) are a Berber nomadic pastoralist
people. They are the principal
inhabitants of the Saharan
. They call themselves
variously Kel Tamasheq
("Speakers of Tamasheq
("the Free people"), or
, i.e., "People of
the Veil". The name Tuareg
was applied to them by early
explorers and historians (since Leo
and meaning of the name Twareg has long been debated with
various etymologies advanced, although it would appear that
Twārəg is derived from the "broken plural" of Tārgi, a name whose
former meaning was "inhabitant of Targa" (the Tuareg name
of the Libyan region
commonly known as Fezzan.
Targa in Berber means "(drainage) channel", see Alojali
al. 2003: 656,
The Tuareg call themselves by the following names:
- Amajagh (a Tuareg man).
- Tamajaq (a Tuareg woman).
- Imajaghan (Tuareg men, people).
- Tamajaq (the Tuareg language).
- Timajaghen (Tuareg women).
- Kel Tamajaq (the Tuareg people).
- Tifinagh (the Tuareg alphabet).
It is important to note that:
- Amajagh, Amashegh,
Amahagh, Amazigh (means a Tuareg
or Berber man it differs following the region).
- Tamajaq, Tamasheq,
Tamahaq, Tamazight (means a
Tuareg or Berber woman and Tuareg and Berber language).
- Imajaghan, Imashaghan,
Imuhagh, Imazighan (has the same
meaning: Tuareg and Berber people).
The Tuareg today are found mostly in West
, some historians claim they progressively moved South
over the last 2000 years. They were once nomads
throughout the Sahara
They have a little-used but ancient script known as the
from Tin Hinan in the region that is now
Tafilalt, the Tuareg
are ancient Saharan peoples described by Herodotus.
He described the ancient Libyan
people, the Garamantes
Archaeological evidence is found in the ruins
Later, the Tuareg ancestors expanded southward into the Sahel
Tuaregs are mostly nomads. For over two millennia, the Tuareg operated
the trans-Saharan caravan trade
connecting the great cities on the southern edge of the Sahara via
five desert trade routes to the northern (Mediterranean) coast of Africa.
The Tuareg adopted
nomadism, along with its distinctive
form of social organization, from camel-herding Arabs about two
thousand years ago, when the camel was introduced to the Sahara
from Arabia. The Tuareg once took captives, either for trade and
sale, or for domestic labor purposes. Those who were not sold
became assimilated into the Tuareg community. Captive servants and
herdsmen formed a component of the division of labor in camel
late nineteenth century, the Tuareg resisted the French colonial
invasion of their Central Saharan
Tuareg broadswords were no match for the more
advanced weapons of French squadrons. After numerous
massacres on both sides, the
Tuareg were subdued and required to sign treaties in Mali 1905 and
Niger 1917. In southern Algeria, the French
met some of the strongest resistance from the Ahaggar
traditional chief Moussa ag
, fought numerous battles in defense of the region.
Finally, Tuareg territories were taken under French governance, and
their confederations were largely dismantled and reorganized.
Before French colonization, the Tuareg were organized into loose
confederations, each consisting of a dozen or so tribes. Each of
the main groups had a traditional leader called Amenokal
along with an assembly of tribal chiefs (imɤaran
). The groups were the Kel
, Kel Ajjer
, Adrar n Fughas
, and Kel Gres
African countries' achieving independence in the 1960s, they
divided the Tuareg territory among their modern nations: Niger, Mali, Algeria, Libya, and
Long-standing competition for resources in the Sahel
has caused Tuareg conflicts with neighboring
African groups, especially after political disruption and economic
constraints following French colonization and independence. There
have been tight restrictions placed on nomadization because of high
is exacerbated by human
activity i.e; exploitation of resources and the increased firewood
needs of growing cities. Today, some Tuareg are experimenting with
farming; some have been forced to abandon herding and seek jobs in
towns and cities.
