London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra), or more
correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a
secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the Kingdom of
Italy, the United Kingdom, France and Russia.
According to the pact, Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance
and join Triple
Entente, as already stated in a secret agreement signed in London,
on 4-5 September 1914. Furthermore, Italy was to declare war against Germany and Austria-Hungary
within a month — and in fact the declaration of war was published
23 May of the same year.
Italy was to obtain some territorial gains (see Italia irredenta
) at the end of the
Lands offered to Serbia by the Allies
Serbia it was promised
- Tyrol, up to the Alpine water
divide, which includes the modern-day provinces of Trento (Trentino) and Bolzano-Bozen (South Tyrol).
- Gorizia and Gradisca
- Istria, but not
of Inner Carniola (with the districts
of Vipava, Idrija and Ilirska
Bistrica, but without
- Northern Dalmatia,
including Zara (Zadar) and
most of the islands.
- Protectorate over Albania
- part of the German Asian and African colonial empire
Dalmatian coast between the Krka and
Ston, including the Pelješac peninsula (Sabbioncello), the port of Split, and the island of Brač.
The Kingdom of Montenegro
Dalmatian coast between Budva and Ston, including
Dubrovnik and the Kotor
Bay, but without the Pelješac peninsula;
the coast south to the Albanian port Shengjin (San Giovanni di Medua).
Also, but less precisely, Serbia was promised
Italians insisted, and the Allies agreed, that the question of the
Croatian coast between Zara and Istria should be settled
after the war.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Slavonia (this one against the Italian
- and some unspecified areas of Albania (to be divided between
Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece).
They also insisted that Serbia should not be
informed about the agreements. This, however, the Allies overruled
by sending to the Government of Serbia an official Note, dated
4 August 1915
confirming the postwar territorial claims of Serbia and
The pact was to be kept secret, but after the October Revolution
, it was published by
Russian journal Izvestia
Paris Peace Conference, the Italians insisted that they would
negotiate only with their wartime allies Serbia and Montenegro, not
with defeated enemies included in delegation of the new Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
In particular they were incensed that three
members of the delegation were former Austro-Hungarian deputies
(Croats Ante Trumbić
, Josip Smodlaka
, and the Slovene Otokar Rybář
), and that one (the
Slovene Ivan Žolger
) had served as
Minister in the wartime Austrian Cabinet.
The pact was nullified with the Treaty of Versailles
, because President
, supporting Slavic
claims and not recognizing the treaty, rejected Italian requests on
The Partition of the Tyrol was confirmed by the Treaty of St. Germain