is a railborne
, of lighter weight and construction than a conventional
, designed for the transport of
passengers (and, very occasionally, freight
) within, close to, or between
villages, towns and/or cities, on tracks running primarily on
streets. Certain types of cable car
also known as trams.
The Silesian Interurbans
the Melbourne network
to be the largest tram networks in the world. During a while in the
1980s the world's largest tram system was in Leningrad
, USSR, being included in
Guinness World Records
Other large systems include Amsterdam, Basel, and Zurich. Until the
system started to be converted to trolleybus (and later bus) in the
1930s, the first-generation London network was also one of the
world's largest, with of route in 1934.
Tramways with tramcars (or street railways with streetcars: US)
were common throughout the industrialised world in the late 19th
and early 20th centuries but they had disappeared from most
British, Canadian, French and U.S. cities by the mid-20th
By contrast, trams in parts of
continued to be used by many cities,
although there were contractions in some countries, including the
Since 1980 trams have returned to favour in many places, partly
because their tendency to dominate the highway, formerly seen as a
disadvantage, is now considered to be a merit. New systems have
been built in the United States, Great Britain, Ireland, France and
many other countries.
Tramways are now included in the wider term "light rail
", which also includes segregated
systems. Some systems have both segregated and street-running
sections, but are usually then referred to as trams, because it is
the equipment for street-running which tends to be the decisive
factor. Vehicles on wholly segregated light rail systems are
generally called trains, although cases have been known of "trains"
built for a segregated system being sold on to new owners and
Etymology and terminology
The terms tram
and Northern English
words for the type of
truck used in coal mines
and the tracks
on which they ran, probably derived from the North Sea Germanic
unknown origin meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge,
also the barrow itself.
have been adopted by
many languages, they are not used universally in English, North
Americans preferring trolley
. The term streetcar
is first recorded
in 1860. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of
trolleycars or later, trolleys, believed to derive from the
, a four-wheeled device that was dragged along dual
overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of
the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires
, sometimes simply strung,
sometimes on a catenary
, which supplanted the
troller early on, is fitted to the top of the car and is
spring-loaded in order to keep the trolley wheel or skate, at the
top of the pole, firmly in contact with the overhead wire. The
terms trolley pole
and trolley wheel
from the troller. Trams are generally powered through a single
trolley wheel and pole, grounded through the wheels and rails. The
motor circuit is designed to allow electrical current to flow
through the underframe.
Although this use of "trolley" for tram was not adopted in Europe,
the term did appear with "trolleybus": a rubber tyred vehicle
without tracks which draws its power from overhead wires.
Modern trolleys often use a metal shoe with a carbon insert instead
of a trolley wheel, or have a pantograph
. In North America, trams are
sometimes called trolleys, even though strictly this may be
incorrect: for example, cable cars, or conduit cars
that draw power from an underground
made to look like streetcars are
sometimes called trolleys in the U.S. (tourist trolley
). Open, low-speed segmented
vehicles on rubber tires, generally used to ferry tourists short
distances, can be called trams, for example on the Universal Studios backlot
Electric buses, which use twin trolley poles (one for live current,
one for return) but have wheels with tyres rolling on a hard
surface rather than tracks, are called trolleybuses
(particularly in the U.S.), or sometimes (in the UK)
first tram was on the Swansea and Mumbles Railway in
south Wales, UK; it was
horse-drawn at first, and later moved by steam and electric
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British
Parliament in 1804, and the first passenger railway (similar to
streetcars in the US some 30 years later) started operating in
1807.The first streetcars, also known as horsecars
in North America, were built in the
United States and developed from city stagecoach
lines and omnibus
lines that picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route
without the need to be pre-hired. These trams were an animal railway
, usually using horses
and sometimes mules
the cars, usually two as a team. Occasionally other animals were
put to use, or humans in emergencies. The first streetcar
line, developed by Irish-American John Stephenson, was the
New York and Harlem
Railroad's Fourth Avenue Line
which ran along the
Bowery and Fourth
Avenue in New York City.
Service began in 1832.
followed in 1835 by New Orleans, Louisiana, which has the oldest continuously operating street
railway system in the world, according to the American Society of
Magnus Volk constructed his 2-ft gauge Volk's Electric
Railway along the eastern seafront at Brighton,
This 2-km line, re-gauged to 2ft 9ins in 1884,
remains in service to this day, and is the oldest operating
electric tramway in the world
The first electric street tramway in Britain, the Blackpool Tramway
, was opened on 29
September 1885 using conduit collection along Blackpool Promenade.
After 1960, this remained the only first-generation operational
tramway in the UK; it is open yet.
trams probably ran in Budapest from 1887 while
Bucharest and Belgrade. ran a
regular service from 1894 and Sarajevo from
At first the rails
street level, causing accidents and problems for pedestrians. They
were supplanted in 1852 by grooved rails
or girder rails
, invented by
. Loubat, inspired by
Stephenson, built the first tramline in Paris,
France. The 2 km line was inaugurated on 21
November 1853, in connection with the 1855 World Fair, running on a
trial basis from Place de la Concorde to Pont de
Sèvres and later to the village of Boulogne.
The Toronto streetcar system
is one of
the few in North America still operating in the classic style on
street trackage shared with car traffic, where streetcars stop on
demand at frequent stops like buses rather than having fixed
stations. Known as Red Rockets because of their colour, they have
been operating since the mid-19th century - horsecar
service started in 1861 and electric
service in 1892.
Horses to electric power
As many city streets were not paved at that time, normal carriages
pulled by horses were often hindered by wet, muddy, or snowy
conditions. One of the advantages of the horsecar tram
over earlier forms of transit was the
low rolling resistance
wheels on steel
rails, allowing animals to
haul a greater load for a given effort even in poor weather
conditions. Problems included the fact that each animal could only
work so many hours per day, had to be housed, groomed, fed and
cared for day in and day out, and produced prodigious amounts of
, which the streetcar company had to
dispose of. Since a typical horse pulled a car for perhaps a dozen
miles a day and worked for four or five hours, many systems needed
ten or more horses for each horsecar. Electric trams largely
replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
New York City closed its last horsecar line in 1917. The last regular
mule-drawn streetcar in the U.S., in Sulphur Rock,
Arkansas, closed in 1926.
