Trees knocked over by the Tunguska blast.
Tunguska Event, or Tunguska
explosion, was a powerful explosion that occurred near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in
what is now Krasnoyarsk
Krai of Russia, at around
7:14 a.m. on June 30, 1908 (June 17 in the Julian calendar, in use locally at the
Photograph from the Soviet Academy of Science 1927 expedition
led by Leonid Kulik
Although the cause of the explosion is the subject of debate, it is
commonly believed to have been caused by the air burst
of a large meteoroid
at an altitude of above the Earth
Different studies have yielded varying estimates of the object's
size, with general agreement that it was a few tens of metres
Although the meteor or comet burst in the air rather than directly
hitting the surface, this event is still referred to as an impact
. Estimates of the energy of the blast range
from to as high as , with the most likely—roughly equal to the
United States' Castle
Bravo thermonuclear bomb tested on March 1, 1954, about
1,000 times as powerful as the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima,
Japan and about one-third the power of the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated.
The explosion knocked over an estimated 80 million trees over . It
is estimated that the shockwave from the blast would have measured
5.0 on the Richter scale
explosion of this magnitude is capable of destroying a large
possibility has helped to spark discussion of asteroid deflection
The Tunguska event is the largest impact
over land in Earth
's recent history.
Impacts of similar size over remote ocean areas would have gone
unnoticed before the advent of global satellite monitoring in the
7:17 a.m. local time, Tungus natives and
Russian settlers in the hills northwest of Lake Baikal observed a column of bluish light, nearly as bright
as the Sun, moving across the sky.
10 minutes later, there was a flash and a sound similar to
artillery fire. Eyewitnesses closer to the explosion reported the
sound source moving east to north. The sounds were accompanied by a
that knocked people off their
feet and broke windows hundreds of miles away. The majority of
eyewitnesses reported only the sounds and the tremors, and not the
sighting of the explosion. Eyewitness accounts differ as to the
sequence of events and their overall duration.
The explosion registered on seismic
. In some places
the shock wave would have been equivalent to an earthquake of 5.0
on the Richter scale
. It also produced
fluctuations in atmospheric
pressure strong enough to be detected in Great Britain. Over the next few days, night skies in
Asia and Europe were
aglow such that those in London could read a
newspaper in their light Watson, Nigel. The Tunguska Event”.
History Today 58.1 (July 2008): 7. MAS Ultra-School Edition. EBSCO.
10 Feb. 2009 lsearch.ebscohost.com>; it has been theorized that
this was due to light passing through high-altitude ice particles formed at extremely cold temperatures, a
phenomenon that occurs when the Space
Shuttle re-enters the Earth's atmosphere.
States, the Smithsonian
Astrophysical Observatory and the Mount Wilson Observatory observed a decrease in atmospheric transparency that lasted for several
months, from suspended dust.
Selected eyewitness reports
- Testimony of S. Semenov, as
recorded by Leonid Kulik's expedition
"At breakfast time I was sitting by the house at
Vanavara Trading Post (65 kilometres/40 miles south of the
explosion), facing north.
[...] I suddenly saw that directly to the north, over
Onkoul's Tunguska Road, the sky split in two and fire appeared high
and wide over the forest (as Semenov showed, about 50 degrees
up — expedition note).
The split in the sky grew larger, and the entire
northern side was covered with fire.
At that moment I became so hot that I couldn't bear it,
as if my shirt was on fire; from the northern side, where the fire
was, came strong heat.
I wanted to tear off my shirt and throw it down, but
then the sky shut closed, and a strong thump sounded, and I was
thrown a few yards.
I lost my senses for a moment, but then my wife ran out
and led me to the house.
After that such noise came, as if rocks were falling or
cannons were firing, the earth shook, and when I was on the ground,
I pressed my head down, fearing rocks would smash it.
When the sky opened up, hot wind raced between the
houses, like from cannons, which left traces in the ground like
pathways, and it damaged some crops.
Later we saw that many windows were shattered, and in
the barn a part of the iron lock snapped."
- Testimony of Chuchan of Shanyagir tribe, as
recorded by I.M. Suslov in 1926.
"We had a hut by the river with my brother
We were sleeping.
Suddenly we both woke up at the same time.
