% in 2001 (48% nationally). From 1841 to 1951, the working class population of Trafford and across the country was in decline, falling steadily from 42.7% to 18% (36% to 29% nationally). It has since increased slightly, up to 27.2% (26% nation-wide). The rest of the population was made up of clerical workers and skilled manual workers. As of the 2007/2008 financial year, the crime rates in Trafford for violence against a person and sexual offences were below the national averages. However, the rate of robberies were above the national average.

Population change

The table below details the population change since 1801, including the percentage change since the last census 10 years earlier. Although Trafford has only existed as a Metropolitan Borough since 1974, figures have been generated by combining data from the towns, villages, and civil parishes that would later be constituent parts of Trafford. The greatest percentage change in the population occurred between 1851 and 1871, and was a result of the construction of the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway in 1849. The decrease by 7.7% in Trafford's population since the 1971 census mirrors the trend for Greater Manchester, although on a smaller scale; this has been accounted for by the decline of Greater Manchester's industries, particularly those in Manchestermarker and Salfordmarker but including those in Trafford, and residents leaving, seeking new jobs.
Population growth in Trafford since 1801
Year 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Population 9,760 11,197 12,697 13,725 17,474 21,896 35,588 49,280 62,971 76,672 94,830 117,289 135,163 155,760 178,385 204,302 215,714 227,792 221,000 215,785 210,145
% change +14.7 +13.4 +8.1 +27.3 +25.3 +62.5 +38.5 +27.8 +21.8 +23.7 +23.7 +15.2 +15.2 +14.5 +14.5 +5.6 +5.6 −3.0 −2.4 −2.6
Source: A Vision of Britain through Time


Economy

Historically, the economy of the Trafford area has been dominated by agriculture. This continued to some extent even during the Industrial Revolution, when textile industry in the Trafford area did not develop as quickly or to the same extent as it did in the rest of Greater Manchestermarker. Only two known 18th-century mill sites are in Trafford, compared with 69 known in Tameside and 51 in Manchestermarker. Despite reaching a high of 43% in 1812, employment in the textile industry in Trafford declined to 12% according to the 1851 census. The textile industry in Trafford could not compete with that in places such as Manchestermarker, Oldhammarker, and Ashton-under-Lynemarker, partly because of a reluctance to invest in industry on the part of the two main land owners in the area: the Stamfords and the de Traffords.

Trafford Parkmarker was founded in 1897, and at its peak in 1945 employed 75,000 people. As well as being the world's first planned industrial estate, it is Europe's largest business park. More than 1,400 companies are within the park, employing between 40,000 and 50,000 people.

The Trafford Centremarker, which opened on 10 September 1998, is North West England's largest indoor shopping complex. The centre has over 30 million visitors annually, and contains 235 stores, 55 restaurants, and the largest Odeon cinema in the UK.

Trafford compared
2001 UK Census Trafford Greater Manchester England
Population of working age 151,445 1,805,315 35,532,091
Full time employment 43.4% 40.3% 40.8%
Part time employment 11.9% 11.3% 11.8%
Self employed 8.0% 6.7% 8.3%
Unemployed 2.7% 3.5% 3.3%
Retired 13.9% 13.0% 13.5%
Trafford is a prosperous area, with an average weekly income of £394, and apart from Manchester it is the only borough in Greater Manchestermarker to be above the national average for weekly income and is on average the highest in the county. Media, advertising and public relations have been identified as growth industries in Greater Manchester and are concentrated in Manchestermarker and Trafford. Average house prices in Trafford are the highest out of all the metropolitan boroughs in Greater Manchester, 45% higher than the average for the county.

As of the 2001 UK census, Trafford had 151,445 residents aged 16 to 74. 2.5% of these people were students with jobs, 5.7% looking after home or family, 5.4% permanently sick or disabled and 2.8% economically inactive for other reasons. Trafford has a low rate of unemployment (2.7%) compared with Greater Manchester (3.6%) and England as a whole (3.3%).