During World War II some
old horse cars were temporarily returned to service to help
conserve fuel. A mule-powered line in Celaya, Mexico,
operated until 1956. Horse-drawn trams still operate as a tourist
attraction along the promenade in Douglas, Isle of Man. There is also a small line on Main Street at
Disney World, outside Orlando, Florida. A horse-drawn service
1300m long operates every 40 minutes at Victor
Harbor, South Australia daily, with 20-minute services during tourist
seasons, between the mainland and Granite Island across a 630m
It uses double deck trams, and Clydesdale horses,
and runs year round.
subsequently developed in numerous cities, including London, Southampton, Berlin, Paris, Seoul, Kyoto, Tokyo, Hong Kong and Melbourne.
Faster and more comfortable than the
omnibus, trams had a high cost of operation because they were
pulled by horses. That is why mechanical drives were rapidly
developed, with steam power
in 1873, and
after 1881, when Siemens
presented the electric drive at the
The convenience and economy of electricity resulted in its rapid
adoption once the technical problems of production and transmission
of electricity were solved. As early as 1834, Thomas Davenport
, a Vermont
blacksmith, had invented a battery-powered electric motor which he
later patented. The following year he used it to operate a small
model electric car on a short section of track four feet in
diameter. The first prototype of the electric tram was developed by
Russian engineer Fyodor Pirotsky
who modified a horse tram to be powered by electricity.
invention was tested in 1880 in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
In 1881, Werner von Siemens
opened the world's
first electric tram line
Lichterfelde near Berlin, Germany. For some time the German word
for tram was simply "die Elektrische".
Parallel developments were occurring during the same period in the
United States where Frank
contributed to inventions including a system for
collecting electricity from overhead
. His spring-loaded trolley
, invented in 1880, used a wheel to travel along the wire.
1887 and early 1888, using his trolley system, Sprague installed
the first successful large electric street railway system, the
Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia.
By 1889, over a hundred electric railways
incorporating Sprague's equipment had been begun or planned on
In Japan, the Kyoto Electric railroad was the first tram system,
starting operation in 1895. By 1932, the network had grown to 82
railway companies in 65 cities, with a total network length of
1,479 km. By the 1960s the tram had generally died out in
Ireland, from 1898 a tram service was in operation in Cork City but was discontinued in 1931 owing to the increased
popularity of buses. There have been
campaigns for the introduction of a service similar to the Luas in Dublin. but so far
there has been little support for the idea, as the Dublin Bus service is extremely
Demise in the US and Canada
In the United States, automobile and tire manufacturers conspired
to close down the US streetcar system in the Great American streetcar
However, there are additional documented reasons for the demise of
trolleys in the United States. For instance, "before World War I,
the number of privately owned automobiles increased rapidly. People
who could afford autos began to drive them to work rather than
taking the trolley. As their numbers rapidly increased, the effects
were felt by the street railways.” Another factor was the jitney
, which allowed a cheaper means of
transportation than the trolley for people who could not afford a
car themselves. Jitneys were basically taxis that would run up and
down the trolley lines a few minutes before the trolley’s planned
arrival and pick up passengers who would normally be waiting for a
trolley. It was cheaper to ride in a jitney (the term is an early
20th-century American slang for a nickel, a five-cent coin) than in
a trolley, making this a very attractive alternative for
Chicago had the largest streetcar system in the world at
its peak during the first half of the 20th century, with over 250
miles of track and providing over 900 million rides annually at its
Today, there are no streetcars remaining; the last
trolleys were converted to elevated trains in the 1950s. The last
streetcar run was on June 21, 1958. The streetcar rails are still
visible in numerous locations throughout the city, having been left
in place & simply paved over.
Politics are also believed to have played a role in U.S. trolleys.
Particularly in Spokane,
Washington, for example, the trolley companies not only had to
pay a fee to the city for use of the city streets for their lines,
but they were also required to pay for the paving and upkeep of the
streets where their tracks ran.
Also, they were required to
keep their tracks plowed during winter.
North America after 1980
A resurgence in the modern streetcar began in the United States in
the mid 1980s with over a dozen projects under way by the start of
the 1990s. By 1995, eight new Light Rail Systems had been constructed in the
United States alone including Baltimore, MD, Dallas,
TX and San Jose,
Various types of rail networks are being built all across the
United States. Recent ones include Phoenix's Valley Metro Light Rail, and
Sound-Transit light rail in the
greater Seattle area.
There are new or planned streetcar
developments in Tucson, AZ
, Little Rock
, and various other cities
across the United States. However, some proposals have met with
opposition and instead been re-focused as a regional light rail
system such as the Columbus
such as Boston, San
Francisco, Portland, Jersey City, and San
Diego have modern tram systems already in
Demise in the UK
Similar but more subtle pressures and events occurred in the
Britain had the first European trams, and until 1935 a large and
comprehensive network of systems. For example, it was possible to go by
tram across northwest England, from Liverpool to Bolton, using
These were mostly closed by a mixture of
the same forces as in the US, but with political overtones, since
most of the UK systems were municipally owned. The oil and car
industries did not like the fact that the municipal tram systems
were powered by electricity generated from coal, and to some extent
made car ownership unnecessary.
The 1931 Royal Commission on traffic argued that trams held up
In the UK, there was a big public reaction against tramway
abandonment, on a par with the similarly unsuccessful reaction
against the Beeching Rail closures
in the 1960s. Not all passengers
transferred to the expanding network of buses, as car ownership
continued to increase.
Europe after 2000
In recent decades, tram networks in countries including France,
Germany, Spain and Portugal have grown considerably. The
Netherlands, which already makes extensive use of trams, has plans
to expand trams to two additional cities.
Germany did not undergo the tramway closure programmes that
were carried out in other European countries and many cities retain
their original tram networks.
