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Tsomoriri or Lake Moriri (official name: Tsomoriri Wetland Conservation Reserve), in the Changthang (literal meaning, northern plains) area, is a High Altitude Lake (HAL) with an altitude of in Ladakhmarker, Indiamarker and is the largest of the High Altitude Lakes in the Trans-Himalayan biogeographic region, entirely within Indiamarker. It is hemmed between Ladakhmarker in the North and Tibet in the east and Zanskar in the west; the Changthang plateau is the geographical setting with snow peaks that provides the source of water for the Lake. Accessibility to the lake is limited to summer season only. Tsokar means salty lake in local language and salt was extracted from this lake in earlier times, till the end of 1959, for consumption by the local people.

Topography

As per a classification of the Himalayanmarker Lakes done on the basis of their origin, there are four groups and Tsomoriri falls under the third group of “Remnant Lakes". The classification as reported states: (i) Glacial lakes which are formed in and around glaciers; (ii) Structural lakes, formed by folds or faults due to movements in earth’s crust (e.g. Nainitalmarker lake in Uttaranchalmarker), (iii) Remnant lakes which were originally structural but represent the remnants of vast lakes (e.g., Tsomoriri, Tso Kar, Pangong Tsomarker in Ladakhmarker, and Dal Lakemarker in Kashmirmarker), (iv) Natural dammed lakes i.e., temporary water bodies formed along the river courses due to deposition of rocks or debris e.g. Gohna Tal in Garhwalmarker, Uttaranchal.The Changthang plateau in the eastern Ladakh represents a landscape of low productive Ecosystems which protects unique floral and faunal species.The area is an extension of the western Tibetan plateaumarker that lies above msl and supports diverse but low populations of several globally threatened mammals. The Lake's basin could also be categorised as an endorheic basin since it is a closed drainage basin that retains water and allows no outflow to other bodies of water such as rivers or oceans.

Tso Moriri Lake, Korzok, in Ladakh.
The lake is surrounded by the elevated valley of Rupshu with hills rising to . “Changpas", the nomadic migratory shepherds (pastoral community) of yak, sheep, goat, and horses of Tibetan origin and who are engaged in trade and work on caravans in Ladakhmarker region, are the main inhabitants of the area.. Changpa herders use the land of this valley as grazing ground and for cultivation.

The Working Report (2006) of the Planning Commission of the Government of India also reports: Despite a poor vegetation cover, relatively low standing biomass and high anthropogenic pressure, this area sustains a considerably high livestock population. Steady increase in the livestock population in the area is mainly attributed to influx of nomadic herders from Tibet during recent decades and promotion of Pashmina goat production by the Animal Husbandry Department (AHD) for fine quality under wool (Pashmina). The herders and AHD officials, in recent years have begun to raise concern over degradation of pastures, resultant shortage of forage, and mass mortality of livestock during severe winters.The Korzok Monasterymarker, on the western bank of the lake is 400 years old and attracts tourists and Buddhist pilgrims. Tourism during May – September attracts large number of foreign and local tourists even though tented accommodation is the facility available, apart from a small PWD guest house close to the Lake.

Access

The lake is located to the Southeast of Lehmarker in Eastern Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmirmarker, at a road distance of . Leh is also connected by Air with many destinations in India.

Hydrology and water quality

The Lake, draining a catchment area of is enclosed by rolling hills of the Tibetan cold desert on the western side with steep hills and by the Pare Chu, which flows on the southern side. Another wetland, the Nuro Sumdo (with a catchment area of ), lies between Tsomoriri in the north, and the Pare Chu in the south, a bog which drains into the Pare Chu. Several small mountain streams feed the Lake notably through pasture land at Peldo Le. The lake is fed by springs and snow melt and has a maximum depth of . Aridity and cold desert conditions prevail in the lake region; with summer temperature varying from 0 ° to 30 °C (32 °-86 °F) and winter temperature recording −10 ° and −40 °C (14 ° to -40 °F). Geologically the lake is in the Cambrian/Pre-Cambrian terrain.http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/14pdfs/Mishra-Ladakh.pdf. The brackish water of the lake has NaC1 <_5.85 g=""></_5.85>L, measured in mid summer.

Avifauna and flora

Tibetan Ass in the vicinity of Tsomoriri Lake
An avifaunal survey of the Lake and its adjoining Nuro Sumdo wetland conducted in July 1996 revealed the following facts:



Mammalian fauna



Large carnivores fauna



Vegetation

While the deeper parts of the lake have no vegetation, the shallow areas are reported to have Potamogeton sps. Marshes have several species of sedges and reeds, particularly Carex, Caragana and Astragalus sps., which are all representative of the surrounding arid steppe vegetation. Details of the Vegetation recorded in the area comprises the following:

Ramsar site

Largely based on the ecological diversity of the Lake (explained in the previous section) and its surroundings, the Tsomiriri was notified in November 2002 under the List of Ramsar Wetland sites under the Ramsar Convention. The justification could be summarized as:
  • The faunal collection is unique and has a large variety with endemic and vulnerable species
  • The herbivore species are also endemic to the region
  • The lake plays a fundamental role as breeding grounds and key staging posts on migration routes for several water birds belonging to six families, which is distinctive of wetland diversity and productivity
Tsomoriri Lake


Threats to the lake

There are a number of threats to the Lake, such as:

  • Increase in the number of tourists visiting the lake affects breeding of avi fauna
  • Construction of a road right up to the Lake
  • Pasture degradation affecting wildlife, particularly wild herbivores (marmots, hares, ungulates)
  • An increase in the grazing of Sheep in the wetlands surrounding the Lake
  • The absence of a proper garbage disposal Facility at the Lake.
  • Dogs kept by the people who live near the lake are known to attack the cranes and destroy their eggs.
  • Jeep safaris have been known to chase wildlife such as Kiang and approach close to the breeding ground.
  • Lack of regulations and monitoring by the government.