Mali, a Tuareg
uprising resurfaced in the Adrar
N'Fughas mountains in the 1960s, following Mali's
Several Tuareg joined, including some from the
Adrar des Iforas
Mali. The 1960 rebellion was a fight between a group of Tuareg and
the independent state of Mali, which was then only recently formed.
The Malian Army suppressed the revolt. Resentment among the Tuareg
fueled the second uprising.
This second uprising
was in May
this time, in the aftermath of a clash between government soldiers
and Tuareg outside a prison in Tchin-Tabaraden, Niger, Tuaregs in both Mali and Niger claimed
autonomy for their traditional homeland: (Tenere, capital Agadez, in Niger
and the Azawad and Kidal regions of
Deadly clashes between Tuareg fighters (with leaders
such as Mano Dayak
) and the military of
both countries followed, with deaths numbering well into the
thousands. Negotiations initiated by France and
Algeria led to peace
agreements (January 11, 1992 in Mali and 1995 in Niger).
Both agreements called for decentralization of national power and
guaranteed the integration of Tuareg resistance fighters into the
countries' respective national armies.
Major fighting between the Tuareg resistance and government
security forces ended after the 1995 and 1996 agreements. As of
2004, sporadic fighting continued in Niger between government
forces and Tuareg groups struggling for independence. In 2007, a
new surge in violence
Traditional social stratification
Traditionally, Tuareg society is hierarchical, with nobility
and vassals. Each Tuareg clan
) is made up of several family groups, led by
their collective chiefs, the amghar
. A series of tribes
may bond together under an Amenokal
, forming a Kel
confederation. Tuareg self identify is related only to their
, which means "those of". E.g.
(those of the east), Kel
(those of the west).
The work of pastoralism was specialized according to social class.
Tels are ruled by the imúšaɤ
Proud and Free
) nobility, warrior-aristocrats who organized
group defense, livestock raids, and the long-distance caravan
trade. Below them were a number of specialised métier castes. The
, singular Amghid
second rank of Tuareg society, were free vassal-herdsmen and
warriors, who pastured and tended most of the confederation's
livestock. Formerly enslaved vassals of specific
, they are said by tradition to be descended from
nobility in the distant past, and thus maintain a degree of social
distance from lower orders. Traditionally, some merchant castes had
a higher status than all but the nobility among their more settled
compatriots to the south. With time, the difference between the two
castes has eroded in some places, following the economic fortunes
of the two groups.
have traditionally disdained certain types of
labor and prided themselves in their warrior skills. The existence
of lower servile and semi-servile classes has allowed for the
development of highly ritualised poetic, sport, and courtship
traditions among the Imajaghan. Following colonial subjection,
independence, and the famines of the 1970s and 1980s, noble classes
have more and more been forced to abandon their caste differences.
They have taken on labor and lifestyles they might traditionally
After the adoption of Islam, a separate class of religious clerics,
, also became integral to Tuareg
social structure. Following the decimation of many clans' noble
caste in the colonial wars of the 19th and 20th
centuries, the Ineslemen
gained leadership in some clans,
despite their often servile origins. Traditionally
clans were not armed. They provided spiritual
guidance for the nobility, and received protection and alms in
), were a blacksmith-client caste
who fabricated and repaired the saddles, tools, household equipment
and other material needs of the community. In most communities, the
were freedmen drawn from the servile éklan
caste and considered outsi
Bonded castes and slaves
The Tuareg once held slaves
). In general,
Tuareg skin color is darker than most Mediterranean Berbers, and
lighter than most sub-Saharan populations. The Tuareg refer to
themselves as "red-skinned", like most other Saharan peoples,
including the Maures, and Tubu.
Tuareg moved south on the continent in the 11th century AD, taking
slaves from other groups. These éklan
once formed a
distinct social class in Tuareg society. Some Tuareg noble and
vassal men married slaves, and their children became freemen. In
this sense, éklan
formed distinct sub-communities; they
were a class held in an inherited serf-like
condition, common among societies in precolonial West Africa.