In some places, tram networks
have been added or expanded through the introduction of hybrid
systems which may combine standard
railway, on-street and underground operations. Notable examples
include the systems in Cologne
. In Frankfurt-am-Main,
many tram lines
transferred to U-Bahn
Kingdom, investment in public transport in the late 1980s
turned to light rail as an alternative to more costly underground railway solutions, with the
opening of the Tyne and Wear
Metro (1980) and the Docklands Light Railway in London
(1987) systems. However, the first British city to
reintroduce on-street tram-style rail services was Manchester, with the opening of its Metrolink network in 1992.
other UK cities followed with their own tram-style light rail
systems, including Sheffield (Supertram, opened 1994), Birmingham
and Wolverhampton (Midland Metro,
opened 1999), London (Tramlink, opened 2000) and Nottingham (Nottingham Express Transit,
Many of these new systems are planning network
extensions and several new tram systems are being proposed or are
under construction, such as Edinburgh
(opening 2011), Belfast EWAY
(proposed) and Liverpool Merseytram
(proposed). Other tramway projects have not made it beyond the
proposal stage because of funding problems, for example London's
Cross River Tram
and the Leeds Supertram
Paris reintroduced trams
T1 in 1992, and many French cities have seen a similar revival, for
example the Tramway de Grenoble
and the Montpellier
The Czech capital Prague
one new line and the extension of eight others between 2007 and
2016, with an official of the Prague Public Transport Company
stating that "In Europe in the past 10 years, tram transportation
is the preferred way of transit; we can say that tram
transportation is going through its renaissance period".
Tram and light-rail transit systems around the world
Throughout the world there are many tram systems; some dating from
the late 19th or early 20th centuries. However a large number of
the old systems were closed during the mid-20th century because of
such perceived drawbacks as route inflexibility and maintenance
expense. This was especially the case in North American, British,
French and other West European cities. Some traditional tram
systems did however survive and remain operating much as when first
built over a century ago. In the past twenty years their numbers
have been augmented by modern tramway or light rail systems in
cities that had discarded this form of transport.
Types of propulsion
19th century, Calcutta (now Kolkata) was developing fast as a British trading and
Transport was mainly by palanquins
carried on men's shoulders or
pulled by horses. In
1867, the Calcutta Corporation, with financial assistance from the
Government of Bengal, developed mass transport. The first tramcar
travelled the streets of Calcutta on February 24, 1873, with
horse-drawn coaches running on steel rails. The horse tramcar was a
part of (so called) 300 year celebration of Kolkata. It then ran
from Binay Badal Dinesh Bag to Rajabazar, mostly following the
first horse tram route. The tram was a modified single coach
(earlier) electric tram. None of the original horse trams have been
The first mechanical trams were powered by steam. Generally, there
were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a small
steam locomotive (called a tram engine
in the UK) at the head of a line of one or more carriages, similar
to a small train. Systems with such steam trams included
Christchurch, New Zealand; Sydney, Australia;
and other city systems in New South Wales. Steam tramways also were used on the
suburban tramway lines around Milan; the last
Gamba de Legn tramway ("Peg-Leg" in Milanese) ran on the
Milan-Magenta-Castano Primo route in late
The other style of steam tram had the steam engine in the body of
the tram, referred to as a tram engine
or steam dummy
. The most notable system
to adopt such trams was in Paris. French-designed steam trams also operated
in Rockhampton, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1909 and 1939. Stockholm, Sweden, had a steam tram line at the island of
Södermalm between 1887 and 1901.
A major drawback of
this style of tram was the limited space for the engine, so that
these trams were usually underpowered.
The next type of tram was the cable car, which sought to reduce
labour costs and the hardship on animals. Cable cars are pulled
along the track
by a continuously moving
cable running at a constant speed that individual cars grip and
release to stop and start. The power to move the cable is provided
at a site away from the actual operation. The first cable car
line in the United States was tested in San
Francisco, California, in 1873. The second city to operate cable trams
was Dunedin in New Zealand, from 1881 to 1957.
Cars operated on Highgate
Hill in North London and Kennington to Brixton Hill In South London.
Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since an
expensive system of cables
and vault structures between the rails had to be
provided. They also require strength and skill to operate, to avoid
obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be dropped at
particular locations and the cars coast, for example when crossing
another cable line. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred
frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a
cable route, while the cable was repaired. After the development of
electrically powered trams, the more costly cable car systems
Cable cars were especially effective in hilly cities, because the
cable laid in the tracks physically pulled the car up the hill at a
strong, steady pace, as opposed to the low-powered steam dummies
trying to chug up a hill at almost a crawl, or worse a horse-drawn
trolley trying to pull a load up a hill.
This concept partially explains their survival in San Francisco.
the most extensive cable system in the U.S. was in Chicago, a much flatter city. The largest cable
system in the world, in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, had at its peak 592 trams running on 74
kilometres of track.
Francisco cable cars, though significantly reduced in number, continue
to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being
a tourist attraction. A single line also survives in Wellington, New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 as a funicular but still called the "Wellington
Electric (trolley cars)
functioning experimental electric trams were exhibited at the 1884
World Cotton Centennial
World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana, but they were not deemed good enough to replace
the Lamm fireless engines then propelling
the St. Charles Avenue
Streetcar in that city.
trams (trolley cars) were first
successfully tested in service in Richmond, Virginia, in 1888, in the Richmond Union Passenger
Railway built by Frank
. There were earlier
commercial installations of electric streetcars, including one in
Berlin as early as 1881 by Werner von Siemens and the company
that still bears his name, and in Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky in 1880.
by John Joseph Wright, brother of the famous mining entrepreneur
, in Toronto in 1883.
commercial installation of an electric streetcar in the United
States was built in 1884 in Cleveland, Ohio and operated for a period of one year by the East
Cleveland Street Railway Company.
proved difficult or unreliable. Siemens’ line, for example,
provided power through a live rail and a return rail, like a
, limiting the voltage
that could be used, and providing electric
shocks to people and animals crossing the tracks. Siemens later
designed his own method of current collection, from an overhead
wire, called the bow collector, and
Ontario, opened in 1887, and was considered quite
successful at the time.
While this line proved quite
versatile as one of the earliest fully functional electric
streetcar installations, it required horse-drawn support while
climbing the Niagara Escarpment
and for two months of the winter when hydroelectricity
was not available. It
continued in service in its original form into the 1950s.
largest tram network in the world is in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia and has 499 trams running on 249
kilometres of track with 1770 tram stops.