Conservation efforts

The need for evolving a strategy and an action plan to preserve the extreme fragility of the lake ecosystem has been recognized with the needed emphasis at the National and International level to develop the lake conservation activity with participation of all stakeholders. The actions initiated in this direction are:

Tsomoriri is an administratively declared Wetland Reserve. Legally, shooting wildlife is prohibited. The State Department of Wildlife has set up a check post near Mahe Bridge at the entrance towards the lake.WWF-India Project has established a field office at Korzokmarker in Rupshu near Tsomoriri for ‘Conservation of High Altitude Wetlands in Ladakh Region’ to carry out surveys, interact with tourists, tour guides, act as information centre and conduct education awareness programmes for locals, tourists etc.

Wildlife Institute of India has also set up a field station at Leh to carry out scientific research in the region. Nature clubs have been set up and Information booklet on the lake published. Efforts of WWF – India has also resulted in the local community declaring Tsomoriri as a ‘Sacred Gift for a Living Planet’ during the Annual Conference held in Nepal in November 2000.

Some of the other achievements so far reported on the Lake’s conservation are:
  • Regulation in consultation with local community Vehicular traffic flow and parking has been restructured with restriction of camping sites around the lake
  • The Indo Tibetan Border Petrol (ITBP), tour operators and local population have introduced regular garbage clean up operations
  • Korzok community living around the lake has voluntarily built traditional and social fencing around the wetland to protect breeding and feeding grounds from vehicular traffic
  • Tsomoriri Conservation Trust has been setup.
  • Twenty Nature Clubs have been registered in different schools in Ladakh
The Indian Army has committed to support and set up a Nature Interpretation Centre at 'Hall of Fame', Lehmarker.

World Wildlife Fund’s (WWF) role

World Wildlife Fund for Nature — India (WWF-India) is spearheading the efforts at conservation of the Tsomoriri lake in particular, and the Ladakh region in general. WWF’s activities as a NGO have spanned more than 30 years. The main objective set by WWF is the main activities planned for the Tsomoriri and other wetlands in Ladakh regions are:The Promotion of Nature Conservation and Environmental Protection as the Basis for Sustainable and Equitable Development.
  • Evolve plan to establish a Sustainable Tourism Model managed by Local Communities at Tsomoriri
  • Carry on with the biological and socio-economic surveys around selected wetlands and document for future reference
  • Organize capacity building training programmes for Tour operators, Army, Teachers and local communities
  • Frequent education and awareness Programmes for various target groups
  • Management Planning for Tsomoriri and also Tsokar and Pangong Tso lakes by involving major stakeholders
  • To set guidelines for introducing Eco-Tourism Certification Scheme in Ladakh
  • To mobilise financial resources to carry out a comprehensive Strategic Environment Assessment
  • Develop Environmental Management Systems, implement and certify the Environment Management Systems with special focus on tourism sector
  • Maintain and enhance existing field presence at Tsomoriri, Leh, and Tsokar and increase presence at Chushul and Hanle marshes as well to achieve better results


Gallery

Image:Uncia uncia.jpg|Snow leopardImage:Canis lupus signatus crop.jpg|Grey WolfImage:Stavenn Grus nigricollis 00.jpg|Black-necked CraneImage:Caragana pygmaea2.jpg| Caragana pygmaea of Family:FabaceaeImage:Himalayan marmots.jpg|Himalayan MarmotImage:Rook goat.jpg| Baral — Himalayan blue sheepImage:Aythya nyroca16.jpg|Diving ducksImage:Grant's-gazelle.jpg|Gazelle|Antelope

See also



References

  1. http://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/freshwater_wetlands/our_work/ramsar_sites/tsomoriri.cfm Tsomoriri
  2. http://planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp11/tf11_ecosys.pdf Report of the Task Force On the Mountain Ecosystems, Environment and Forest Sector, for Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007–2012 (Dead link)
  3. http://www.lehladakh.net/tsomoriri-ladakh.htm.Tsomoriri lake trecks
  4. http://www.eastmanvoyages.com/tour-options/rumtse-tsomoriri.html Rumtse - Tsomoriri Trek
  5. http://www.wetlands.org/reports/ris/2IN018en.pdf
  6. http://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/freshwater_wetlands/our_work/wetlands_ladakh/index.cfm Conservation of High Altitude Wetlands in Ladakh
  7. http://www.reachladakh.com/Non_Governmental_Organisations.htm Non Governmental Organisations


External links

  • Tso Moriri Travel Guide
  • Government of Jammu & Kashmir, Department of Wildlife Protection, Wildlife Division (LAHDC), Leh Ladakh (Undated): Tsomoriri Wetland Conservation Reserve (The Wildlife Guide)
  • Rizvi, J. (1996) Ladakh: Crossroads of High Asia, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India
  • Travel Article on Tso Moriri



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