Somebody shoved us.
We heard whistling and felt strong wind.
Chekaren said, 'Can you hear all those birds flying
We were both in the hut, couldn't see what was going on
Suddenly, I got shoved again, this time so hard I fell
into the fire.
I got scared.
Chekaren got scared too.
We started crying out for father, mother, brother, but
no one answered.
There was noise beyond the hut, we could hear trees
Chekaren and I got out of our sleeping bags and wanted
to run out, but then the thunder struck.
This was the first thunder.
The Earth began to move and rock, wind hit our hut and
knocked it over.
My body was pushed down by sticks, but my head was in
Then I saw a wonder: trees were falling, the branches
were on fire, it became mighty bright, how can I say this, as if
there was a second sun, my eyes were hurting, I even closed
It was like what the Russians call
And immediately there was a loud
This was the second thunder.
The morning was sunny, there were no clouds, our Sun
was shining brightly as usual, and suddenly there came a second
"Chekaren and I had some difficulty getting out from under the
remains of our hut. Then we saw that above, but in a different
place, there was another flash, and loud thunder came. This was the
third thunder strike. Wind came again, knocked us off our feet,
struck against the fallen trees.
"We looked at the fallen trees, watched the tree tops get snapped
off, watched the fires. Suddenly Chekaren yelled 'Look up' and
pointed with his hand. I looked there and saw another flash, and it
made another thunder. But the noise was less than before. This was
the fourth strike, like normal thunder.
"Now I remember well there was also one more thunder strike, but it
was small, and somewhere far away, where the Sun goes to
- Sibir newspaper, July 2, 1908
"On the 17th of June, around 9am in the morning, we
observed an unusual natural occurrence.
In the north Karelinski village (200 verst, or about 130 miles, north of Kirensk) the
peasants saw to the north west, rather high above the horizon, some
strangely bright (impossible to look at) bluish-white heavenly
body, which for 10 minutes moved downwards.
The body appeared as a "pipe", i.e. a
The sky was cloudless, only a small dark cloud was
observed in the general direction of the bright body.
It was hot and dry.
As the body neared the ground (forest), the bright body
seemed to smudge, and then turned into a giant billow of black smoke, and a loud knocking (not
thunder) was heard, as if large stones were falling, or artillery
All buildings shook.
At the same time the cloud began emitting flames of
All villagers were stricken with panic and took to the
streets, women cried, thinking it was the end of the
"The author of these lines was meantime in the forest about 6
(about four miles) north of Kirensk, and
heard to the north east some kind of artillery barrage, that
repeated in intervals of 15 minutes at least 10 times. In Kirensk
in a few buildings in the walls facing north east window glass
- Siberian Life newspaper, July 27, 1908
"When the meteorite fell, strong tremors in
the ground were observed, and near the Lovat village of the
Kansk uezd two strong explosions were
heard, as if from large-caliber artillery."
- Krasnoyaretz newspaper, July 13, 1908
On the 17th an unusual atmospheric event was
At 7:43 the noise akin to a strong wind was
Immediately afterwards a horrific thump sounded,
followed by an earthquake which literally shook the buildings, as
if they were hit by a large log or a heavy rock.
The first thump was followed by a second, and then a
Then the interval between the first and the third
thumps were accompanied by an unusual underground rattle, similar
to a railway upon which dozens of trains are travelling at the same
Afterwards for 5 to 6 minutes an exact likeness of
artillery fire was heard: 50 to 60 salvoes in short, equal
intervals, which got progressively weaker.
After 1.5 - 2 minutes after one of the "barrages" six
more thumps were heard, like cannon firing, but individual, loud
and accompanied by tremors.
"The sky, at the first sight, appeared to be clear. There was no
wind and no clouds. However upon closer inspection to the north,
i.e. where most of the thumps were heard, a kind of an ashen cloud
was seen near the horizon which kept getting smaller and more
transparent and possibly by around 2-3 p.m. completely
There was little scientific curiosity about the impact at the time,
possibly due to the isolation of the Tunguska region. If there were
any early expeditions to the site, the records were likely to have
been lost during the subsequent chaotic years — World War I
, the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Civil War
The first recorded expedition arrived at the scene more than a
decade after the event. In 1921, the Russian mineralogist Leonid
Kulik, visiting the Podkamennaya Tunguska River basin as part
of a survey for the Soviet Academy of Sciences, deduced from local accounts that the explosion had
been caused by a giant meteorite
impact. He persuaded the Soviet government
to fund an expedition to the Tunguska region, based on the prospect
of meteoric iron that could be
salvaged to aid Soviet industry.
