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Trieste ( , ; ; ) is a city and seaport in north eastern Italymarker. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of land lying between the Adriatic Seamarker and Italy's border with Sloveniamarker, which lies almost immediately south, east and north of the city. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Triestemarker and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Germanic, Latin and Slavic cultures. In 2009 it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trieste province.

Trieste was part of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century it was the most important port of one of the Great Powers of Europe. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterraneanmarker region Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Viennamarker, Budapestmarker, and Praguemarker). In the fin-de-siecle period, it emerged as an important hub for literature and music. However, the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Trieste's annexation to Italy after World War I led to a decline of its economic and cultural importance and, throughout the Cold War, Trieste was a peripheral city.

Today, Trieste is a border town. The population is an ethnic mix of the neighbouring regions. The dominant local dialect of Trieste is called Triestine language ("Triestin" - ), a form of Venetian. This dialect and the official Italian language are spoken in the city centre, while Slovene is spoken in several of the immediate suburbs. The Triestin and the Slovene languages are considered autochthonous of the area. There are also small numbers of Serbian, Croatian, German, Hungarian speakers.

The economy depends on the port and on trade with its neighbouring regions. Trieste is a lively and cosmopolitan city, with more than 7.7% of its population being from abroad, and it is rebuilding some of its former cultural, economic and political influence. The city is a major centre in the EU for trade, politics, culture, shipbuilding, education, transport and commerce. Trieste is also Italymarker and the Mediterraneanmarker's leading coffee port, the hometown of "Illy Caffè" and the supplier of more than 40% of Italy's coffee. The city is part of the "Corridor 5", which aims at ensuring a bigger transport connection between countries in Western Europe and Eastern European nations, such as Sloveniamarker, Croatiamarker, Hungarymarker, Ukrainemarker and Bosniamarker. This will be also a great impetus for a further boost to the economy of Trieste. Trieste is also home to some Italian mega-companies, such as Assicurazioni Generali, which was in 2005, Italy's 2nd and the world's 24th biggest company by revenue, after Hitachi and Carrefour.


Satellite view of Trieste.

Trieste is situated on the extreme limit of the Italian northeast, near the border with the Sloveniamarker, in the more northern part of high Adriaticmarker and lies on the Gulf of Triestemarker. The urban territory is mostly built upon a hill side that becomes a mountain: it is situated at the foot of an imposing escarpment that from the Kras Plateau comes down abruptly towards the sea. The Kras heights, close to the city, reach an altitude of 458 meters (1,502 ft) above sea level. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climatic zones according to the distance from the sea and/or elevation. The average temperatures are 6 °C (42.8 °F) in January and 24 °C (75.2 °F) in July. The climate can be severely affected by the Bora, a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind that can reach speeds of up to 200 kilometers per hour


Ancient era

The area of what is now Trieste was settled by the Carni, an Indo-European tribe (hence the name Carnia) in about the 3rd millennium BC. Subsequently the area was populated by the Histrimarker, an Illyrian people, who remained the main civilization until the 2000 BC, when the Veneti arrived.

After the war against the Histri the area became dominium of roman emperor from 177 BC, Tergeste was under the rule of the Roman republic. Trieste was granted the status of colony under Julius Caesar, who recorded its name as Tergeste in his Commentarii de bello Gallico (51 BC). The name Tergeste derived not from Latin extraction, but from venetic (trg and este, compare Opitergium, Atheste); morover Tergeste is defined "illyrian city" from Artemidorus of Ephesus (Artemidorus Ephesius) a Greek geographer, and "carnic" from Strabo (Greek: Στράβων; 63/64 BC – ca. AD 24)a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.

The roman colony seems to be gather from 52 BC when during the roman expansion to the alpine zones: in the cesar age the border was moved from Timavo to Formione (today Risano). Roman Tergeste has a prosper period due to the position as crossroads of Aquileia and Istria; and as harbour, some ruins are still visible. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) built the city wall 33-32 BC.

