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Tropical cyclone basins: Map

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[[Image:7 zones dels ciclons tropicals.jpg|right|380px|thumb|WMO]] Monitoring Institutions
Basin Responsible RSMCs and TCWCs
Northern Atlantic National Hurricane Center (USA)
North central Pacific Central Pacific Hurricane Center (USA)
Northeastern Pacific National Hurricane Center (USA)
Northwestern Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
Northern Indian Indian Meteorological Department
Southwestern Indian Météo-France
South and

Southwestern Pacific
Fiji Meteorological Service

Meteorological Service of New Zealand

Papua New Guinea National Weather Service

Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)
Southeastern Indian Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)

Indonesian Meteorological and Geophysical Agency
: Indicates a Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre
]]

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Oceanmarker, the eastern and western parts of the Pacific Oceanmarker (considered separately because tropical cyclones rarely form in the central Pacific), the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceansmarker, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones (at least of Category 3 intensity).

Northwestern Pacific Ocean



The Northwest Pacific Ocean is the most active basin on the planet. Annually, an average of 25.7 tropical cyclones in the basin acquire tropical storm strength or greater; also, an average of 16 typhoons occurred each year during the 1968–1989 period. The basin occupies all the territory north of the equator and west of the International Date Linemarker, including the South China Seamarker. The basin sees activity year-round; however, tropical activity is at its minimum in February and March.

Tropical storms in this region often affect Chinamarker, Japanmarker, South Koreamarker, Hong Kongmarker, the Philippinesmarker, and Taiwanmarker, as well as countries in Southeast Asia such as Vietnammarker and parts of Indonesiamarker, plus numerous Oceanian islands. This is by far the most active basin, accounting for one-third of all tropical cyclone activity. The coast of Chinamarker sees the most landfalling tropical cyclones worldwide. The Philippines archipelago receives an average of 6-7 tropical cyclone landfalls per year.

North Central Pacific Ocean

The North Central Pacific basin begins at the boundary with the Northeastern Pacific (at 140 °W), and ends at the International Date Linemarker, where the Northwestern Pacific begins. The hurricane season in the North Central Pacific runs annually from June 1 to November 30; The Central Pacific Hurricane Center is the RSMC for this basin and monitors the storms that develop or move into the defined area of responsibility. The agency previously tasked with monitoring tropical activity in the basin was originally known as the Joint Hurricane Warning Center; today it is called the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.

Central Pacific hurricanes are rare and on average 4 to 5 storms form or move in this area annually. As there are no large contiguous landmasses in the basin, direct hits and landfall are rare; however, they occur occasionally, as with Hurricane Iniki in 1992, which made landfall on Hawaiimarker, and Hurricane Ioke in 2006, which made a direct hit on Johnston Atollmarker.

Northeastern Pacific Ocean



The Northeastern Pacific is the second most active basin and has the highest number of storms per unit area. The hurricane season runs between May 15 and November 30 each year, and encompasses the vast majority of tropical cyclone activity in the region. In the 1971–2005 period, there were an average of 15–16 tropical storms, 9 hurricanes, and 4–5 major hurricanes (storms of Category 3 intensity or greater) annually in the basin.

Storms that form here often affect western Mexicomarker, and less commonly the Continental United States (in particular Californiamarker), or northern Central America. No hurricane included in the modern database has made landfall in California; however, historical records from 1858 speak of a storm that brought San Diegomarker winds over 75 mph/65 kts (marginal hurricane force), though it is not known if the storm actually made landfall. Tropical storms in 1939, 1976 and 1997 brought gale-force winds to California.

Northern Atlantic Ocean



This region includes the North Atlantic Oceanmarker, the Caribbean Seamarker, and the Gulf of Mexicomarker. Tropical cyclone formation here varies widely from year to year, ranging from one to over twenty-five per year. Most Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes form between June 1 and November 30. The United Statesmarker National Hurricane Center monitors the basin and issues reports, watches and warnings about tropical weather systems for the Atlantic Basin as one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres for tropical cyclones as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. On average, 10 to 11 named storms (of tropical storm or higher strength) occur each season, with an average of six becoming hurricanes and two becoming major hurricanes. The climatological peak of activity is around September 10 each season.

The United Statesmarker Atlantic coast, Mexicomarker, Central America, the Caribbean Islandsmarker, and Bermudamarker are frequently affected by storms in this basin. Venezuela, the south-east of Canada and Atlantic Macaronesian islandsmarker also are occasionally affected. Many of the more intense Atlantic storms are Cape Verde-type hurricanes, which form off the west coast of Africa near the Cape Verdemarker islands. Occasionally, a hurricane that evolves into an extratropical cyclone can reach western Europe, including Hurricane Gordon, which spread high winds across Spainmarker and the British Islesmarker in September 2006. Hurricane Vince, which made landfall on the southwestern coast of Spainmarker as a tropical depression in October 2005, is the only known system to impact mainland Europe as a tropical cyclone.

North Indian Ocean

This basin is divided into two areas by India: the Bay of Bengalmarker and the Arabian Seamarker, with the Bay of Bengal dominating (5 to 6 times more activity). Still, this basin is the most inactive worldwide, with only 4 to 6 storms per year. This basin's season has a double peak: one in April and May, before the onset of the monsoon, and another in October and November, just after. Although it is an inactive basin, the deadliest tropical cyclones in the world have formed here, including the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed 500,000 people. Nations affected include Indiamarker, Bangladeshmarker, Sri Lankamarker, Thailandmarker, Myanmarmarker, and Pakistanmarker. Rarely do tropical cyclones that form in this basin affect the Arabian Peninsula or Somaliamarker; however, Cyclone Gonu caused heavy damage in Oman on the peninsula in 2007.

South Pacific Ocean

Tropical activity in this region largely affects Australia and Oceania. Tropical storms rarely reach the vicinity of Brisbanemarker, Australia and into New Zealandmarker, usually during or after extratropical transition. The entire basin sees an average of about nine cyclones annually. Very few cyclones in this regions have been recorded to have reached Category 5, one of which was Cyclone Larry in 2006.

South-East Indian Ocean

Tropical activity in this region affects Australia and Indonesiamarker. According to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the most frequently hit portion of Australia is between Exmouthmarker and Broome in Western Australiamarker. The basin sees an average of about seven cyclones each year, although more can form or come in from other basins, like the South Pacific. Only about five cyclones reach Category 5 each year. The tropical cyclone Cyclone Vance in 1999 produced the highest recorded speed winds in an Australian town or city at around 267 km/h.

South-West Indian Ocean



Despite nearly a half century of historical data, research at Reunion Island into tropical cyclones has been a priority only since 1999, when Météo-France began assigning additional personnel for research purposes. Cyclones forming in this area can affect Madagascarmarker, Mozambiquemarker, Mauritiusmarker, Réunionmarker, Comorosmarker, Tanzania, and Kenyamarker. An average of about ten tropical cyclones form in this basin per year, and this basin, annually, is the deadliest worldwide, with up to 80 deaths in every season.

Other areas

Cyclones form rarely or never in other tropical ocean areas, which are not formally considered tropical cyclone basins. Tropical depressions and tropical storms occur occasionally in the South Atlanticmarker, and the only full-blown tropical cyclone on record was the 2004 Cyclone Catarina with landfall in Brazilmarker.

See also



References




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