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Tropical Storm Henri was a tropical storm that formed in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The eighth storm of the season, Henri was one of six tropical cyclones to hit the United States in the year. Henri formed from a tropical wave in the Gulf of Mexicomarker in early September, and crossed over Floridamarker as a tropical depression. Its remnants later moved into the Mid-Atlantic before dissipating completely.

Henri caused little damage as a tropical cyclone. In Florida, it dropped heavy rainfall, though damage was limited to minor flooding damage. In Delawaremarker and Pennsylvaniamarker, damage was greater, where heavy rainfall damaged hundreds of houses and businesses. The resulting floods in Delaware were described as a 1 in 500 year event. The total damage by Henri along its path amounted to $19.6 million (2003 USD, $21.5 million 2006 USD), but no deaths were reported.

Meteorological history

On August 22, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa, and it moved westward across the Atlantic Oceanmarker and Caribbean Seamarker without developing significantly. On September 1 the wave axis entered the Gulf of Mexicomarker, and upon doing so convection steadily organized around a low-level center of circulation. The system moved northward and developed into Tropical Depression Twelve on September 3 while located about 300 miles (480 kilometers) west of Tampa, Floridamarker. Embedded within a slow mid-latitude trough, the depression moved eastward and strengthened into Tropical Storm Henri on September 5.

Despite strong southwesterly vertical shear, Henri continued intensifying while moving eastward, and reached a peak strength of 60 mph (95 km/h) later on September 5. Shortly thereafter, though, the shear greatly weakened the storm, and it was downgraded to a tropical depression. Henri was not able to recover its intensity, and made landfall near Clearwater, Floridamarker on September 6 as a 35 mph (55 km/h) tropical depression, and quickly crossed the state as it accelerated to the northeast. Despite initial predictions of re-intensification over open waters due to potentially lower shear, Henri failed to re-strengthen and degenerated into a remnant low pressure area on September 8 off the coast of North Carolinamarker.

The broad and disorganized remnant low remained nearly stationary due to a ridge of high pressure to its north. Residual convection within the remnants of Henri remained disorganized, but forecasters kept watch for the potential for redevelopment. However, it moved inland near Cape Hatterasmarker on September 12 without reorganizing. The remnants continued to the north and dissipated on September 17 over New Englandmarker.

Preparations

The National Hurricane Center issued a Tropical Storm Warning from Englewoodmarker to Indian Pass, Floridamarker while Henri was a tropical depression; however, warnings were discontinued by the time Henri made landfall. Flood warnings were issued across the state prior to the storm making landfall, with predictions of 5 to 10 inches (125 – 255 mm) of rainfall. As a result of the storm's approach, twelve shelters were placed on standby. Similarly, the Hurricane Shelter Information Hotline was placed on standby and ready to be activated within 10 minutes. Levy Countymarker officials declared a state of emergency. There, sand bags and sand were sent to Cedar Keymarker, Yankeetownmarker, and Inglismarker in anticipation for storm surge and flooding.

Impact

Rainfall totals from Henri
Henri dropped heavy rainfall along its path, with the worst of the flooding occurring in Delawaremarker. The storm caused $19.6 million in damage (2003 USD), primarily in Delaware.

Florida, Bahamas, and Bermuda

Prior to making landfall, the storm produced strong waves on the Florida west coast. Following a summer of tropical moisture in Floridamarker, Henri brought more heavy rainfall to the saturated state, peaking at 9.09 in (230 mm) in Hialeahmarker in the southeast portion of the state. Two other areas experienced over 7 in (180 mm), though most areas received only light rainfall. In Hernando Countymarker, a stationary thunderstorm dropped over 5 in (125 mm) of rain in around an hour. It caused a rapid flooding of roads, though quickly retreated. Damage was minor, due to lack of many homes in the area. A feeder band in Charlotte Countymarker dropped 7 in (180 mm) of rain in three hours, flooding numerous streets and homes. Throughout Florida, damage was minimal, and there were no deaths. However, lightning from a feeder band injured a man in Lee Countymarker, while an indirect injury occurred from a car crash due to hydroplaning.

