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London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in Londonmarker on 26 April 1915 by the Kingdom of Italy, the United Kingdommarker, Francemarker and Russiamarker.

According to the pact, Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join Triple Entente, as already stated in a secret agreement signed in London, on 4-5 September 1914. Furthermore, Italy was to declare war against Germanymarker and Austria-Hungary within a month — and in fact the declaration of war was published 23 May of the same year. In exchange, Italy was to obtain some territorial gains (see Italia irredenta) at the end of the war.

Lands offered to Serbia by the Allies in 1915.

  1. Tyrol, up to the Alpine water divide, which includes the modern-day provinces of Trento (Trentino) and Bolzano-Bozen (South Tyrol).
  2. Triestemarker
  3. Gorizia and Gradisca
  4. Istriamarker, but not Fiumemarker(Rijeka)
  5. part of Inner Carniola (with the districts of Vipava, Idrijamarker and Ilirska Bistricamarker, but without Postojnamarker)
  6. Northern Dalmatia, including Zaramarker (Zadar) and most of the islands.
  7. Dodecanese
  8. Vlorëmarker
  9. Protectorate over Albaniamarker
  10. part of the German Asian and African colonial empire

To the Kingdom of Serbiamarker it was promised
  1. the Dalmatian coast between the Krka and Stonmarker, including the Pelješacmarker peninsula (Sabbioncello), the port of Splitmarker, and the island of Bračmarker.

The Kingdom of Montenegro was assigned
  1. the Dalmatian coast between Budvamarker and Stonmarker, including Dubrovnikmarker and the Kotor Baymarker, but without the Pelješacmarker peninsula;
  2. and the coast south to the Albanianmarker port Shengjinmarker (San Giovanni di Medua).

Also, but less precisely, Serbia was promised
  1. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  2. Sremmarker
  3. Bačkamarker
  4. Slavoniamarker (this one against the Italian objections),
  5. and some unspecified areas of Albania (to be divided between Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece).

The Italians insisted, and the Allies agreed, that the question of the Croatianmarker coast between Zara and Istria should be settled after the war. They also insisted that Serbia should not be informed about the agreements. This, however, the Allies overruled by sending to the Government of Serbia an official Note, dated 4 August 1915, confirming the postwar territorial claims of Serbia and Montenegro.

The pact was to be kept secret, but after the October Revolution, it was published by Russian journal Izvestia, in November 1917.

At the Paris Peace Conference, the Italians insisted that they would negotiate only with their wartime allies Serbia and Montenegro, not with defeated enemies included in delegation of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenesmarker. In particular they were incensed that three members of the delegation were former Austro-Hungarian deputies (Croats Ante Trumbić, Josip Smodlaka, and the Slovene Otokar Rybář), and that one (the Slovene Ivan Žolger) had served as Minister in the wartime Austrian Cabinet.

The pact was nullified with the Treaty of Versailles, because President Woodrow Wilson, supporting Slavic claims and not recognizing the treaty, rejected Italian requests on Dalmatian territories.

The Partition of the Tyrol was confirmed by the Treaty of St. Germain.

See also

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