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The triple jump (sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump) is a track and field sport, similar to the long jump, but involving a “hop, step and jump” routine, whereby the competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a step and then a jump into the sand pit.

The triple jump has its origins in the Ancient Olympics and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games’ inception in 1896.

The current male and female world record holders are Jonathan Edwards of Great Britain, with a jump of , and Inessa Kravets of Ukraine, with a jump of .

History

The triple jump, or at least a variant involving three jumps one after the other, has its roots in the Ancient Greek Olympics, with records showing athletes attaining distances of more than 50 feet (15.24 m).

In Irish mythology the geal-ruith (triple jump), was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 B.C. Dunardy.net, ...contained in the Irish "Book of Leinster", which was written in the twelfth century AD...this book describes the Tailteann Games held at Telltown, County Meath from 1829 BC until at least 554 BC...included in these events...were the geal-ruith (triple jump).

The triple jump was a part of the inaugural 1896 Olympics in Athens, although back then it consisted of two hops on the same foot and then a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics also included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is rarely performed in competition today. The women’s triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996.

Technique

The athlete sprints down a runway until they reach a takeoff mark, from which the jump is measured. The takeoff mark is a board which is commonly implemented as a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board.

There are three phases of the triple jump, articulated in the original event name: the "hop" phase, the "step" phase, and the "jump" phase. These three phases are executed in one continuous sequence. The hop starts with the athlete jumping from the mark on his/her takeoff leg, and ends landing on the runway with the takeoff leg. The hop appears to be more of a "cycling" movement. The objective is to hop out as opposed to up. In the step, the athlete immediately jumps with the takeoff leg and lands on the runway with the opposite leg. The objective of the step is to cover as much runway as possible so one is as close to the pit as possible for the next phase. The step is followed by the jump, where the athlete jumps from that same non-takeoff leg and lands in a sand-filled pit. The jump phase is very similar to the long jump.Long jump is a different field event. In the long jump process, an athlete must hit the mark with his/her take off leg bringing the opposite leg bent and straight up;both legs must come in front of the athlete when landing inside the sand-filled pit. However, in both events if the athlete's takeoff foot lands in front of the board then,the athlete fouls. A "foul", also known as a "scratch" or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit entirely, does not use the correct foot sequences throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time (usually about one minute). When a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper who was "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump. To record a "scratch," a video camera is commonly used to avoid confusion and unfair calls. Triple jump is also involved in school track-and-fields.

Best year performance

Men's season's best

YEAR DISTANCE (m) ATHLETE PLACE
1970 17.34 Suhumimarker
1971 17.40 Calimarker
1972 17.44 Suhumimarker
1973 17.20 Moscowmarker
1974 17.23 Romemarker
1975 17.89 Mexico Citymarker
1976 17.38 Rio de Janeiromarker
1977 17.19 Sochimarker
1978 17.44 Bratislavamarker
1979 17.27 San Juan
1980 17.35 Moscowmarker
1981 17.56 Sacramentomarker
1982 17.57 Provo
1983 17.55 Moscowmarker
1984 17.46 Moscowmarker
1985 17.97 Indianapolismarker
1986 17.80 Budapestmarker
1987 17.92 Romemarker
1988 17.77 Sofiamarker
1989 17.62 Gorkiy
1990 17.93 Stockholmmarker
1991 17.78 Tokyomarker
1992 17.72 Zürichmarker
1993 17.86 Stuttgartmarker
1994 17.68 Parismarker
1995 18.29 Gothenburgmarker
1996 18.09 Atlantamarker
1997 17.85 Athensmarker
1998 18.01 Oslomarker
1999 17.59 Sevillemarker
2000 17.71 Sydneymarker
2001 17.92 Edmontonmarker
2002 17.86 Manchestermarker
2003 17.77 Hainamarker
2004 17.79 Athensmarker
2005 17.81 Lausannemarker
2006 17.71 Indianapolismarker
2007 17.90 Belémmarker
2008 17.67 Beijing


Women's seasons best

YEAR DISTANCE (m) ATHLETE PLACE
1986 13.68 Indianapolismarker
1987 14.04 Hamamatsu
1988 14.16 Shijiazhuangmarker
1989 14.52 Stockholmmarker
1990 14.54 Sapporo
1991 14.95 Moscowmarker
1992 14.62 Villeneuve d'Ascqmarker
1993 15.09 Stuttgartmarker
1994 14.98 Stara Zagoramarker
1995 15.50 Atlantamarker
1996 15.33 Sacramentomarker
1997 15.20 Athensmarker
1998 15.12 Tokyomarker
1999 15.07 Sevillemarker
2000 15.32 Yokohama
2001 15.25 Edmontonmarker
2002 14.95 Radèsmarker
2003 15.29 Romemarker
2004 15.34 Iraklionmarker
2005 15.11 ParismarkerHelsinkimarker
2006 15.02 Gothenburgmarker
2007 15.28 Osaka
2008 15.39 Beijing


Top ten performers

Accurate as of October 20, 2008.