In 2001, of 99,146 residents of Trafford in employment, the industry of employment was 17.1% property and business services, 16.5% retail and wholesale, 12.3% manufacturing, 11.9% health and social work, 8.2% education, 8.0% transport and communications, 5.9% construction, 5.5% finance, 4.5% public administration and defence, 4.0% hotels and restaurants, 0.8% energy and water supply, 0.6% agriculture, and 4.6% other. This was roughly in line with national figures, except for the proportion of jobs in agriculture which is less than half the national average, reflecting Trafford's suburban nature and its proximity to the centre of Manchester.

Culture

Landmarks

As of March 2007, Trafford has 6 Grade I, 11 Grade II*, and 228 Grade II listed buildings. Trafford has the equal second highest number of Grade I listed buildings out of the districts of Greater Manchestermarker behind Manchestermarker. Most of Trafford's Grade I listed buildings are in the south of the borough: the old Church of St. Werburghmarker in Warburton; Dunham Massey Hallmarker itself, and the stables and carriage house belonging to the hall; Royd Housemarker in Hale; and the Church of All Saintsmarker in Urmston in the north of the borough. Trafford has three of Greater Manchester’s 21 Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Brookheys Covertmarker is a semi-natural wood consisting mainly of ash, birch, and rowan, with a wetland habitat covering in Dunham Masseymarker. Cotteril Cloughmarker is an area of woodland that is among the most diverse in Greater Manchester. Dunham Parkmarker is an area of “pasture-woodland or park-woodland” and has been since the Middle Ages, including many oak trees that date back to the 17th century, and covers . Also in Trafford are many parks and open spaces; there are of greenspace, 51.8% of the total area covered by the borough. Tourist attractions in Trafford include Old Trafford football groundmarker and Old Trafford Cricket Groundmarker.

Chill Factoremarker is an indoor ski slope in Trafford Park. It features the UK's longest and widest real snow indoor slope, wide and long.

Dunham Massey Hall and Parkmarker is an 18th-century hall with a deer park, both now owned by the National Trust and previously owned by the Earls of Stamford. The hall is early Georgian in style. The hall and grounds are open to the public and are a popular tourist attraction, with over 110,000 visitors in 2006.

Imperial War Museum Northmarker is a war museum in Trafford Park and was opened in 2002. The museum won the 2003 British Construction Industry Building Award, and the title of Large Visitor Attraction of the Year at the 2006 Manchester Tourism Awards.

Sale Water Parkmarker is a area of countryside and parkland including a artificial lake created when the M60 motorwaymarker was built. The water park is the site of the Broad Ees Dole wildlife refuge, a Local Nature Reserve that provides a home for migratory birds.

Timperley Old Hallmarker is a medieval moated site in Timperley near Altrincham Municipal Golf Course. Excavation on the site over a period of 18 years has shown Timperley to be inhabited since the Bronze Age. A grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund has been made to develop the site into a community project.

Trafford has two medieval castles. Dunham Castlemarker is an early medieval castle in Dunham Massey. It belonged to Hamon de Massey, and was probably still standing in the early 14th century. The bailey was landscaped into the grounds of Dunham Massey Hall and its moat turned into an ornamental pond. Watch Hill Castlemarker is an early medieval motte-and-bailey castle on the border of Dunham Massey and Bowdon. It is listed as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The motte and surrounding ditch still survives, although it had fallen out of use by the 13th century.

Sport

Trafford is the home of several major sports teams, including Manchester United Football Club and Lancashire County Cricket Club (LCCC). Manchester United began as Newton Heath L&YR F.C. in 1878. The team plays at Old Traffordmarker football ground, which is sometimes used as a stadium for international matches. Manchester United have won the Premier League 18 times and the FA Cup 11 times. They last won the Premier League in 2008–09. LCCC started as the Manchester Cricket Club, and represents the historic county of Lancashiremarker. The club contested the original 1890 County Championship. Old Trafford Cricket Groundmarker – Lancashire's home ground – stages international matches, including Test matches and One Day Internationals. The team has won the county championship eight times and in 2008 finished in fifth place.