Kulik's party eventually
undertook an expedition in 1927.
Photograph from Kulik's 1927
Upon arrival, Kulik made arrangements with the local Evenki
hunters to guide his party to the impact site.
Reaching the explosion site was an extremely arduous task. But upon
reaching an area just south of the site, the superstitious Evenki
hunters would go no further, fearing what they called the
Valleymen. Kulik had to return to the nearby village, and his party
was delayed for several days while they sought new guides.
The spectacle that confronted Kulik as he stood on a ridge
overlooking the devastated area was overwhelming. To the explorers'
surprise, no crater
was to be found.
There was instead around ground zero
vast zone (8 kilometers across) of trees scorched and devoid of
branches, but standing upright. Those farther away had been partly
scorched and knocked down in a direction away from the centre. Much
later, in the 1960s, it was established that the zone of leveled
forest occupied an area of some 2150 square kilometers, its shape
resembling a gigantic spread-eagled butterfly with a “wingspan” of
70 kilometers and a “body length” of 55 kilometers.
Upon closer examination, Kulik located holes which he erroneously
concluded were meteorite holes; however, he did not have the means
at this time to excavate the holes.
During the next ten years there were three more expeditions to the
area. Kulik found a little "pothole" bog that he thought might be
the crater, but after a laborious exercise in draining the bog
, he found there were old stump
on the bottom, ruling out the possibility
that it was a crater. In 1938, Kulik arranged for an aerial
photographic survey of the area, which revealed that the event had
knocked over trees in a huge butterfly-shaped pattern. Despite the
large amount of devastation, there was no crater to be seen.
Expeditions sent to the area in the 1950s
found microscopic silicate
spheres in siftings of the soil. Similar spheres were predicted to
exist in the felled trees, although they could not be detected by
contemporary means. Later expeditions did identify such spheres in
the resin of the trees. Chemical
showed that the spheres contained high proportions of
relative to iron
which is also found in meteorites
to the conclusion they were of extraterrestrial origin. The
concentration of the spheres in different regions of the soil was
also found to be consistent with the expected distribution of
debris from a meteorite airburst. Later studies of the spheres
found unusual ratios of numerous other metals relative to the
surrounding environment, which was taken as further evidence of
their extraterrestrial origin.
Chemical analysis of peat bogs
area also revealed numerous anomalies considered consistent with an
impact event. The isotopic
of stable carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopes at
the layer of the bogs corresponding to 1908 were found to be
inconsistent with the isotopic ratios measured in the adjacent
layers, and this abnormality was not found in bogs located outside
the area. The region of the bogs showing these anomalous signatures
also contains an unusually high proportion of iridium
, similar to the iridium layer found in the
. These unusual
proportions are believed to result from debris from the impacting
body that deposited in the bogs. The nitrogen is believed to have
been deposited as acid rain
, a suspected
fallout from the explosion.
In scientific circles, the leading explanation for the explosion is
of a meteoroid
6–10 kilometres (4–6 miles)
above Earth's surface.
Meteoroids enter Earth's
from outer space
day, usually travelling at a speed of more than 10 kilometres per
second (6 miles/sec or 21,600 mph). Most are small but
occasionally a larger one enters. The heat
generated by compression of air in front of the body (ram pressure
) as it travels through the
atmosphere is immense and most meteoroids burn up or explode before
they reach the ground. Since the second half of the 20th century,
close monitoring of Earth's atmosphere has led to the discovery
that such meteoroid airbursts occur rather frequently. A stony meteoroid of
about 10 metres (30 ft) in
diameter can produce an explosion of around 20 kiloton, similar to that of the Fat Man bomb dropped on Nagasaki, and data
released by the U.S.
's Defense Support Program
that such explosions occur high in the upper atmosphere more than
once a year. Tunguska-like megaton-range
events are much rarer. Eugene Shoemaker
estimated that such
events occur about once every 300 years.