1908 trolley controls
Sprague's installation was the first to prove successful in all
conditions, he is credited with being the inventor
of the trolley car. He later developed
demonstrated in Chicago in 1897, allowing multiple cars to be
coupled together and operated by a single motorman. This gave birth
to the modern subway train.
but significant alternatives were conduit current collection, which
was widely used in London, Washington, D.C. and New
York, and the surface
contact collection method, used in Wolverhampton (the Lorain system), Hastings (the Dolter stud system) in the UK, and currently
in Bordeaux, France (the
ground-level power supply
to use batteries as a source of
electricity were made from the 1880s and 1890s, with unsuccessful
trials conducted in among other places Bendigo and Adelaide in Australia, and for about 14 years as The
Hague accutram of HTM in the Netherlands.
A Welsh example of a tram was usually known as the Mumbles Train,
or more formally as the Swansea and Mumbles Railway
Built as the Oystermouth Railway in 1804, on March 25, 1807 it
became the first passenger-carrying railway in the world. Converted
to an overhead wire system it operated electric cars from March 2,
1929 until its closure on January 5, 1960. These were the largest
tram cars built for use in Britain and seated 106 passengers.
world's first hydroelectric powered tram system was the Giant's Causeway Tramway which
originally ran from Portrush to Bushmills in Northern Ireland.
At its opening in 1883
it was hailed as “the first long electric tramway in the world”.
early tram system operated from 1886 until 1930 in Appleton,
Wisconsin, and is notable for being powered by the world's
first hydroelectric power
station, which began operating on September 30, 1882 as the
There is one particular hazard associated with trams powered from a
trolley off an overhead line. Since the tram relies on contact with
the rails for the current return path, a problem arises if the tram
is derailed or (more usually) if it halts on a section of track
that has been particularly heavily sanded by a previous tram, and
the tram loses electrical contact with the rails. In this event,
the underframe of the tram, by virtue of a circuit path through
ancillary loads (such as saloon lighting), is live at the full
supply voltage, typically 600 volts. In British terminology such a
tram was said to be ‘grounded’—not to be confused with the US
English use of the term, which means the exact opposite. Any person
stepping off the tram completed the earth return circuit and could
receive a nasty electric shock. In such an event the driver was
required to jump off the tram (avoiding simultaneous contact with
the tram and the ground) and pull down the trolley before allowing
passengers off the tram. Unless derailed, the tram could usually be
recovered by running water down the running rails from a point
higher than the tram. The water providing a conducting bridge
between the tram and the rails.
In the 2000s, two companies introduced catenary-free designs.
Alstom's Citadis line uses a third rail, and Bombardier's PRIMOVE
LRV is charged by contactless induction plates embedded in the
Other power sources
In some places, other forms of power were used to power the tram.
Hastings and some other tramways, for example Stockholms Spårvägar in
Sweden and some lines in Karachi, used petrol trams and
Annes used gas trams.
Paris operated trams that were powered by compressed air
using the Mekarski system
. In New York City some
minor lines used storage batteries;
a longer battery-operated tramway line ran from Milan to Bergamo (about 60 km) during the '50s.
The latest generation of light rail vehicles is of partial or fully
low-floor design, with the floor above top of rail, a capability
not found in older vehicles. This allows them to load passengers,
including those in wheelchairs
from low-rise platforms that are not much more than raised
sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access to
disabled passengers without using expensive wheelchair lifts
, while at the same time
making boarding faster and easier for other passengers.
Various companies have developed particular low floor designs,
varying from part low floor, e.g. Citytram , to 100% low floor,
where a corridor between the drive wheels links each end of the
tram. Passengers appreciate the ease of boarding and alighting from
low floor trams but for the operator the restrictions of seating
layout imposed by 100% designs limits the ability to provide seats,
and to vary the configuration for different city needs. In general,
however, passenger satisfaction is high as can be seen from the
low-floor trams in Melbourne, Australia.Low-floor trams are
now running in many cities around the world, including Milan, Dublin, Melbourne, Sydney, Buenos Aires, Istanbul and Nantes.
have several sections connected
by flexible joints
a round platform. Like articulated
, they have increased passenger capacity. These trams can
be up to long (such as in Budapest, Hungary), while a regular tram
has to be much shorter. With this type, a Jacobs bogie
supports the articulation between
the two or more carbody sections. An articulated tram may be
variety or high (regular) floor
Double decker trams operate in Alexandria
and Hong Kong
operation uses vehicles such
as the Flexity Link
, which are suited for use on urban tram
lines and also meet the necessary indication, power, and strength
requirements for operation on main-line railways. This allows
passengers to travel from suburban areas into city-centre
destinations without having to change from a train to a tram.
It has been primarily developed in Germanic countries, in
particular Germany and Switzerland. Karlsruhe is a notable pioneer of the
have been carried on rail vehicles through the streets,
particularly near docks and steelworks, since the 19th
century (most evident on the Weymouth Harbour Tramway in
Dorset), and some Belgian vicinale routes were
used to haul timber.
At the turn of the 21st century, a new
interest has arisen in using urban tramway systems to transport
goods. The motivation now is to reduce air pollution, traffic
congestion and damage to road surfaces in city centres.
Dresden has a regular CarGoTram service, run by the world's longest
tram trainsets ( ), carrying car parts across the city centre to
its Volkswagen factory.
Zürich use trams
as mobile recycling depots. Kislovodsk had a freight-only tram system comprising one line
which was used exclusively to deliver bottled Narzan mineral water
to the railway station.
spring of 2007, Amsterdam piloted a cargo tram operation, aiming to reduce
particulate pollution by 20% by halving the number of lorries—currently 5,000—unloading in the inner city during the permitted timeframe from
07:00 till 10:30.
The pilot, operated by City Cargo Amsterdam
, involved two
cargo trams, operating from a distribution centre and delivering to
a ‘hub’ where electric trucks delivered to the final
The trial was successful, releasing an intended investment of 100
million euro in a fleet
of 52 cargo
trams distributing from four peripheral ‘cross docks’ to 15
inner-city hubs by 2012. These specially built vehicles would be
long with 12 axles
and a payload
of 30 tons. On weekdays, trams are planned to
make 4 deliveries per hour between 7 a.m. and 11 a.m. and two per
hour between 11 a.m. and 11 p.m. With each unloading operation
taking on average 10 minutes, this means that each site would be
active for 40 minutes out of each hour during the morning rush
hour. In early 2009 the scheme was suspended owing to the financial
crisis impeding fund-raising.