Also in the top division of their sports are Sale Sharks, who play rugby union. From 2009, Manchester Phoenix, who play home games at the Altrincham Ice Domemarker, are members of the English Premier Ice Hockey Leaguethe unofficial 2nd teir of British Ice Hockey. The club was formed in 2003 as the successor to Manchester Storm and was one of the founder members of the Elite Ice Hockey League. In 2008–09 they finished sixth in the Elite Ice Hockey League. The Trafford Metros are the Phoenix's junior side and are also based at the Altrincham Ice Dome. Rugby Union side Sale Sharks were formerly based in Trafford and although they now play at Edgeley Parkmarker in Stockportmarker, they retain their name from when they were based at Heywood Road in Sale; their former home-ground Road is still used as the team's training ground. Sale Sharks won the Guinness Premiership in 2006; in 2008–09 they finished fifth.

As well as being home to several clubs in the top echelon of their sports, Trafford plays host to smaller clubs, including Altrincham F.C., Flixton F.C.marker, and Trafford F.C.. Both Flixton F.C. and Trafford F.C. play in the North West Counties Football League Division One. Flixton F.C. was formed in 1960 and earned promotion to NWCF Division One at the end of the 2006–07 season. Trafford F.C. was formed in 1990 and finished fifth in the 2006–07 season. Altrincham F.C. was founded in 1903 and plays in the Football Conference.

Education

There are 73 primary schools in Trafford, 17 secondary and grammar schools, and 6 special schools. Trafford maintains a selective education system, with grammar schools, assessed by the Eleven Plus exam. Trafford Collegemarker, a £29M "super college" in Stretford, is the only college of further education in Trafford. It was officially opened in 2008, following a merger between South Trafford College and North Trafford College. Overall, Trafford was ranked 3rd out of all of the Local Education Authorities in National Curriculum assessment performance in 2007. Absences from Trafford secondary schools in 2006–07, authorised and unauthorised, were 5.6% and 0.8% respectively, both lower than the national average (6.4% and 1.4%). From the 2007 GCSE results, the Trafford LEA was ranked 5th out of 148 in the country – and first in Greater Manchester – based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least 5 A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English (60.8% compared with the national average of 46.7%).

From the 2007 GCSE results and A-level results, Altrincham Grammar School for Girls was the most successful secondary school in Trafford, with 100% of pupils gaining five or more GCSEs at A*–C grade including maths and English. At A-level, Altrincham Grammar Schools for Girls was the 39th most successful school in the country. St. Ambrose Collegemarker is undergoing a £17M rebuild of the school on the current school grounds in Hale Barns.

Religion

Religion in Trafford
2001 UK Census Trafford North West England England
Population 210,145 6,729,764 49,138,831
Christian 75.8% 78.0% 71.7%
Muslim 3.3% 3.0% 3.1%
Jewish 1.1% 0.4% 0.5%
No religion 12.0% 10.5% 14.6%
As of the 2001 UK census, 75.8% of Trafford's residents reported themselves as being Christian, 3.3% Muslim, 1.1% Jewish, 0.6% Hindu, 0.2% Buddhist and 0.5% Sikh. The census recorded 12.0% as having no religion, 0.2% had an alternative religion and 6.4% did not state their religion. Trafford is covered by the Catholic Dioceses of Shrewsburymarker and Salfordmarker, and the Church of England Dioceses of Manchestermarker and Chestermarker.