In the Early Christian era remain flourish city, and after the end of the Western Roman Empire (in 476), Trieste remained a Byzantine military centre, but in 567 AD was destroyed by Lombards, during their invasion of Italy. In 788 it became part of the Frankish kingdom, under the authority of their count-bishop. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century.

Habsburg Empire

After two centuries of war against the nearby major power, the Republic of Venicemarker (which occupied it briefly from 1369 to 1372), the burghers of Trieste petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austriamarker to become part of his domains. The agreement of cessation was signed in October 1382, in St. Bartholomew's church in the village of Šiška (apud Sisciam), today one of the city quarters of Ljubljanamarker. The citizens, however, maintained a certain degree of autonomy up until the 17th century.

Trieste became an important port and trade hub. In 1719, it was made a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, and remained a free port until 1 July 1891. The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of Austria, marked the beginning of a flourishing era for the city.

In 1768 the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann was murdered by a robber in Trieste, while on his way from Vienna to Italy.

Trieste was occupied by French troops three times during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797, 1805 and in 1809. Between 1809 and 1813, it was annexed to the Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status of free port and losing its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return of the city to the Austrian Empiremarker in 1813. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the Free Imperial City of Trieste (Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest), a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government. The city's role as main Austrian trading port and shipbuilding centre was later emphasized with the foundation of the merchant shipping line Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanità. By 1913 Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons. With the introduction of the constitutionalism in the Austrian Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was restored, with Trieste became capital of the Adriatiches Kustenland, the Austrian Littoral region.

A view of Trieste in 1885.

The particular Friulian dialect, called Tergestino, spoken until the beginning of the 20th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine (the local variant partially similar of the Venetian dialect) and other languages, including German grammar, and standard Slovene and Italian languages. While Triestine was spoken by the largest part of the population, German was the language of the Austrian bureaucracy and Slovene was predominant in the surrounding villages. From the last decades of the 19th century, Slovene language speakers grew steadily, reaching 25% of the overall population of Trieste in 1911 (30% of the Austro-Hungarian citizens in Trieste). A small number of the population spoke Croatian (around 1% in 1911), and the city also counted several other smaller ethnic communities, namely Czechs, Serbs and Greeks, which mostly assimilated either to the Italian or Slovene-speaking community.

The modern Austro-Hungarian Navy used Trieste's shipbuilding facilities for construction and as a base. The construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the Vienna-Trieste Austrian Southern Railway, was completed in 1857, a valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Trieste was a buzzing cosmopolitan city frequented by artists and pholisophes such as James Joyce, Italo Svevo, Sigmund Freud, Dragotin Kette, Ivan Cankar, Scipio Slataper, and Umberto Saba. The city was the major port of the Austrian Riviera, an enclave, the only one very real part of Mitteleuropa on the south of Alps. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses still dominate the streets of Trieste to this day.

Annexation, fall to Italy

Together with Trentomarker, Trieste was a main focus of the irredentist movement, which aimed for the annexation to Italy of all the lands they claimed were inhabited by an Italian speaking population. After the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved, and many of its border areas, including the Austrian Littoral, were disputed among its successor states. On November 3, 1918, Trieste was occupied by the Italian Army, but was officially annexed to the Kingdom of Italy only with the Treaty of Rapallo in 1920. The region was reorganized under a new administrative unit, known as the Julian March (Venezia Giulia).

The fall to Italy , however, brought a loss of importance for the city, with the new state border depriving it of its former hinterland. The Slovene ethnic group (around 25% of the population according to the 1911 census) suffered persecution by rising Italian Fascism. The period of violent persecution of Austrian and Slovenes began on April 13, 1920, when a group of filo-Italian Fascists burnt the Narodni dom ("National House"), the community hall of Trieste's Slovenes. After the emergence of the Fascist regime in 1922, a policy of Italianization began: public use of Slovene language was prohibited, all Slovene associations were dissolved, names and surnames of Slavic and German origin were Italianized. Several thousand Slovenes from Trieste, especially intellectuals, emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker and to South America, where many became prominent in their field. Among the notable Slovene emigés from Trieste were the writers Vladimir Bartol and Josip Ribičič, the legal theorist Boris Furlan, and the architect Viktor Sulčič.