When French colonial governments were established, they passed
legislation to abolish slavery, but did not enforce it. Some
commentators believe the French interest was directed more at
dismantling the traditional Tuareg political economy, which
depended on slave labor for herding, than at freeing the slaves.
Such scholars note that the French were trying to "pacify" the
fiercely resistant Tuareg. This skeptical view ignores the French
elimination of slavery in their former colonies in the
While post-independence states have sought to outlaw slavery,
results have been mixed. Traditional caste relationships have
continued in many places, including the institution of slavery.
According to the Travel Channel
Bob Geldof in Africa
descendants of those slaves known as the Bella
slaves in all but name. In Niger, where the
practice of slavery was outlawed in 2003, a study found that almost
8% of the population are still enslaved.
Areas where significant numbers of Tuaregs live
The Tuareg people inhabit a large area, covering almost all the
middle and western Sahara
. In Tuareg terms, the
Sahara is not one desert but many, so they call it
("the Deserts"). Among the many
deserts in Africa, there is the true desert Tenere
. Other deserts are more and less arid, flat
and mountainous: Adrar, Tagant, Tawat (Touat) Tanezrouft, Adghagh n Fughas,
Adar, Damargu, Tagama, Manga, Ayr, Tarramit (Termit), Kawar,
Djado, Tadmait, Admer, Igharghar, Ahaggar, Tassili
N'Ajjer, Tadrart, Idhan, Tanghart, Fezzan, Tibesti, Kalansho, Libyan Desert, etc.
Tuareg confederations, political centers, and leaders
At the turn of the 19th century, the Tuareg territory was organized
into confederations, each ruled by a supreme Chief
), along with a counsel of seniors from each
tribe. These elders called Imegharan (wisemen) are chosen to assist
the chief of the confederation.
- Kel Ajjer or Azjar: center is the oasis of
- Kel Ahaggar, in Ahaggar mountains.
- Kel Adagh, or Kel Assuk:
Kidal, and Tin
- Iwillimmidan Kel Ataram, or Western
Iwillimmidan: Méneka, and Azawagh region
- Iwillimmidan Kel Denneg, or Eastern
Iwillimmidan: In Tibaraden, Abalagh, Teliya Azawagh.
Gres: Zinder and Tanut
(Tanout) and south
into northern Nigeria.
- Kel Ayr: Assodé,
Agadez, In Gal, Timia and
Traditionally, the most famous Tuareg leader was a woman,
, heroine and spiritual
leader. Tin-Hinan was are Berber princess, accompagnied by her
they came from Tafilalt mountains
in Morocco (Ataram) and founded a legendary kingdom in the Ahaggar
mountains. Other confederation leaders followed under the title of
(Chief), of whom the most famous include:
- Amattaza, of the Lisawan
- Afadandan, of the Lisawan
- Karidanna, of the Iwillimmidan
- Waisimudan, of Iwillimidan
- Aljilani Ag Ibrahim, of Iwillimidan
- Busari Ag Akhmad, of Iwillimidan
- Musa Ag Amastan, of Kel Ahaggar
- Ibrahim Ag Abakkada, of Kel Azjar
- Amud, of Kel Azjar
- Makhammad Ag Katami, of Iwillimmidan
- Balkhu, of Kel Ayr
- Wan Agoda, of Kel Faday (Kel Ayr)
- Ahitaghal, of Kel Ahaggar
- Akhanokhan, of Kel Azjar
- Khadakhada, of Iwillimidan
- Alkhurer, of Iwillimidan
- Bazu, Iwillimidan
- Makhammad Wan Ag Alkhurer Iwillimidan
- Abdurrakhman Tagama, of Kel Ayr
- Hammed Almomin Iwillimidan
- Fihrun Ag Amansar, of Iwillimidan
- Atisi Ag Amellal of Kel Ahaggar
- Akhamok Ag Ihemma of Kel Ahaggar
- Bay Ag Akhamok of Kel Ahaggar
- Khamzata Ag Makhammad, of Iwillimidan
- Edaber Ag Makhammad the new Amenokal of Kel
Tuareg nomads in the south of
The Tuareg are matrilineal
. In Tuareg
society women do not traditionally wear the veil
, whereas men do. The most famous Tuareg symbol is
éghéwed), referred to as a Cheche, pronounced "Shesh", from
Berber), an often indigo blue-colored veil called Alasho
. The men's facial covering originates
from the belief that such action wards off evil spirits. It may
have related instrumentally from the need for protection from the
harsh desert sands as well. It is a firmly established tradition,
as is the wearing of amulets
objects and from recently also verses from the Qur'an
. Taking on the veil is associated with
the rite of passage to manhood; men begin wearing a veil when they
reach maturity. The veil usually conceals their face, excluding
their eyes and the top of the nose.
