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Tsaritsa ( ; ), formerly spelled czaritsa (and in English usually tsarina or czarina, with the German feminine suffix), is the title of a female autocratic ruler (monarch) of Bulgariamarker or Russiamarker, or the title of a Tsar's wife.

Tsaritsa was the official title of the female supreme ruler in the following states:

  • Bulgariamarker in 913–1018, in 1185–1422 and in 1908–1946
  • Serbiamarker in 1346–1371
  • Russiamarker from about 1547 until 1917.

In the Monarchy

Since 1721, the official titles of the Russian male and female monarchs were Emperor ( , imperator) and Empress ( , imperatritsa), respectively, or Empress Consort.

Several Tsaritsas were the rulers of Russia including Catherine I (reigned 1725–27), Anna (1730–40), Elizabeth (1741–62) and Catherine the Great (1762–96).

Tsaritsa by Marriage

Others who gained the title by marrying a Tsar were Elizabeth Alexeevna, Alexandra Fyodorovna , Maria Alexandrovna, Maria Fyodorovna and Eleonore of Reuss-Köstritz, who became Tsaritsa of Bulgaria following her marriage to Tsar Ferdinand.

Last Tsaritsas of Russia and Bulgaria

The last Russian Tsaritsa was Alexandra Fyodorovna who was married to Nicholas II of Russia. The last Bulgarian Tsaritsa was Giovanna of Italy, the wife of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria.

See also

For Tsar's daughters see Tsarevna.

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