In the late 1920s, Yugoslav irredentism started to appear, and the Slovene militant anti-fascist organization TIGR carried out several bomb attacks in the city centre. In 1930 and 1941, two trials against hundreds of Slovene activists were held in Trieste by the Special Tribunal for the Security of the State.

Despite the decline of the city's economic importance, the demise of its traditional multicultural and pluri-linguistic character, and emigration of many Slovene and big percentage of Austrian/German speakers, the overall population continued to grow. The Fascist Regime built several new infrastructures and public buildings, including the almost 70 m high Victory Lighthouse (Faro della Vittoria), which became one of the city's landmarks. The University of Trieste was also established in this period.

Several artistic and intellectual subcultures continued to swarm under the repressive Fascist regime. In the 1920s, the city was home to an important avant-gardist movement in visual arts, centred around the futurist Tullio Crali and the constructivist Avgust Černigoj. In the same period, Trieste consolidated its role as one of the centre of modern Italian literature, with authors such as Umberto Saba, Biagio Marin, Giani Stuparich, and Salvatore Satta. Among the non-Italian authors and intellectuals that remained in Trieste, the most notable were Julius Kugy, Boris Pahor and Stanko Vuk. Intellectuals were frequently associated with Caffè San Marco, a cafè in the city which remains open today.

World War II and its aftermath

After the constitution of the Italian Social Republic, on 23 September 1943, Trieste was nominally absorbed into this entity. The Germans, however, annexed it to the Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral, which included the whole Julian March, Friulimarker, the Province of Ljubljana, Gorski Kotar and the islands of Krkmarker and Rabmarker. The new administrative entity was headed by Friedrich Rainer. Under the Nazi occupation, the only concentration camp on Italian soil was built in a suburb of Trieste, at the Risiera di San Sabbamarker, on 4 April 1944. The city saw a strong Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity, and suffered from Allied bombings.

On April 30, 1945, the Italian anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee (Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale, or CLN) of don Marzari and Savio Fonda, constituted of approximately 3,500 volunteers, incited a riot against the German occupiers. On May 1, Allied forces of the Yugoslav Partisans' 8th Corps arrived and took over most of the city, except for the courts and the castle of San Giusto, where the German garrisons refused to surrender to any force other than New Zealanders. The 2nd New Zealand Division continued to advance towards Trieste along Route 14 around the northern coast of the Adriatic sea and arrived in the city the next day (see official histories The Italian Campaign and Through the Venetian Line). The German forces capitulated on the evening of May 2, but were then turned over to the Yugoslav forces.

The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until June 12, a period known in the Italian historiography as the "forty days of Trieste" During this period, hundreds of locals were arrested by the Yugoslav authorities, and some of them disappeared. These included former Fascists and Nazi collaborators, but also Italian nationalists, and any other real or potential opponents of Yugoslav Communism. Some were interned in Yugoslav concentration camps (mostly in Borovnica, Sloveniamarker), while others were allegedly murdered and thrown into the potholes ("foibemarker") on the Kras plateau.

After an agreement between the Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito and the British Field Marshal Harold Alexander, the Yugoslav forces withdrew from Trieste, which came under a joint British-U.S.marker military administration. The Julian March was divided between Anglo-American and Yugoslav military administration until September 1947, when the Paris Peace Treaty established the Free Territory of Trieste.

This particular political condition is still preview from U.N.O. treaty, every Nation of U.N.O. can ask for reintegration of "T.L.T."

Zone A of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947-54)

In 1947, Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line, established in 1945.