Marriage is considered a private institution. Other people are not
to interfere with a couple's marriage. The only tradition they know
is a 'quarantine
' period after one's
spouse's death. During this period, the widow is supposed to make
something whereby her husband may be remembered. She is not to see
any other men. Men usually have to cleanse themselves physically
and mentally after the death of a wife. There was not commonly
punishment for women or men who were unfaithful.
Tuareg are not supposed to have more than one life partner: a love
affair is practically equal to an engagement, and once a couple is
recognized, the two people are supposed to get married. It is
highly unusual for anyone to remain single. When a partner passes
away, the survivor is expected to marry again after the period of
quarantine. Exceptions are made if there are no potential partners,
or the widow or widower is too old to get married.
Many Tuareg today are either settled agriculturalists or nomadic
cattle breeders, though there are also blacksmiths
The Tuareg are sometimes called the "Blue People" because the
pigment in the cloth of their
traditional robes and turbans stained their skin dark blue. Today,
the traditional indigo
turban is still preferred for
celebrations, and generally Tuaregs wear clothing and turbans in a
variety of colors.
- Taguella: The most famous tuareg food,
taguella is a millet dough bread which is cooked in a charcoal fire
in sand. It's eaten with a butter sauce.
- Millet porridge: This is just millet
boiled with water eaten with milk or a butter sauce.
- Milk/cheese/yogurt: Goat and camel milk are turned into cheese and yogurt.
- Eghajira: This is a beverage eaten with a ladle and is thick.
It's made by pounding millet, goat cheese, milk and sugar.
- Tea: is usually gunpowder tea and is served sweet and
The Tuareg speak Tamajaq/Tamasheq/Tamahaq
, a southern
dialects among the different regions. The Berber dialects spoken in
the Rif (Tamazight), Atlas and Souss regions of Morocco differ
somewhat from each other and also from the Tuareg dialects spoken
further south. Berber is an Afro-Asiatic language like Semitic languages
, Chadic languages
and Pharaonic Egyptian
. The language is called
by western Tuareg in
among Algerian and
Libyan Tuareg, and Tamajaq
Azawagh and Aïr regions, Niger. The Tamajaq
writing system, Tifinagh
Shifinagh), descends directly from the original Berber script used
by the Numidians
in pre-Roman times.
Traditionally Tuaregs are animists. Nowdays they practice a
syncretism between traditional animist beliefs and rituals and
islamic ones and christian symbols.
Much Tuareg art is in the form of jewelry, leather and metal saddle
decorations called trik
, and finely crafted
swords. The Inadan
community makes traditional
handicrafts. Among their products are: tanaghilt
'Agadez Cross' or 'Croix d'Agadez'); the Tuareg Takoba
, many gold and silver-made necklaces called
'Takaza'; and earrings called 'Tizabaten'.