There are two Grade I listed churches in Trafford: St. Werburgh's Churchmarker, in Warburton, is a timber framed church and dates back to at least the 14th century; All Saints' Churchmarker, in Urmston, was constructed in 1868 by E. W. Pugin, and is considered to be one of his best works. Of the 11 Grade II* listed buildings in Trafford, seven are churches: Hale Chapel in Hale; the Church of St John the Divine in Sale; Church of St Mary the Virginmarker in Bowdon; St. Martin's Church in Sale; St. Michael's Church in Flixton; St. Margaret’s Church in Altrincham; St. George’s Church in Carrington.

In 2007, the Church of Scientology bought the Old Trafford Essence Distillery on Chester Road for a reported £3.6M. The Church stated that it had plans to turn the Victorian building into a place of worship and religious instruction. The original plans were rejected by Trafford Council, but the Church stated its intention to revise the proposals and resubmit.

Transport

The Manchester Metrolink runs generally north–south through Trafford, with its southern terminus in Altrincham; it serves Cornbrookmarker, Trafford Bar, Old Trafford, Stretford, Dane Road, Sale, Brooklands, Timperleymarker, Navigation Roadmarker, and Altrinchammarker. The line opened in 1992 and replaced the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway. The other railways in Trafford are the Liverpool and Manchester Railway and the Cheshire Lines Committee. The Trafford Park Euroterminal rail freight terminal was opened in 1993. It cost £11 million and has the capacity to deal with 100,000 containers a year.

The council is responsible for the maintenance of Trafford's roads and pavements. In November 2007, Trafford council announced an increased investment in "maintaining and improving the borough's highways" by £3M to £6.5M. The money will provide for the resurfacing of about of road. Part of the M60marker orbital motorway passes through Trafford, from junctions 6–10 inclusive.

A range of bus services provide connections between various towns in the borough and links to the city centre, and other urban areas of Greater Manchester and Cheshire. Operators include Stagecoach Manchester, Arriva North West, Finglands as well as smaller operators, who generally run services under contract to GMPTE. Trafford Cycle Forum was established to promote cycling in Trafford; the group actively campaigns to raise money for cycling in the borough.

See also



References

Notes

  1. Retrieved on 17 December 2007.
  2. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  3. .
  4. Nevell (1997), pp. 12–13.
  5. Faulkner (2004), pp. 1–5.
  6. Nevell (1997), pp. 17, 20, 75.
  7. Nevell (1997), p. 51.
  8. Nevell (1997), pp. 90–91.
  9. Nevell (1997), pp. 127, 131.
  10. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  11. Retrieved on 12 December 2007.
  12. HMSO. Local Government Act 1972. 1972 c.70
  13. Nevell (1997), pp. 3, 10, 94.
  14. Nevell (1997), p. 125.
  15. Bayliss (1996), p. 2.
  16. Retrieved on 13 February 2008.
  17. Retrieved on 6 February 2008.
  18. Retrieved on 4 August 2007.
  19. Retrieved on 6 January 2008.
  20. Retrieved on 23 February 2008.
  21. Retrieved on 6 December 2007.
  22. Retrieved on 6 January 2008.
  23. Retrieved on 6 January 2008.
  24. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  25. Retrieved on 26 June 2009.
  26. Retrieved on 11 April 2008.
  27. Retrieved on 26 January 2008.
  28. Retrieved on 3 May 2007.
  29. Retrieved on 3 May 2008.
  30. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  31. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  32. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  33. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  34. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  35. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  36. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  37. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  38. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  39. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  40. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  41. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  42. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  43. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  44. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  45. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  46. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  47. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  48. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  49. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  50. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  51. Retrieved on 20 January 2008.
  52. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  53. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  54. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  55. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  56. Retrieved on 21 December 2007.
  57. Retrieved on 27 June 2009.
  58. Retrieved on 22 February 2008.
  59. Nevell (1997), pp. 88–91
  60. Nevell (1997), pp. 130–131
  61. Nicholls (1996), p. xiii.
  62. Retrieved on 12 December 2007.
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