The explosion's effect on the trees near ground zero
was replicated during atmospheric nuclear tests
in the 1950s and
1960s. These effects are caused by the shock
produced by large explosions
trees directly below the explosion are stripped as the blast wave
moves vertically downward, while trees further away are knocked
over because the blast wave is travelling closer to the horizontal
when it reaches them.
Soviet experiments performed in the mid-1960s, with model forests
(made of matches
on wire stakes) and small
explosive charges slid downward on wires, produced butterfly-shaped
blast patterns strikingly similar to the pattern found at the
Tunguska site. The experiments suggested that the object had
approached at an angle of roughly 30 degrees from the ground and
115 degrees from north and had exploded in mid-air.
Asteroid or comet?
The composition of the Tunguska body remains a matter of
controversy. In 1930, the British astronomer F.J.W. Whipple
suggested that the
Tunguska body was a small comet
. A cometary
meteorite, being composed primarily of ice
, could have been completely vaporized
by the impact with the Earth's
atmosphere, leaving no obvious traces. The comet hypothesis was
further supported by the glowing skies (or "skyglows" or "bright
nights") observed across Europe
evenings after the impact, possibly explained by dust and ice that
had been dispersed from the comet's tail across the upper
atmosphere. The cometary hypothesis gained a general acceptance
amongst Soviet Tunguska investigators by the 1960s.
Ľubor Kresák suggested that
the body was a fragment of the short-period Comet Encke, which is responsible for the
Beta Taurid meteor shower; the Tunguska event coincided
with a peak in that shower, and the approximate trajectory of the
Tunguska impactor is consistent with what would be expected from
such a fragment.
It is now known that bodies of this kind
explode at frequent intervals tens to hundreds of kilometres above
the ground. Military satellites have been observing these
explosions for decades.
In 1983, astronomer Zdeněk Sekanina published a paper criticizing
the comet hypothesis. He pointed out that a body composed of
cometary material, travelling through the atmosphere along such a
shallow trajectory, ought to have disintegrated, whereas the
Tunguska body apparently remained intact into the lower atmosphere.
Sekanina argued that the evidence pointed to a dense, rocky object,
probably of asteroidal
hypothesis was further boosted in 2001, when Farinella, Foschini,
released a study suggesting that the object had
arrived from the direction of the asteroid
Proponents of the comet hypothesis have suggested that the object
was an extinct comet
with a stony
mantle that allowed it to penetrate the atmosphere.
The chief difficulty in the asteroid hypothesis is that a stony
object should have produced a large crater
where it struck the ground, but no such
crater has been found. It has been hypothesized that the passage of
the asteroid through the atmosphere caused pressures and
temperatures to build up to a point where the asteroid abruptly
disintegrated in a huge explosion. The destruction would have to
have been so complete that no remnants of substantial size
survived, and the material scattered into the upper atmosphere
during the explosion would have caused the skyglows. Models
published in 1993 suggested that the stony body would have been
about 60 metres across, with physical properties somewhere between
an ordinary chondrite
and a carbonaceous chondrite
Christopher Chyba and others have proposed a process whereby a
stony meteorite could have exhibited the behavior of the Tunguska
impactor. Their models show that when the forces opposing a body's
descent become greater than the cohesive force holding it together,
it blows apart, releasing nearly all its energy at once. The result
is no crater, and damage distributed over a fairly wide radius, all
of the damage being blast and thermal.
3D numerical modelling the Tunguska impact, done by Utyuzhnikov and
Rudenko in 2008 , supports the comet hypothesis. According to their
results, the comet matter dispersed in the atmosphere, while the
destruction of the forest was caused by the shock wave.
the 1990s, Italian researchers extracted resin
from the core of the trees in the area of impact, to examine
trapped particles that were present during the 1908 event.
They found high levels of material commonly found in rocky
asteroids and rarely found in comets.
In research published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters,
scientists contend that the impact was caused by a comet due to the
sightings of noctilucent clouds
following the impact, a phenomenon caused by massive amounts of
water vapor in the upper atmosphere. They compared the noctilucent
cloud phenomenon to the exhaust plume from the NASA space shuttle Endeavour
2007 it was announced that scientists from the University
of Bologna had identified a lake in the
Tunguska region as a possible impact crater from the event.