In the Bahamasmarker, outer rainbands from Henri dropped around 1 inch (25 mm) of rain. Winds in the archipelago gusted to 32 mph (51 km/h). Just days after Hurricane Fabian struck Bermudamarker, moisture from Henri brought thunderstorms and heavy rainfall and thunderstorms totaling to 2.44 inches (62 mm) at the airportmarker. This hindered cleanup efforts, though caused no known damage.

Mid-Atlantic

In North Carolinamarker, Virginiamarker, and Marylandmarker, rainfall was generally light, with the exception of a few areas receiving over 3 inches (75 mm). Henri produced greater amounts of rain in Delawaremarker and Pennsylvaniamarker, with a peak of 9.02 in (229 mm) in Hockessinmarker. In Downingtown, Pennsylvaniamarker, over eight inches (203 mm) of rain fell in around six hours, while Doppler Radar estimated that Kennett Squaremarker received over 10 inches (255 mm) in a five hour period. The heavy rainfall led to record discharge rates along the Red Clay Creek, which also had a record crest peaking at just below 26 feet (8 m). Parts of the river saw a 500-year flood, which has a 0.2% chance of occurring in any given year. Numerous rivers in southeastern Pennsylvaniamarker also crested above their flood stage.

In Delawaremarker, the flooding damaged numerous houses, including 194 in the Glenvillemarker area. The rapid flooding trapped numerous people in their cars and homes, forcing at least one rescue by helicopter. Those people were evacuated to nearby schools. The severe flooding washed out most of a bridge in Hockessin and destroyed 6 Wilmington & Western Railroad bridges, causing about $5 million (2003 USD, $5.5 million 2006 USD) in damage. The railroad bridges were still being rebuilt as of 2006. Greenbank Mill, a historic gristmill complex, saw $450,000 in damage. Damage in Delaware totaled to $16.1 million (2003 USD, $17.5 million 2006 USD).

Flash flooding in Pennsylvania resulted in 2,600 emergency 911 calls and around 100 rescues for cars or houses. The flooding destroyed 12 homes, and damaged 336, over half of them severely. Wet soil downed trees and power lines, causing power outages to 109,000 PECO Energy customers. High floodwaters damaged 22 bridges and closed 2 indefinitely, while the flooding closed several roads, including a portion of U.S. Highway 1 in Chadds Fordmarker. Damage in Pennsylvania totaled to $3.5 million (2003 USD, $3.8 million 2006 USD). The impacts were severely compounded the following week by Hurricane Isabel across the region.

Aftermath

On September 23, just days after the storm moved through, President George W. Bush declared New Castle County, Delawaremarker as a disaster area following the effects of Henri and later Hurricane Isabel. The declaration designated the affected citizens eligible for grants to pay for temporary housing, house repairs, and serious disaster-related expenses. The declaration also allowed for federal funding for 75% of the repair cost for replacing public facilities. By two months after the storm, 659 residents had applied for disaster aid through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), totaling to just over $1 million (2003 USD, $1.1 million 2006 USD). 141 small businesses applied for loans, totaling to around $2.5 million (2003 USD, $2.75 million 2006 USD). In addition, FEMA received 183 applications for public assistance, which would be used for rebuilding public roads and buildings. Over twenty volunteer organizations met to establish a long-term committee to find resources for disaster recovery needs. One goal sought by the committee was to find a permanent housing solution for every one who was displaced from their houses from the storms. Volunteers also helped remove ruined appliances and furniture to local landfills, totaling to more than 300 tons. State and county governments in Delaware purchased 171 homes following the damage in the Glenville area, the highest number of houses purchased in the state due to storm damage. The house purchasing was done to mitigate the flood damage by restoring the area as a wetland.

On September 26, President Bush also declared Chester County, Pennsylvaniamarker as a disaster area following the damage of Henri, Tropical Storm Isabel, and severe flooding unrelated to either tropical cyclone. By a month after the declaration, 342 homeowners and business owners applied for disaster aid, totaling to around $600,000 (2003 USD, $660,000 2006 USD).

Because the damage was localized and overall minimal, the name Henri was not retired, and it is scheduled to be used next the 2009 season.

See also



References




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