Recent technical developments
A section of APS track in Bordeaux
with powered and neutral sections
A Eurotram in Milan, Italy
A Citadis tram in Dublin,
The revival of tram networks, particularly in France and Spain, has
brought about a number of technical developments both in the
traction systems and in the styling of the cars.
APS third rail
A ground-level power supply system known as APS or Alimentation par le sol
updated version of the original stud type system. APS uses a third
rail placed between the running rails, divided electrically into
eight-metre powered segments with three metre neutral sections
between. Each tram has two power collection skates, next to which
are antennas that send radio signals to energize the power rail
segments as the tram passes over them. Older systems required
mechanical switching systems which were susceptible to
environmental problems. At any one time no more than two
consecutive segments under the tram should actually be live.
Wireless and solid state switching remove the mechanical
developed the system primarily to avoid intrusive power supply
cables in sensitive area of the old city of old Bordeaux.
is part of the Flexity Outlook
series developed by Bombardier
. It is used by
Strasbourg, Milan, and
The Eurotram has a modern design that makes
it look almost as much like a train as a tram, and has large
windows along its entire length.
More modular design
tram, flagship of the French
manufacturer Alstom, enjoys an innovative design combining lighter
bogies with a modular concept for carriages providing more choices
in the types of windows and the number of cars and doors. The
recent Citadis-Dualis, intended to run at up to 100 km/h, is
suitable for stop spacings ranging from 500 m to 5 km. Dualis
is a strictly modular partial low-floor car, with all doors in the
Pros and cons of tram systems
All transit services involve a trade-off between speed and
frequency of stops. Services that stop frequently have a lower
overall speed, and are therefore less attractive for longer trips.
Metros, light rail
, and bus
are all forms of rapid
— which generally signifies high speed and widely
spaced stops. Trams are often used as a form of local transit,
making frequent stops. Thus, the most meaningful comparison of
advantages and disadvantages is with other forms of local transit,
primarily the local bus.
- Unlike buses, but like trolleybuses,
(electric) trams give off no exhaust emissions at point of use.
Compared to motorbuses the noise of trams is
generally perceived to be less disturbing. However, the use of
solid axles with wheels fixed to them causes slippage between
wheels and tracks when negotiating curves. This produces a
characteristic loud, high frequency noise often referred to as a
- They can use overhead wire set to be shared with trolleybuses
(a three wire system).
- Trams can adapt to the number of passengers by adding more cars
during rush hour (and removing them during off-peak hours). No
additional driver is then required for the trip in comparison to
- In general, trams provide a higher capacity service than
- Multiple entrances allow trams to load faster than suburban
coaches, which tend to have a single entrance. This, combined with
swifter acceleration and braking, lets trams maintain higher
overall speeds than buses, if congestion allows.
- Rights-of-way for trams are narrower than for buses. This saves
valuable space in cities with high population densities and/or
can trackshare with mainline railways,
servicing smaller towns without requiring special track as in
- Passenger comfort is normally superior to buses because of
controlled acceleration and braking and curve easement. Rail
transport such as used by trams provides a smoother ride than road
use by buses.
- In most countries, trams do not suffer from the image problem
that plagues buses. On the contrary, most people associate trams
with a positive image. Unlike buses, trams tend to be popular with
a wider spectrum of the public, including people of high income who
often shun buses . This high level of customer acceptance means
higher patronage and greater public support for investment in new
- Because the tracks are visible, it is easy for potential riders
to know where the routes are.
- Vehicles run more efficiently and overall
operating costs are lower.
- Trams can run on renewable electricity without the need for
very expensive and short life batteries
- Consistent market research and experience over the last 50
years in Europe and North America shows that car commuters are
willing to transfer some trips to rail-based public transport but
not to buses. Typically light rail systems attract between 30 and
40% of their patronage from former car trips. Rapid transit bus
systems attract less than 5% of trips from cars, less than the
variability of traffic.
- Tram infrastructure occupies urban space above ground to the
exclusion of other users, including cars.
- The capital cost is higher than for buses.
- Trams can cause speed reduction for other transport modes
(buses, cars) when stops in the middle of the road do not have
pedestrian refuges, as in such configurations other traffic cannot
pass whilst passengers alight/board the tram. In Melbourne and
Toronto, this issue is a major contributor to congestion on
- When operated in mixed traffic, trams are more likely to be
delayed by disruptions in their lane. Buses, by contrast, can
sometimes maneuver around obstacles. Opinions differ on whether the
deference that drivers show to trams — a cultural issue that
varies by country — is sufficient to counteract this
- Tram tracks can be dangerous for cyclists, as bikes,
particularly those with narrow tyres, may get their wheels caught
in the track grooves. It is possible to close the grooves of the
tracks on critical sections by rubber profiles that are pressed
down by the wheelflanges of the passing tram but that cannot be
lowered by the weight of a cyclist. If not well-maintained,
however, these lose their effectiveness over time. Crossing tracks
without trouble requires a sufficient angle of crossing, reducing a
cyclist's ability to avoid road hazards where tracks run along the
road, especially in wet weather. This and problems with parked cars
are reduced by building tracks and platforms in the middle of the
road, or by giving cyclists a dedicated path, so they avoid cycling
in the lane with tracks.
- Steel wheel trams are noisier than rubber-wheeled trolleybuses
when cornering if there are no additional measures taken (e.g.
greasing wheel flanges, which is standard in new-built systems).
Tram wheels are fixed onto axles so they have to rotate together,
but going around curves, one wheel or the other has to slip, and
that causes loud unpleasant squeals. A related improvement is
rubber isolation between the wheel disc and the rim, as used on
Boston (Mass., USA) Green Line 3400 and 3600 series cars. These
cars are much quieter than those with solid metal wheels. (This
construction requires a flexible cable to electrically connect the
tire to the wheel body.)
- Tram drivers can control the switches (points) ahead of them.
caused a major derailment in Geneva,
Switzerland. In modern tram systems this problem has been
resolved by use of switches that inhibit relocation when a tram is
detected passing and/or more sophisticated means of command
- Light rail vehicles are often heavier per passenger carried
than heavy rail and monorail cars, as they
are designed with higher durability (which means more mass) to
- The opening of new tram and light rail systems has sometimes
been accompanied by a marked increase in car accidents, as a result of drivers'
unfamiliarity with the physics and geometry of trolleys. Though
such increases may be temporary, long-term conflicts between
motorists and light rail operations can be alleviated by
segregating their respective rights-of-way and installing
appropriate signage and warning systems.
