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Troyes ( ) is a commune, the préfecture (capital) of the north-eastern Aubemarker département in France and is located on the Seinemarker river. It is around south-east of Parismarker. The inhabitants of the commune are called Troyens, Troyennes

History

For the ecclesiastical history, see bishopric of Troyes
Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa which led north to Reimsmarker and south to Langresmarker and eventually to Milan; other Roman routes from Troyes led to Poitiersmarker, Autunmarker and Orléansmarker. It was the civitas of the Tricasses, who had been separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, but no public monuments, other than traces of an aqueduct. By the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent, and referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes ("three").

The city was the seat of a bishop from the fourth century — the legend of its bishop Lupus , who saved the city from Attila by offering himself as hostage is hagiographic rather than historical — though it was several centuries before it gained importance as a medieval centre of commerce.

In the early cathedral on the present site, Louis the Stammerer in 878 received at Troyes the imperial crown from the hands of Pope John VIII. At the end of the ninth century, following depredations to the city by Normans, the counts of Champagne chose Troyes as their capital; it remained the capital of the Province of Champagne until the Revolution. The Abbey of Saint-Loupmarker developed a renowned library and scriptorium. During the Middle Ages, it was an important trading town, and gave its name to troy weight. The Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade and new extension of coinage and credit were the real engines that drove the medieval economy of Troyes.

In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the town kept a number of its traditional privileges. John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and ally of the English, aimed in 1417 at making Troyes the capital of France, and he came to an understanding with Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI of France, that a court, council, and parlement with comptroller's offices should be established at Troyes. It was at Troyes, then in the hands of the Burgundians, that on 21 May, 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed by which Henry V of England was betrothed to Catherine, daughter of Charles VI, and by terms of which he was to succeed Charles, to the detriment of the Dauphin. The high watermark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, and Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429.
Cathédrale Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul de Troyes (1549).
Town Hall of Troyes.
The great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, in spite of the city's numerous canals.

Economy

Troyes is home to the Lacoste company production headquarters, one of the most popular brands of fashion in the Western World.

Sights

  • Many half-timbered houses (mainly of the 16th century) survive in the old town.
  • Hôtels Particuliers (palaces) of the old town : Hôtel de Marisy, Hôtel du Lion Noir...
  • The Hôtel de Ville, Place Alexandre Israël, is an urbane example of the style Louis XIII. On the central corps de logis which contains the main reception rooms, its cornice is rhythmically broken forward over paired Corinthian columns which are supported below by strong clustered pilasters. Above the entrance door the statue of Louis XIV was pulled out of its niche and smashed in 1793, during the Reign of Terror at the height of the French Revolution; it was replaced in the nineteenth century with the present Helmeted Minerva and the device in its original form, now rare to see "Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité, ou la Mort"
In the Salle du Conseil (Council Chamber) a marble medallion of Louis XIV (1690) by François Girardon, born at Troyes, survived unscathed.

Museums

  • Museum of Modern Art (Musée d'Art Moderne)
  • Maison de l'outil et de la pensée ouvrière
  • Vauluisant Museum :
    • Historical museum of Troyes and Champagne-Ardenne
    • Museum of hosiery
  • Hôtel-Dieu-Lecomte apothecary
  • Saint-Loup Museum (Museum of fine arts)
  • Di Marco Museum (Open from 1 April to 1 October, each year)


Churches

Cathedral western front.
Not having suffered from the last wars, Troyes has a high density of old religious buildings grouped close to the downtown area. They include:
  • Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Cathedralmarker
  • Saint-Nizier Church, in Gothic and Renaissance style, with remarkable sculptures. Classified Monument Historique ( french equivalence) in 1840.
  • the Gothic Saint-Urbain Basilica (thirteenth century), with a roofing covered by polished tiles. Proclaimed basilica in 1964, it was built by Jacques Pantaléon, elected pope in 1261, under the name of Urbain IV, on grounds where the workshop of his father was. Classified Monument Historique in 1840.
  • Sainte-Madeleine Church. Glittery jube sculpted by Jean Gailde, with a statue of Saint Martha. Saint Jean district. Classified Monument historique in 1840.
  • the Saint-Jean Church, with a Renaissance chancel, tabernacle of the high altar by Giraudon. On the portal, coat of arms of Charles IX. Classified Monument Historique in 1840.
  • the Gothic Saint-Nicolas Church, dating to te beginning of the sixteenth century, with a calvary chapel shaped rostrum is reached by a monumental staircase. On the south portal, two sculptures by François Gentil: David and Isaiah.
  • Saint-Pantaléon Church, with numerous statuary from the sixteenth century.
  • Saint Remy Church. It includes a crooked spire, from a height of 60 m, its external clock with only one hand, a sundial with the Latin lettering sicut umbra dies nostri super terram ("our days on earth pass like the shade").
  • church of Saint-Martin-ès-Vignes. It has stained glass windows of the seventeenth century by the local master-verrier Linard Gontier.


Demography

houses in the old town.
houses in the old town.
1962 67,545
1968 74,896
1975 72,165
1982 63,579
1990 59,255
1999 60,958
2006 63,044


Miscellaneous

Troyes is the home of association football club Troyes AC, or ESTAC. ESTAC operated in the highest division of French football, the Ligue 1 during the 2006-2007 season but were relegated to Ligue 2.

The city center of Troyes is arranged in the shape of a champagne cork.

Troyes is also the home of the world-champion chocolate maker, Pascal Caffet. His creations have won a series of awards, which can be found on his website, http://www.pascal-caffet.com/. This website is currently only in French.

Births

Troyes was the birthplace of:

Twin towns - sister cities

Troyes is twinned with:



See also



References

External links




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