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The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausannemarker, Switzerlandmarker, that settled the Anatolianmarker and East Thracian parts of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) that was signed by the Constantinoplemarker-based Ottoman government;http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Treaty_of_Lausanne ;

ARTICLE 91

All grants of patents and registrations of trade-marks, as well as all registrations of transfers or assignments of patents or trade marks which have been duly made since the 30th October, 1918, by the Imperial Ottoman Government at Constantinople or elsewhere.. as the consequence of the Turkish War of Independence between the Allies of World War I and the Ankaramarker-based Grand National Assembly of Turkeymarker (Turkish national movement) led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The treaty also led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkeymarker as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire.

Overview and negotiations



After the expulsion of the Allied forces by the Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Ankaramarker-based government of the Turkish national movement rejected the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) that was signed by the Constantinople-based Ottoman government.

Negotiations were undertaken during the Conference of Lausanne at which İsmet İnönü was the chief negotiator for Turkey. Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Secretary of that time, was the chief negotiator of the Allies, while Eleftherios Venizelos negotiated on behalf of Greecemarker. The negotiations took many months. On November 20, 1922, the peace conference was opened, and after strenuous debate, was interrupted by Turkish protest on February 4, 1923. After reopening again on April 23, and following more protests by the Turks and tense debates, the treaty was signed on July 24 as a result of eight months of arduous negotiation. The delegation on behalf of the Allies included negotiators such as the U.S. Admiral Mark L. Bristol, who served as the United States High Commissioner and championed Turkish efforts.

Treaty stipulations

The treaty was composed of 143 articles with major sections including:

The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey but also for the protection of the ethnic Greek minority in Turkey and the mainly ethnically Turkish Muslim minority in Greece. However, most of the Greek population of Turkey and the Turkish population of Greece had already been deported under the earlier Exchange of Populations between Greece and Turkey agreement signed by Greece and Turkey. Only the Greeks of Constantinople, Imbrosmarker and Tenedosmarker were excluded (about 270,000 at that time), and the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 86,000 in 1922). Article 14 of the treaty granted the islands of Imbrosmarker and Tenedosmarker "special administrative organisation", a right that was revoked by the Turkish government on February 17, 1926. The Republic of Turkey also formally accepted the loss of Cyprusmarker (which was "rented" to the British Empire following the Congress of Berlin in 1878, but de jure remained an Ottoman territory until World War I) as well as Egyptmarker and Sudanmarker (which were occupied by British forces with the pretext of "establishing order" in 1882, but de jure remained Ottoman territories until World War I) to the British Empire. The fate of the province of Mosulmarker was left to be determined through the League of Nations. Turkey also renounced all claims on the Dodecanese Islands, which Italymarker was obliged to return back to Turkey according to the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 (also known as the First Treaty of Lausanne (1912), as it was signed at the Ouchy Castle in Lausanne, Switzerland) following the Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912).

Borders

The treaty delimited the boundaries of Greecemarker, Bulgariamarker, and Turkeymarker; formally ceded all Turkish claims on the Dodecanese Islands (Article 15); Cyprusmarker (Article 20); Egyptmarker and Sudanmarker (Article 17); Iraqmarker and Syriamarker (Article 3); and (along with the Treaty of Ankara) settled the boundaries of the latter two nations. Turkey also renounced its privileges in Libyamarker which were defined by Article 10 of the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 (per Article 22 of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923).

Agreements

Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States: the Chester concession. The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty and consequently Turkey annulled the concession.

Aftermath





  • Hatay Provincemarker remained a part of the French Mandate of Syria according to the Treaty of Lausanne, but in 1938 gained its independence as the Hatay Statemarker, which later joined Turkey with a referendum in 1939. As of 2009 Syriamarker does not recognize the addition of Hatay Province to Turkey and continues to show it as a part of Syria on its maps.




See also



References

External links




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