- Rail transport can expose neighbouring populations to moderate
levels of low-frequency noise. However, transportation planners use
noise mitigation strategies to
minimize these effects. Most of all, the potential for decreased
private motor vehicle operations along the trolley's service line
because of the service provision could result in lower ambient
noise levels than without.
- In the event of a breakdown or accident, or even roadworks and
maintenance, a whole section of the tram network can be blocked.
Buses and trolleybuses can often get past minor blockages, although
trolleybuses are restricted by how far they can go from the wires.
Conventional buses can divert around major blockages as well, as
can most modern trolleybuses that are fitted with auxiliary engines
or traction batteries. The tram
blockage problem can be mitigated by providing regular crossovers
so a tram can run on the opposite line to pass a blockage, although
this can be more difficult when running on road sections shared
with other road users. On extensive networks diversionary routes
may be available depending on the location of the blockage.
Breakdown related problems can be reduced by minimising the
situations where a tram would be stuck on route, as well as making
it as simple as possible for another tram to rescue a failed
Image:NET-tram tracks warning.jpg|Tram tracks
can be hazardous to cyclistsImage:Tram
accident.jpg|Tram accident in AmsterdamImage:HKtram-crossing.JPG|Hong Kong Tramways passing each other at
Toronto streetcar.Image:Piter ice tram.jpg|Tramways on ice
of the River
Neva in Saint Petersburg
Image:San Diego Trolley going through
downtown.jpg|The San Diego Trolley
going through downtown
.Image:Kolkata (2).JPG|Trams in Calcutta
Asia and Oceania
In other media
One of the earliest literary references to trams occurs on the
second page of Henry James
in 1878, the novel is set in the 1840s, though horse trams were not
introduced in Boston till the
- From time to time a strange vehicle drew near to the place
where they stood—such a vehicle as the lady at the window, in spite
of a considerable acquaintance with human inventions, had never
seen before: a huge, low, omnibus, painted in brilliant colours,
and decorated apparently with jingling bells, attached to a species
of groove in the pavement, through which it was dragged,
with a great deal of rumbling, bouncing, and scratching, by a
couple of remarkably small horses.
Note how the tram's efficiency surprises the European
visitor; how two "remarkably small" horses sufficed to draw the
James also makes comical reference to the novelty and excitement of
trams in Portrait of a Lady
- Henrietta Stackpole was struck with the fact that ancient
Rome had been paved a good deal like New York, and even found an
analogy between the deep chariot-ruts traceable in the antique
street and the overjangled iron grooves which express the intensity
of American life. (page 313 of Penguin edition.)
A quarter of a century later, Joseph Conrad described Amsterdam's
trams in chapter 14 of The Mirror of the Sea
From afar at the end of Tsar Peter Straat, issued in the frosty
air the tinkle of bells of the horse tramcars, appearing and
disappearing in the opening between the buildings, like little toy
carriages harnessed with toy horses and played with by people that
appeared no bigger than children.
figure extensively in the early stages of Günter Grass's Die Blechtrommel
(The Tin Drum). In the last chapter
the novel's hero Oskar Matzerath and
his friend Gottfried von Vittlar steal a tram late at night from
outside Unterrath depot on the northern edge of Düsseldorf.
It is a surreal
journey. Von Vittlar drives
the tram through the night, south to Flingern and Haniel and then
east to the suburb of Gerresheim. Meanwhile, inside, Matzerath tries to rescue
the half-blind Victor Weluhn (who had escaped from the siege of the Polish post office in Danzig at the beginning of the book and of the war) from
his two green-hatted would-be executioners.
Mazerath deposits his
, which contains Sister Dorotea's
severed ring finger
in a preserving jar
, on the dashboard "where
professional motorman put their lunchboxes
". They leave the tram at the terminus
and the executioners tie
Weluhn to a tree in von Vittlar's mother's garden and prepare to
him. But Matzerath drums,
Weluhn sings, and together they conjure up the Polish cavalry
, who spirit both victim and executioners
away. Matzerath asks von Vittlar to take his briefcase in the tram
to the police HQ in the Fürstenwall, which he does.
The latter part of this route is today served by tram route 703
terminating at Gerresheim Stadtbahn
station ("by the glassworks" as Grass notes, referring to the
famous glass factory).
1967 spy thriller An Expensive Place to Die,
Len Deighton misidentifies the Flemish
coast tram: "The red glow of Ostend is nearer
now and yellow trains rattle alongside the motor road and over the
bridge by the Royal Yacht Club ..."
[Chapter 38, page 198 of the
Companion Book Club
In popular culture
- The Rev W. Awdry wrote about GER
Class C53 called Toby the Tram
Engine, which starred his The
Railway Series with his faithful coach, Henrietta.
- A Streetcar
- A Streetcar
- The children's TV show Mister Rogers’
Neighborhood featured a trolley.
- The central plot of the film Who Framed Roger Rabbit
involves the Judge Doom, the villain, dismantling the streetcars of
- "The Trolley Song" in the film
Meet Me in St. Louis
received an Academy Award.
- The 1944 World Series was also
known as the "Streetcar Series".
- Malcolm , an Australian
film about a tram enthusiast who uses his inventions to pull off a
- Luis Buñuel filmed La Ilusión viaja en
tranvía (English: Illusion Travels by
Streetcar) in Mexico in 1953.
- In Akira Kurosawa's film
Dodesukaden a mentally ill boy
pretends to be a tram conductor.
- The Stompin' Tom Connors
song "To It And At It" mentions a man who "can't afford the train,
he's sittin' on a streetcar, but he's eastbound just the
predominance of trams (trolleys) gave rise to the disparaging term
trolley dodger for residents of the
borough of Brooklyn in New York City. That term, shortened to
"Dodger" became the nickname for the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles
- Jens Lekman has a
song titled "Tram #7 to Heaven", a reference to line 7 of the
Gothenburg tram which passes through
his native borough of Kortedala.
- The band Beirut has a song titled
"Fountains and Tramways" on the EP Pompeii.