From 1947 to 1954, the A Zone was governed by the Allied Military Government, composed of the American "Trieste United States Troops" (TRUST), commanded by Major General Bryant E. Moore, the commanding general of the American 88th Infantry Division, and the "British Element Trieste Forces" (BETFOR), commanded by Sir Terence Airey, who were the joint forces commander and also the military governors. Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province of Trieste, except for four small villages south of Muggiamarker which were given to Yugoslavia after the dissolution of the Free Territory in 1954. Zone B, which remained under the military administration of the Yugoslav People's Army, was composed of the north-westernmost portion of the Istrianmarker peninsula, roughly between the coastal towns of Ankaranmarker and Novigrad.

In 1954, the Free Territory of Trieste was dissolved. The vast majority of Zone A, including the city of Trieste, was ceded to Italy. Zone B became part of Yugoslavia, along with four villages from the Zone A - (Plavjemarker, Spodnje Škofijemarker, Hrvatinimarker, and Jelarjimarker), and was divided among the Socialist Republic of Slovenia and Croatia. The annexation of Trieste to Italy was officially announced on 26 October 1954.

The final border line with Yugoslavia, and the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas, was settled in 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo. This line is now the border between Italymarker and Sloveniamarker.


During the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Trieste became a leading European city in economy, trade and commerce, and was the fourth largest and most important centre in the Empire, after Viennamarker, Budapestmarker and Praguemarker. The economy of Trieste, however, fell into huge decline after the city's annexation to Italy after World War I and was a mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the 1970s, Trieste has had a huge economic boom, thanks to a significant commercial shipping business to the container terminal, steel works and an oil terminal. Trieste is also Italymarker, Mediterraneanmarker's and one of Europe's greatest coffee ports, as the city supplies more than 40% of Italy's coffee. Coffee brands, such as Illy, were founded and are headquartered in the city. Currently, Trieste is one of Europe's most important ports and centres for trade and transport, with Trieste being part of the "Corrdior 5" plan, to create a bigger transport connection between Western and Eastern European countries. Also, nowadays, the Italian worldwide insurance company Assicurazioni Generali, is headquartered in the city, being in 2005 Italy's second biggest corporation after Eni, and the world's 24th greatest conglomerate for revenue, and 47th according to the Fortune Global 500 in 2009.


ISTAT 2007 [8903]
Trieste,FVG Italy
Median age 46 years 42 years
Under 18 years old 13.8% 18.1%
Over 65 years old 27.9% 20.1%
Foreign Population 6.2% 5.8%
Births/1,000 people 7.63 b 9.45 b

As of April 2009, there were 205,507 people residing in Trieste, located in the province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Trieste had lost roughly 1/3 of its population since the 1970s, due to the crisis of the historical industrial sectors of steel and shipbuilding, a dramatic drop in fertility rates and fast population aging. Minors (children aged 18 and younger) totalled 13.78 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 27.9 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Trieste declined by 3.5 percent, while Italymarker as a whole grew by 3.85 percent. However, in the last two years the city shown signs of stabilizing thanks to growing immigration fluxes. The crude birth rate in Trieste is only 7.63 per 1,000 one of the lowest in eastern Italy, while the Italian average is 9.45 births.

At the end of 2009, ISTAT estimated that there were 15,795 foreign born residents in Trieste, representing 7.7% of the total city population. The largest autochthonous minority are Slovenes, but there is also a large immigrant group from other Balkan nations (particularly nearby Croatiamarker, Albaniamarker and Romaniamarker): 4.95%, Asia: 0.52%, and sub-saharan Africa: 0.2%. Serbian community consists of both autochthonous and immigrant groups. Trieste is predominantly Roman Catholic, but also has large numbers of Orthodox Christians due to the city's large migrant population from Eastern Europe and its Balkan influence.

The city's most spoken language is Italian though there are many Slovene, Venetian and Friulian language speakers. There are also groups of German and Hungarian speakers.

Main sights

Trieste seafront.

Piazza Unità d'Italia.
Piazza Unità d'Italia by night


Trieste City Hall.
The old city stock exchange.