Men

NB: These are the top 10 performers of all time, not the top 10 performances. Other legal jumps by people on this list that would exceed the shortest jump on this list are noted below the table.
MARK WIND ATHLETE VENUE DATE
18.29 1 1.3 Gothenburgmarker August 7, 1995
18.09 2 -0.4 Atlantamarker July 27, 1996
17.97 1.5 Indianapolismarker June 16, 1985
17.92 1.6 Romemarker August 31, 1987
17.92 1.9 Odessamarker May 20, 1995
17.90 0.4 Belémmarker May 20, 2007
17.90 1.0 Bratislavamarker June 20, 1990
17.89 0.0 Mexico Citymarker October 15, 1975
17.87 3 1.7 San Josemarker June 26, 1987
17.86 1.3 Kobe September 2, 1985


  • 1 Edwards also has legal jumps of 18.16, 18.01, 18.00, 17.99, 17.98, 17.92, 17.88 and 17.86 m. As of October 2008, he has six of the top 11 jumps of all time. The longest wind aided jump of 18.43(+2.4) was also performed by Edwards.
  • 2 Harrison also has legal jumps of 17.99m and 17.93 m.
  • 3 Conley also has a legal jump of 17.86 m and wind aided jump of 18.17 (+2.1) in Olympic Games Barcelona 92


Women

NB: Again, these are the top 10 performers of all time, not the top 10 performances.
MARK WIND ATHLETE VENUE DATE
15.50 1 1.9 Gothenburgmarker August 10, 1995
15.40 2 0.5 Beijing August 17, 2008
15.34 3 -0.5 Heraklionmarker July 4, 2004
15.32 4 0.9 Athensmarker August 21, 2004
15.29 5 0.3 Romemarker July 11, 2003
15.28 0.9 Osaka August 31, 2007
15.20 0.0 Athensmarker August 4, 1997
15.20 -0.3 Sydneymarker September 24, 2000
15.18 0.3 Gothenburgmarker August 10, 1995
15.16 0.1 Athensmarker August 4, 1997


  • 1 Kravets also has a legal jump of 15.33 m.
  • 2 Mbango Etone also has legal jumps of 15.30 and 15.19 m.
  • 3 Lebedeva also has legal jumps of 15.33, 15.32, 15.25, 15.23, 15.17 and 15.18 m.
  • 4 Devetzi also has legal jumps of 15.25 and 15.23 m.
  • 5 Aldama also has legal jumps of 15.28, 15.27 and 15.21 m.


World record progression

Men's world record progression

DISTANCE NAME ATHLETE DATE PLACE
15.52 m 1911-05-30 New Yorkmarker, U.S.marker
15.525 m 1924-07-12 Parismarker, Francemarker
15.58 m 1931-10-27 Tokyo, Japanmarker
15.72 m 1932-08-14 Los Angelesmarker, U.S.marker
15.78 m 1935-12-14 Sydney, Australiamarker
16.00 m 1936-08-06 Berlin, Germanymarker
16.00 m 1950-12-03 São Paulomarker, Brazilmarker
16.01 m 1951-09-30 Rio de Janeiromarker, Brazilmarker
16.12 m 1952-07-23 Helsinki, Finlandmarker
16.22 m 1952-07-23 Helsinki, Finlandmarker
16.23 m 1953-07-19 Moscowmarker, Soviet Unionmarker
16.56 m 1955-03-26 Mexico City, Mexicomarker
16.59 m 1958-07-19 Moscowmarker, Soviet Unionmarker
16.70 m 1959-05-03 Nalchikmarker, Soviet Unionmarker
17.03 m 1960-08-05 Olsztynmarker, Polandmarker
17.10 m 1968-10-16 Mexico City, Mexicomarker
17.22 m 1968-10-17 Mexico City, Mexicomarker
17.23 m 1968-10-17 Mexico City, Mexicomarker
17.27 m 1968-10-17 Mexico City, Mexicomarker
17.39 m 1968-10-17 Mexico City, Mexicomarker
17.40 m 1971-08-05 Cali, Colombiamarker
17.44 m 1972-10-17 Sukhumimarker, Soviet Unionmarker
17.89 m 1975-10-15 Mexico City, Mexicomarker
17.97 m 1985-06-16 Indianapolismarker, U.S.marker
17.98 m 1995-07-18 Salamanca, Spainmarker
18.16 m 1995-08-07 Gothenburg, Swedenmarker
18.29 m 1995-08-07 Gothenburg, Swedenmarker


Women's world record progression

DISTANCE NAME ATHLETE DATE PLACE
NON-RATIFIED BY THE IAAF
10.32 m 1922-05-13 Mamaronek, U.S.marker
10.50 m 1923-07-23 Genevemarker, Switzerlandmarker
11.62 m 1926-10-17 Harbinmarker, Chinamarker
11.66 m 1939-10-21 Unknown
12.22 m 1959-06-18 Street, United Kingdommarker
12.43 m 1981-05-09 Austin, U.S.marker
12.47 m 1982-05-07 Austin, U.S.marker
12.51 m 1983-05-06 Austin, U.S.marker
12.98 m 1983-05-07 Baton Rougemarker, U.S.marker
13.15 m 1984-03-24 Austin, U.S.marker
13.21 m 1984-04-13 Baton Rougemarker, U.S.marker
13.58 m 1985-05-30 Austin, U.S.marker
13.68 m 1986-06-05 Indianapolismarker, U.S.marker
13.71 m 1987-05-02 Los Angelesmarker, U.S.marker
13.73 m 1987-05-17 Tuscaloosa, U.S.marker
13.78 m 1987-06-06 Baton Rougemarker, U.S.marker
13.85 m 1987-06-26 San Josemarker, U.S.marker
14.04 m 1987-10-11 Hamamatsu, Japan
14.16 m 1988-04-23 Shijiazhuangmarker, PR Chinamarker
14.52 m 1989-07-02 Stockholm, Swedenmarker
OFFICIALLY RATIFIED BY THE IAAF
14.54 m 1990-08-25 Sapporo, Japan
14.95 m 1991-06-10 Moscowmarker, Soviet Unionmarker
15.09 m 1993-08-21 Stuttgart, Germanymarker
15.50 m 1995-08-10 Gothenburg, Swedenmarker


Other famous triple jumpers



See also



References


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