Living in a desert land with skies rarely cloudy, the Tuareg are
Tuareg Stars and Constellations
- Azzag Willi: indicating the time for milking
the goats (Venus)
- Shet Ahad: the seven sisters of the night
- Amanar: the warrior of the desert (Orion)
- Talemt: she-camel (Ursa
- Awara: baby camel (Ursa
The oldest legends says Tuarerg once lived in grottoes,
, and then they lived in folliage beds made
on the top acacia
, to avoid numerous wild animal during
old times and even to this day to escape from mosquitoes. Other
kinds of traditional housing include:
- ahaket: Tuareg goaskin red tent
- tafala: a shade made of millet sticks
- akarban also called takabart:
temporary hat for winter season
- ategham: hat for hot season
- taghazamt: adobe house for long stay
- ahaket:a dome shaped house made of mats for
the dry season
- takoba: 1 meter long straight sword
- allagh: 2 meter long lance
- agher: 1.50 meter high shield
- tagheda: small and sharp assagai
- taganze: leather covered-wooden bow
- amur: wooden arrow
- sheru: long dagger
- taburek: wooden stick
- alakkud or abartak: riding crop
In 2007, Stanford's Cantor Arts Center opened an exhibition, "Art
of Being Tuareg: Sahara Nomads in a Modern World", the first such
exhibit in the United States. It was curated by Tom Seligman,
director of the center. He had first spent time with the Tuareg in
1971 when he traveled through the Sahara after serving in the
. The exhibition included
crafted and adorned functional objects such as camel saddles,
tents, bags, swords, amulets, cushions, dresses, earrings, spoons
and drums. The exhibition also was shown at the
University of California, Los
Angeles Fowler Museum in Los Angeles and the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African
Art in Washington, DC.
Throughout history, the Tuareg were renowned and respected
warriors. Their decline as a military might came with the
introduction of firearms, weapons which the Tuareg did not possess.
The Tuareg warrior attire consisted of a takoba
(lance) and aghar
(shield) made of antelope's skin.
Traditional Tuareg music has two major
components: the moncord violin anzad
played often during night parties and a small tambour covered with goatskin called
performed during camel and horse races, and other
Traditional songs called Asak
(poems) are sung by women and men during feasts and social
occasions. Another popular Tuareg musical genre is takamba
, characteristic for its Afro-Berber
- tisiway: poems
- tasikisikit: songs performed by women,
accompanied by tende, men on camel back turn around
- asak: songs accompanied by anzad monocord
- tahengemmit: slow songs sung by elder men
Children and youth music
- Bellulla songs made by children playing with
- Fadangama small monocord instrument for
- Odili flute made from trunk of sorghum
- Gidga small wooden instrument with irons
sticks to make strident sounds
- tagest: dance made while seated, moving the head, the hands and
- ewegh: stong dance performed by men, in couples and
- agabas: dance for modern ishumar guitars: women and men in
In the 1980s rebel fighters founded Tinariwen
, a Tuareg band that fuses electric
guitars and indigenous musical styles. Tinariwen is one of the best
known and authentic Tuareg bands. Especially in areas that were cut
off during the Tuareg rebellion (e.g., Adrar des Iforas), they were
practically the only music available, which made them locally
famous and their songs/lyrics (eg Abaraybone, ...) are well known
by the locals. They released their first CD in 2000, and toured in
Europe and the United States in 2004. The Niger-based band
Tuareg and Wodaabe
a combination of traditional instruments and electric
Many music groups emerged after the 1980s cultural revival. Among
the Tartit, Imaran and known artists are: Abdallah Oumbadougou from
Ayr, Baly Othmany of Djanet.
Tuareg Music genres, groups and artists
- Majila Ag Khamed Ahmad, singer Asak (vocal
music), of Aduk, Niger
- Almuntaha female Anzad (Tuareg violin) player,
of Aduk, Niger
- Ajju female Anzad (Tuareg violin) player, of
- Islaman singer, genre Asak (vocal music), of
- Tambatan singer, genre Asak (vocal music),
- Alghadawiat female Anzad (Tuareg violin)
player, of Akoubounou, Niger
- Taghdu female Anzad (Tuareg violin) player, of
- In Tayaden singer and guitar player,
- Abareybon singer and guitar player, Tinariwen
- Kiddu Ag Hossad singer and guitar player,
- Baly Othmani singer, luth player, Djanet,
- Abdalla Ag Umbadugu, singer, Takrist N'Akal
- Hasso Ag Akotey, singer, Ayr
Music and culture festivals
The Desert Festival in Mali's Timbuktu provides one opportunity to
see Tuareg culture and dance and hear their music.