Miramare Castle

The Miramare Castle was built between 1856 and 1860 from a project by Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian. The Castle gardens provide a setting of beauty with a variety of trees, chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a remarkable collection. Features of particular attraction in the gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans and the other for lotus flowers, the Castle annexe ("Castelletto"), a bronze statue of Maximilian, and a small chapel where is kept a cross made from the remains of the "Novara", the flagship on which Maximilian, brother of Emperor Franz Josef, set sail to become Emperor of Mexico. During the existence of the Free Territory of Trieste, the castle served as headquarters for the United States Army's TRUST force.

Castle of San Giusto

Designed on the remains of previous castles on the site, it took almost two centuries to build. The stages of the development of the Castle's defensive structures are marked by the central part built under Frederick III (1470-1), the round Venetian bastion (1508-9), the Hoyos-Lalio bastion and the Pomis, or "Bastione fiorito" dated 1630.


  • The St. Justus Cathedralmarker.
  • The Serb-Orthodox Temple of Holy Trinity and St. Spyridon (1869). The building adopts the Greek-Cross plan with five cupolas in the Byzantine tradition.
  • The Basilica of St. Silvester (11th century)
  • The Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (1682)
  • The Church of San Nicolò dei Greci (1787). This church by the architect Matteo Pertsch (1818), with bell-towers on both sides of the facade, follows the Austrian late baroque style.
  • The Synagogue of Triestemarker (1912)

Archaeological remains

  • Arch of Riccardo (33 BC). It is a Roman gate built in the Roman walls in 33. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of the old town. It's called Arco di Riccardo ("Richard's Arch") because is believed to have been crossed by King Richard of England on the way back from the Crusades.
  • Basilica Forense (2nd century)
  • Palaeochristian basilica
  • Roman Age Temples" : one dedicated to Athena, one to Zeus, both on the S.Giusto hill.
The temple dedicated to Zeus ruins is next to the Forum , the Athenas is under the basilica, visitors can see his basement .

Roman theatre

Trieste or Tergeste, which probably dates back to the protohistoric period, was enclosed by walls built in 33–32 BC on Emperor Octavian’s orders. The city developed greatly during the 1st and 2nd centuries.

The Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and much of the theatre is made of stone. The topmost portion of the amphitheatre steps and the stage were supposedly made of wood.

The statues that adorned the theatre, brought back to light in the 1930s, are now preserved at the Town Museum. Three inscriptions from the Trajan period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, someone closely connected to the development of the theatre, which was erected during the second half of the 1st century.


In the whole Trieste province, there are 10 speleological groups out of 24 in the whole Friuli-Venezia Giulia region). The Trieste plateau (Altopiano Triestino), called Kras or the Carso and covering an area of about 200 km² within Italy has approximately 1500 caves of various sizes. Among the most famous are the Grotta Gigantemarker, the largest tourist cave in the world, with a single cavity large enough to contain St Peter's in Rome, and the Cave of Trebiciano (350 m deep) at the bottom of which flows the Timavo River. This river dives underground at Škocjan Caves in Slovenia (they are on UNESCO list) and flows about 30 km before emerging about 1 km from the sea in a series of springs near Duino, reputed by the Romans to be an entrance to Hades.




The University of Trieste is a medium-size state supported institution that consists of 12 faculties, boasts a wide and almost complete range of university courses and currently has about 23,000 students enrolled and 1,000 professors. It was founded in 1924.


Many famous authors lived and created their major works in Trieste. They include:

Italian language authors

Slovene language authors

German language authors

Authors of other languages


Trieste is notable for having had two clubs participating in the championships of two different nations at the same time during the period of the Free Territory of Trieste. Triestina played in the Italian Serie A. Although it faced relegation after the first season after the Second World War, the FIGC changed the rules to keep it in, as it was seen as important to keep a club of the city in the Italian league, while [Yugoslavia] had its eye on the city. In the championship of next season the club played its best seaon with a 3rd place finish.