- The Elephant Will Never Forget, an 11-minute film made
in 1953 by British Transport
Films to celebrate the London tram network at the time of the
last few days of its operation.
W-class tram was used at the opening ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne.
- 2009 Thomas Haggerty composed and produced 'Tram' generations
1,2 and 3 for the popular group TRAM.
German models of trams (Düwag and
Siemens) and a bus in H0 scale
In scale modeling
Model trams are popular in HO scale
and O scale
(1:48) in the US and generally
1:43 in Europe and Asia. They are typically powered and will accept
plastic figures inside. Common manufacturers are Roco
, with many
custom models being made as well. The German firm Hödl and the
Austrian Halling specialize in 1:87 scale.
In the US, Bachmann Industries
is a mass supplier of HO trams and kits. Bowser Manufacturing
has produced white
metal models for over 50 years. There are many boutique vendors
offering limited run epoxy and wood models. At the high end are
highly detailed brass models which are usually imported from Japan
or Korea and can cost in excess of $500. Many of these run on
16.5 mm gauge track, which is correct for the representation
of (standard gauge) in HO scale as in US and Japan, but incorrect
in 4 mm (1:76.2) scale, as it represents . This scale/gauge
hybrid is called OO scale.O scale trams are also very popular among
tram modelers because the increased size allows for more detail and
easier crafting of overhead wiring. In the US these models are
usually purchased in epoxy or wood kits and some as brass models.
The Saint Petersburg Tram Company produces highly detailed
polyurethane non-powered O Scale models from around the world which
can easily be powered by trucks from vendors like Q-Car.
In the US, one of the best resources for model tram enthusiasts is
the East Penn Traction Club
It is thought that the first example of a working model tramcar in
the UK built by an amateur for fun was in 1929, when Frank E.
Wilson created a replica of London County Council Tramways E class
car 444 in 1:16 scale, which he demonstrated at an early Model
Engineer Exhibition. Another of his models was London E/1 1800,
which was the only tramway exhibit in the Faraday Memorial
Exhibition of 1931. Together with likeminded friends, Frank Wilson
went on to found the Tramway & Light Railway Society in 1938,
establishing tramway modelling as a hobby.
Modern city networks
- Argentina: Puerto Madero
Tramway, PreMetro E2,
Tren de la Costa
- Australia: Trams in
- Belarus: Minsk City
- Belgium: Belgian Coast Tram,
- Canada: Toronto streetcar
- China: Hong Kong
- Czech Republic: Prague tram
- Egypt: Alexandria Tram
- Finland: Helsinki tram, Turku tram
- France: Bordeaux, Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Nantes, Nice, Paris, Rouen, Saint-Etienne, Strasbourg, Valenciennes
- Germany: Berlin
Straßenbahn AG, Dusseldorf Rheinbahn,
Trams in Frankfurt am
- Greece: Athens
- India: Calcutta Tramways
- Ireland: Dublin Luas trams
- Italy: Azienda Trasporti
- Norway: Oslo Tramway
- Poland: Warsaw tram system,
Poznan Fast Tram
- Russia: Tramways in
- Serbia: Belgrade
- Spain: Barcelona
- Sweden: Gothenburg tram,
- Switzerland: Basel, Zürich trams
- United Kingdom: Blackpool
tramway, London Trams, Manchester Metrolink, Nottingham Express Transit,
Supertram , Midland Metro
- United States: Green Line ,
San Diego Trolley, Denver light rail, Baltimore Light Rail
- London Passenger Transport Board: Annual Report, 1938
- Jeffrey Spivak: Streetcars are back from Landscape
Architecture Department, UC Davis. Retrieved 10 February
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Retrieved 11 February 2009.
- Tram from EconomicExpert.com. Retrieved 11 February
- Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 February
- Robert C. Post: Urban Mass Transit, p.43, from
Google Books. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
- Middleton, William D. (1967). The Time of the Trolley,
p. 60. Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 0-89024-013-2.
- The Mumbles Train from Welcome to Wales. Retrieved 11
- Manhattan's Lost Streetcars by Stephen L.
Meyers from NYC Transit Forums. Retrieved 11 February
- Beograd.org Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- Trams of Hungary. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
- Transport History in Bucharest. Retrieved 11
- Sarajevo through history. Retrieved 11 February
- Conférence sur Alphonse LOUBAT, inventeur du
tramway. In French. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
- John Prentice: Tramway Origins and Pioneers.
Retrieved 11 February 2009.
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Jerusalem. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
- The Siemens tram from past to present.
Retrieved 12 February 2009.
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Engineering | 1.012 Introduction to Civil Engineering Design,
Spring 2002 | Readings | detail
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Retrieved 13 February 2009.
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December 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
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Street Railways: An Illustrated History. Spokane: Inland Empire
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Streetcar Systems. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
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Collected Papers of Alan John Watkins. Retrieved 13 February
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Amsterdam, NL from EUKN. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
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March 2007, Amsterdams Stadblad 4 June 2008
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Spiritus-Temporis. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
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Vancouver City. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
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Bath. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
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Claverton Energy Group Conference, Bath Oct 2008
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Saga of Santa Clara County's Transportation Agency, (San Jose:
Santa Clara County Transportation Agency, 1994), 67. Besides
recounting statistics and anecdotes, this source also reprints a
San Jose Mercury News cartoon of
one such accident, in which a bemused tow truck driver quips,
"Dang! Rod Diridon was right! The trolley does reduce the number of
vehicles on the road!"
- Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 69:
Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular Safety,
Transportation Research Board TRB.org
- Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 23:
Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual, Transportation Research
- The chapter Die letzte Straßenbahn oder Anbetung eines
Weckglases (The last tram or Adoration of a Preserving Jar).
See page 584 of the 1959 Büchergilde Gutenberg German edition and
page 571 of the 1961 Secker & Warburg edition, translated into
English by Ralph Manheim
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Strassenbahnfreunden Hemer. In German.
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Retrieved 14 February 2009.
Petersburg Tram Company
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Networks (4th Edition)", ISBN 0-900433-03-5. London: Light Railway
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Story" (CERA Bulletin 109) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric
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0-949825-01-8). Sydney: Dreamweaver Books.
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(LCCN 77-081145) (No ISBN). Jackson, Mississippi: City of
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Switzerland and Austria" (ISBN 0-900433-96-5). Milton Keynes, UK:
Light Rail Transit Association.