Other festivals include:
Tuareg traditional games and plays include:
- Tiddas, played with small stones and
- Kelmutan: consists of singing and touching
each person's leg, where the ends, that person is out: the last
person loses the game.
- Temse: comic game try to make the other team
laugh and you win.
- Izagag, played with small stones or dried
- Iswa, played by picking up stones while
throwing another stone.
- Melghas, children hide themselves and another
tries to find and touch them before they reach the well and
- Tabillant, traditional Tuareg wrestling
- Alamom, wrestling while running
- Solagh, another type of wrestling
- Tammazaga or Tammalagha, race on camel
- Takket, singing and playing all night.
- Sellenduq one person to be a jackal and try to
touch the others who escape running.
- Takadant, children try to imagine what the
others are thinking.
- Tabakoni: clown with a goatskin mask to amuse
- Abarad Iqquran: small dressed wooden puppet
that tells stories and make people laugh.
- Maja Gel Gel: one person tries to touch all
people standing, to avoid this sit down.
- Bellus: everyone run not to be touched by the
one who plays.
- Tamammalt: pass a burning stick, when its
blown off in ones hands tells who's the lover.
- Ideblan: game with girl prepare food and go
search for water and milk and fruits.
- Seqqetu: play with girls to learn how to build
tents, look after babies made of clay.
- Mifa Mifa: beauty contest, girls and boys best
- Taghmart: children pass from house to house
singing to get presents: dates, sugar etc.
- Melan Melan: try to find a riddle
- Tawaya: play with the round fruit calotropis
or a piece of cloth.
- Abanaban: try to find people while eyes are
- Shishagheren, writing the name of one's lover
to see if this person brings good luck.
- Taqqanen, telling devinettes and
- Maru Maru, young people mime how the tribe
Tuareg are distinguished in their native language as the
, meaning the free people; the overlap of meaning
has increased local cultural nationalism. The Tuareg are a pastoral
people, having an economy based on
livestock breeding, trading, and agriculture.
Since Prehistoric times Tuareg peoples and their Berber ancestors:
the Garamantes have been organising caravans for trading across the
Sahara desert. The caravan is called in Tamashek:
These caravans used first oxen, horses and later camels as a means
of transportation, here differents types of caravans:
- caravans transporting food: dates, millet, dryed meat, dryed
Tuareg cheese, butter etc.
- caravans transporting garments, alasho indigo turbans, leather
products, ostrich feathers,
- caravans transporting salt: salt
caravans used for exchange against other products.
- caravans transporting nothing but made to sell and buy
Salt mines or salines
in the desert.
A contemporary variant is occurring in northern Niger, in a
traditionally Tuareg territory that comprises most of the
uranium-rich land of the country. The central government in Niamey
has shown itself unwilling to cede control of the highly profitable
mining to indigenous clans. The Tuareg are determined not to
relinquish the prospect of substantial economic benefit. The French
government has independently tried to defend a French firm, Areva,
established in Niger for fifty years and now mining the massive
Additional complaints against Areva are that it is:
"...plundering...the natural resources and [draining] the fossil
deposits. It is undoubtedly an ecological catastrophe." These mines
yield uranium ores, which are then processed to produce
, crucial to the
nuclear power industry (as well as aspirational nuclear powers). In
2007, some Tuareg people in Niger allied themselves with the
Niger Movement for
(MNJ), a rebel group operating in the north of the
country. During 2004-2007, U.S. Special Forces teams trained Tuareg
units of the Nigerien Army
Sahel region as part of the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism
Partnership. Some of these trainees are reported to have fought in
the 2007 rebellion
the MNJ. The goal of these Tuareg appears to be economic and
political control of ancestral lands, rather than operating from
religious and political ideologies.