Meanwhile, Yugoslavia bought A.S.D. Ponziana, a small team in Trieste, which under a new name, Amatori Ponziana Trst, played in the Yugoslavian league for 3 years. Triestina went bancrupt in the 1990s, but after being re-founded regained a position in the Italian second division Serie B in 2008. Ponziana was renamed as "Circolo Sportivo Ponziana 1912" and currently plays in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Group of Promozione, who is 7th level of Italian league.


The Porto Vecchio, also showing Trieste Centrale railway station
Trieste Centrale railway station
A car of the Opicina Tramway

Maritime transport

Trieste's maritime location and its former long term status as part of the Austrianmarker and Austro-Hungarian empires made its dock the major commercial port for much of the landlocked areas of central Europe. In the 19th century, a new port district known as the Porto Nuovo was built northeast to the city centre.

In modern times Trieste's importance as a port has declined, both due to the annexation to Italy, for Italy's wider choice of better located ports, and the competition with the nearby new port of Kopermarker in Sloveniamarker. However, there is significant commercial shipping to the container terminal, steel works and oil terminal, all located to the south of the city centre. After many years of stagnation, a change in the leadership placed the port on a steady growth path, recording a 40% increase in shipping traffic as of 2007.

Rail transport

Railways came early to Trieste, due to its port and the need to transport people and goods inland. The first railroad line to reach Trieste was the "Sudbahn" in 1857. This railroad stretched for 1400 km to Lvivmarker, Ukrainemarker, via Ljubljanamarker, Sloveniamarker; Sopronmarker,Hungarymarker; Viennamarker, Austriamarker; and Krakówmarker, Polandmarker, crossing the backbone of the Alps mountains through the Semmering Passmarker near Grazmarker. This railroad approaches Trieste through the village of Villa Opicinamarker, a few kilometres from the big city but over 300 metres higher in elevation. Due to this, the line takes a 32 kilometer detour to the north, gradually descending before terminating at the Trieste Centrale railway station.

A second trans-Alpine railway was dedicated in 1906, with the opening of the Transalpina Railway from Vienna, Austriamarker via Jesenice and Nova Goricamarker. This railway also approached Trieste via Villa Opicina, but it took a rather shorter loop southwards towards Trieste's other main railway station, the Trieste Campo Marzio railroad station, south of the central station. This line no longer operates, and the Campo Marzio station is now a railway museum.

To facilitate freight traffic between the two stations and the nearby dock areas, a temporary railway line known as the Rivabahn was built along the waterfront in 1887. This railway survived until 1981, when it was replaced by the Galleria di Circonvallazione, a 5.7 kilometer railway tunnel route, to the east of the city. Freight services from the dock area now include container services to northern Italy and to Budapest, Hungarymarker, together with truck piggyback services to Salzburg, Austriamarker and Frankfurt, Germanymarker.

Passenger rail service to Trieste now mostly consists of trains to and from Venice, Italymarker, connecting there with trains to Romemarker and Milanmarker at Mestremarker. These trains reach the Trieste central station via bypassing the Gulf of Triestemarker, connecting with the Sudbahn's northern loop. International trains between Italy and Slovenia now pass through Villa Opicina, bypassing Trieste.

Air transport

Trieste is served by Friuli Venezia Giulia Airportmarker, located at Ronchi near Monfalconemarker at the head of the Gulf of Trieste.

Local transport

Local public transport in Trieste is operated by Trieste Trasporti, which operates a network of around 60 bus routes and two boat services. They also operate the Opicina Tramway, a unique hybrid tramway and funicular railway that provides a more direct link between the city centre and Villa Opicina.

Other notable people

Architects, designers, and visual artists

Actors, musicians and performance artists


Journalists and authors

Politicians and public servants

Religious figures

Scholars, scientists and intellectuals



International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Trieste is twinned with:

See also


Further reading

External links

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