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Northeastern Ohio" (CERA Bulletin 108) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central
Electric Railfan's Association.
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Bulletin 110) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's
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(No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's Association.
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& Light Company" (CERA Bulletin) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central
Electric Railfan's Association.
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Coordinator). 1975. "Iowa Trolleys" (CERA Bulletin 114) (No ISBN).
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1980. “When Oklahoma Took The Trolley” (Interurbans Special 71)
(ISBN 0-916374-35-1). Glendale (CA), US: Interurban Press.
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(Interurbans Specian No. 17, No ISBN). Los Angeles:
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SNCV/NMVB, 1885-1985 : a century of secondary rail transport in
Belgium" (ISBN 0-900433-97-3). Broxbourne, UK: Light Rail Transit
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Railways of Fiji" (ISBN 0-908573-50-2). Wellington: New Zealand
Railway and Locomotive Society Inc.
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(No ISBN). 1958. Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's
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ISBN). 1959. Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's Association.
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South Carolina" (No ISBN) Forty Fort (PA), US: Harold E. Cox.
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Times of Colorado Streetcars" (ISBN 0-918654-51-3). Golden (CO),
US: Colorado Railroad Museum.
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(No ISBN). Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill.
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Jersey" (ISBN 0-933449-12-7). Poli (IL), US: Transportation
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Bulletin 97) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's
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Railways of Louisiana" (ISBN 1-56554-564-8). Gretna (LA), US:
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Treatise upon Cable or Rope Traction As Applied to the Working of
Street and Other Railways," Revised Edition (ISBN 0-8047-3051-2).
Stanford (CA), US: Stanford University Press.
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ISBN). Johannesburg: published by the author.
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Bulletin 98) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's
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Sans Souci (NSW), Australia: Transit Press.
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(4th Edition)" (ISBN 0-948106-19-0). London: Light Rail Transit
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Bulletin 96) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's
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Streetcars" (ISBN 0-911868-82-8). Newton (NJ), US: Carstens.
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0-949600-25-3). Oakleigh (Victoria) Australia: published by the
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the Broken Hill Steam Tramways 1902-1926" (ISBN 0-909372-13-6).
Sutherland (NSW), Australia: The Sydney Tramway Museum.
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(ISBN 0-89024-013-2). Milwaukee (WI), US: Kalmbach Publishing.
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Bulletin 100) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfan's
- Misek, Frank J. (ed.). 1958. "The Electric Railways of Indiana
Part I" (CERA Bulletin 101) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric
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Part III" (CERA Bulletin 104) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric
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Transportation In Rhode Island" (ISBN 0-7524-1256-6). Mount
Pleasant (SC), US: Arcadia.
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Survey" (ISBN 0-9622348-1-8) .
New York: Bonde Press.
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(ISBN 0-9622348-2-6) . New York: Bonde Press.
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Survey of Urban Rail Transport South of the U.S.A." (ISBN
0-9622348-3-4). New York: Bonde Press.
- Myers, Rex. 1970. "Montana’s Trolleys: Book 1, Helena" (No
ISBN). Los Angeles: Interurbans.
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Arcadia, 2005. ISBN 0738538841
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new technology, 1880-1940, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. c1990.
- Olson, Russell L. 1976. "The Electric Railways of Minnesota"
(No ISBN). Hopkins (MN), US: Minnesota Transportation Museum.
- Orr, Richard. 1996 O&CB: Streetcars of Omaha and Council
Bluffs (ISBN 0-9653505-0-9). Omaha: published by the author.
- Pabst, Martin. 1989. "Tram & Trolley in Africa" (ISBN
3-88490-152-4). Krefeld: Röhr Verlag GMBH.
- Peschkes, Robert. "World Gazetteer of Tram, Trolleybus, and
Rapid Transit Systems."
- Part One, Latin America (ISBN 1-898319-02-2). 1980.
Exeter, UK: Quail Map Company.
- Part Two, Asia+USSR / Africa / Australia (ISBN
0-948619-00-7). 1987. London: Rapid Transit Publications.
- Part Three, Europe (ISBN 0-948619-01-5). 1993. London:
Rapid Transit Publications.
- Part Four, North America (ISBN 0-948619-06-6). 1998.
London: Rapid Transit Publications.
- Reifschneider, Felix E. 1947. "Toonervilles of the Empire
State" (No ISBN). Orlando (FL), U.S.: published by the author.
- Reifschneider, Felix E. 1948. "Trolley Lines of the Empire
State" (No ISBN). Orlando (FL), U.S.: published by the author.
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Berner Oberland, Jura, Westschweiz, Genfer See, Wallis (ISBN
3-921679-38-9). Aachen: Schweers + Wall.
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Street Railways, Volume I" (CERA Bulletin 117) (No ISBN). Chicago:
Central Electric Railfan's Association.
- Schramm, Jack E., William H. Henning and Thomas J. Devorman.
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1984. "Detroit's Street Railways, Volume III: When Eastern Michigan
Rode the Rails" (CERA Bulletin 123) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central
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- Schweers, Hans. 1988. "Schmalspurparadies Schweiz," Band 2:
Nordostschweiz, Mittelland, Zentralschweiz, Graubünden, Tessin
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former USSR" (ISBN 3-926524-15-4). 1996. Berlin:
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Blickpunkt Straßenbahn, in conjunction with
Light Rail Transit Association, London.
- "Straßenbahnatlas Rumänien" (compiled by Andreas Günter, Sergei
Tarknov and Christian Blank; ISBN 3-926524-23-5). 2004. Berlin:
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Blickpunkt Straßenbahn.
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(Interurbans Special 15) (No ISBN). Los Angeles: Interurbans.
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(Interurbans Special 50) (No ISBN). Los Angeles: Interurbans.
- Swett, Ira. 1970. "Montana's Trolleys - III: Billings, Bozeman,
Great Falls, Missoula, Proposed Lines, The Milwaukee Road
(Interurbans Special 51) (No ISBN). Los Angeles: Interurbans.
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0-948106-18-2). 1995. Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Blickpunkt
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Passenger-Carrying Tramway, Past and Present" (ISBN 1-85260-549-9).
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Irish Tramway Systems since 1945" (ISBN 0-7110-1989-4). Shepperton
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