Despite the Sahara’s erratic and unpredictable rainfall patterns,
the Tuareg have managed to survive in the hostile desert
environment for centuries. Over recent years however, depletion of
water by the uranium exploitation process combined with the effects
of climate change are threatening their ability to subsist. Uranium
mining has diminished and degraded Tuareg grazing lands. Not only
does the mining industry produce radioactive waste that can
contaminate crucial sources of ground water resulting in cancer,
stillbirths, and genetic defects but it also uses up huge
quantities of water in a region where water is already scarce. This
is exacerbated by the increased rate of desertification thought to
be the result of global warming. Lack of water forces the Tuareg to
compete with southern farming communities for scarce resources and
this has led to tensions and clashes between these communities. The
precise levels of environmental and social impact of the mining
industry have proved difficult to monitor due to governmental
Close up of an old tuareg from
The Tuareg are classified as a Berber group, and are closely
related to both Northwest African
Berbers and West Africans
, in terms of
culture and ethnicity. Some scholars argue that the Tuareg are
defined by language and culture, not by ethnicity. They define only
predominantly Tamasheq speakers as "Tuareg" (and, presumably, by
implication, also individuals of Tuareg descent who have
assimilated into various countries and no longer speak Tamasheq
languages). Lack of consensus on how to classify the Tuareg is
probably part of the reason for the widely varying estimates of
The Tuareg ethnic flag
is red, white,
In popular culture
- The Tuareg are the antagonists of the French Foreign Legion in Percival Christopher Wren's 1924 adventure novel
Beau Geste and the films that
were based on it.
- Spanish author Alberto
Vázquez-Figueroa's novel Tuareg (1980) was his most
critically and commercially successful, with global sales in excess
of 5,000,000 copies.
- The 2005 film Sahara
featured a fictionalised group of Tuareg as a faction in a civil
war underway in Mali.
- Bruce Sterling used a
fictionalised Tuareg tribe in his novel Islands in the Net.
- David Ball's 1999 novel Empires of Sand tells the story of
French and Tuareg cousins.
- French author J.
M. G. Le Clézio's novel Desert tells of the last days of
the Tuareg, the desert nomads known as the "Blue People".
- In 2003 Volkswagen introduced a new
SUV named the Touareg.
- In 2009 Vivisphere Publishing released The Tuareg a
romantic historical adventure. ISBN 978-1-58776-157-7
- In the Nickelodeon animated series, Avatar: The Last Airbender,
the nomadic characters known as "sand
benders" are based on the Tuareg people.
- In the video game "Bladestorm: The Hundred Years War," Tuaregs
are available to the player as mercenary troops. However, their
portrayal is rather unrealistic, showing them as similar to
Mongolian troops from the time of Genghis Khan, rather than North
- See Rodd 1926.
- Edouard Bernus. "Les palmeraies de l'Aïr", Revue de
l'Occident Musulman et de la Méditerranée, 11, (1972)
- Frederick Brusberg. "Production and Exchange in the Saharan
Air", Current Anthropology, Vol. 26, No. 3. (Jun., 1985),
pp. 394-395. Field research on the economics of the Aouderas
- Samuel Decalo. Historical Dictionary of Niger.
Scarecrow Press, London and New Jersey (1979). ISBN 0810812290
- Jolijn Geels. Niger. Bradt London and Globe Pequot New
York (2006). ISBN 1841621528
- Michael J. Mortimore. "The Changing Resources of Sedentary
Communities in Air, Southern Sahara", Geographical Review,
Vol. 62, No. 1. (Jan., 1972), pp. 71-91.
- * Anti-Slavery International & Association
Timidira, Galy kadir Abdelkader, ed. Niger: Slavery in
Historical, Legal and Contemporary Perspectives. March
- Hilary Andersson, "Born to be a slave in
Niger", BBC Africa, Niger
- "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade,
More", National Geographic.
- "The Shackles of Slavery in Niger"
- "Niger: Slavery - an unbroken chain"
- "On the way to freedom, Niger's slaves stuck in
limbo", Christian Science Monitor
- "The Shackles of Slavery in Niger", ABC
- "First Exhibition of Tuareg Art and Culture in
America Appears at Stanford Before Traveling to the Smithsonian's
National Museum of African Art", Cantor Arts Center
- Tuareg ethnic flag:
- Ghoubeid Alojaly, Karl Prasse, Ghabdouane Mohamed,
Dictionnaire touareg-français, Copenhague, Museum
Tusculanum, 2003 (2 vols., 1031 p.) - ISBN 8772898445
- Francis James
Rennell Rodd, People of the veil. Being an account
of the habits, organisation and history of the wandering Tuareg
tribes which inhabit the mountains of Air or Asben in the Central
Sahara, London, MacMillan & Co., 1926 (repr. Oosterhout,
N.B., Anthropological Publications, 1966)
- Heath Jeffrey 2005: A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of
Mali). New York: Mouton de Gruyer. Mouton Grammar Library, 35.
- Rando et al. (1998) "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of northwest
African populations reveals genetic exchanges with European,
near-eastern, and sub-Saharan populations". Annals of Human
Genetics 62(6): 531-50; Watson et al. (1996) mtDNA sequence
diversity in Africa. American Journal of Human Genetics
59(2): 437-44; Salas et al. (2002) "The Making of the African mtDNA
Landscape". American Journal of Human Genetics 71:
1082-1111. These are good sources for information on the genetic
heritage of the Tuareg and their relatedness to other
- Edmond Bernus, "Les Touareg," pp. 162–171 in Vallées
du Niger, Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux,
- Andre Bourgeot, Les Sociétés Touarègues, Nomadisme,
Identité, Résistances, Paris: Karthala, 1995.
- Hélène Claudot-Hawad, ed., "Touregs: Exil et Résistance".
Révue du Monde Musulman et de la Méiterranée, No. 57, Aix
en Provence: Edisud, 1991.
- Claudot-Hawad, Touaregs, Portrait en Fragments, Aix en
Provence: Edisud, 1993.
- Hélène and Hawad Claudot-Hawad, "Touaregs: Voix Solitaires sous
l'Horizon Confisque", Ethnies-Documents No. 20-21, Hiver,
- Mano Dayak, Touareg: La
Tragedie, Paris: Éditions Lattes, 1992.
- Sylvie Ramir, Les Pistes de l'Oubli: Touaregs au
Niger, Paris: éditions du Felin, 1991.
- People of Africa
- Franco Paolinellli, "Tuareg Salt Caravans",
- Art and Life in Africa Online: Tuareg,
University of Iowa
- Origin and History of the Tuaregs
- The Massacres at Tchin Tarabaden: 10 years
later!. This press release (7 May 2000), while polemical, is
useful for a pro-Tuareg view of the conflicts in Mali and
- Tuareg Culture and News, Website
- Ethnologue 14 pages for Niger, Mali, etc., used for population estimates.
- Tuareg is not an Ethnos, accessed 2 February 2004,
available on Internet
Archive at . Cited for the low-end estimate
- A comprehensive tuareg chronology along with
lists of amenokals from Kel Ahaggar, Kel Adagh and Kel Azawagh .
- Tuareg Musicand Tuareg Photos from www.agraw.com.
- le site
internet de tassouft et de ses amis (hoggar, algérie)
- Maps of
Niger, pictures of Agadez, Tuaregs, and handcraft from Niger; also
- Tuareg Culture and Art
- Dr Jean Clottes honoured by the Blue Tuareg
- "Art of Being Tuareg: Sahara Nomads in a Modern
University's Cantor Arts Center