They do not dispute that the Tunguska body exploded mid-air, but
believe that a one meter fragment survived the explosion and
impacted the ground. Lake
Cheko is a small bowl shaped lake approximately 8
kilometres north-north-west of the hypocenter.
hypothesis has been disputed by other impact crater specialists. A
1961 investigation had dismissed a modern origin of Lake Cheko,
saying that the presence of metres thick silt
deposits at the lake's bed suggests an age of at least 5,000 years;
however, more recent research suggests that only a meter or so of
the sediment layer on the lake bed is "normal lacustrine
sedimentation", a depth indicating a much
younger lake, about 100 years. Acoustic-echo soundings of the lake
floor provide support for the hypothesis that the lake was formed
by the Tunguska event. The soundings revealed a conical shape for
the lake bed, which is consistent with an impact crater.Magnetic
readings indicate a possible meter-sized chunk of rock below the
lake's deepest point, which may be a fragment of the colliding
body. Finally, the lake's long axis points to the hypocenter of the
Tunguska explosion, about 7.0 km away. Work is still being
done at Lake Cheko to determine its origins.
Scientific understanding of the behaviour of meteorites in the
Earth's atmosphere was much sparser during the early decades of the
20th century. Due to this lack of knowledge, as well as a lack of
scientific data about Tunguska due to Soviet secrecy during the
, a great many other hypotheses for
the Tunguska event have sprung up, none of which are accepted by
the scientific community.
One new study "suggests that a chunk of Comet 2005NB56
caused the 5-10 megaton
fireball, bouncing off the atmosphere and back into orbit around
the sun." The scientists involved in the study claim that the
object that caused the event will pass close to Earth
again in 2045
End of the world?
According to G. K. Kulesh, head of the Kirensk Meteorological Station
In 1989, Serge J.D. D'Alessio and Archie A. Harms suggested that
some of the deuterium
in a comet entering
the Earth's atmosphere may have undergone a nuclear fusion
reaction, leaving a
distinctive signature in the form of carbon-14. They concluded that
any release of nuclear energy would have been almost negligible.
Independently, in 1990, César Sirvent proposed that a deuterium
comet, i.e., a comet with an anomalous high concentration of
deuterium in its composition, could have exploded as a natural
hydrogen bomb, generating most of the energy released. The sequence
would be first a mechanical or kinetic explosion, triggering a
thermonuclear reaction. These proposals are inconsistent with
knowledge both of the composition of comets and of the temperature
and pressure conditions necessary for initiating a nuclear fusion
reaction. Studies have found the concentration of radioactive
isotopes in the blast region to be inconsistent with those expected
following a nuclear explosion, fusion or otherwise.
In 1973, Albert A. Jackson and Michael P. Ryan, physicists at
of Texas, proposed that the Tunguska event was caused by a
small (around 1017 kg to 1019 kg)
black hole passing through the
This hypothesis is flawed, as there was no so-called
exit event — a second explosion occurring as the black hole,
having tunnelled through the Earth, shot out the other side on its
way back into space. Based on the direction of impact, the exit
event would have occurred in the North Atlantic, closer than the impact event to the seismic
recording stations that collected much of the evidence of the
The hypothesis also fails to account for evidence
that cosmic material was deposited by the impacting body, including
dust trails in the atmosphere and the distribution of high-nickel
magnetic spheres around the impact area.
In 1941, Lincoln LaPaz
, and later in
1965, Clyde Cowan, Chandra R. Atluri, and Willard F. Libby
suggested that the Tunguska event was caused by the annihilation of
a chunk of antimatter
falling from space.
However, as with the other hypotheses described in this section,
this does not account for the mineral debris left in the area of
the explosion. Furthermore, there is no astronomical
evidence for the existence of such
chunks of antimatter in our region of the universe
. If such objects existed, they should be
constantly producing energetic gamma rays
due to annihilation against the interstellar medium
, but such gamma rays
have not been observed.
The Wardenclyffe Tower
Nichelson suggested that the Tunguska explosion may have been the
result of an experiment by Nikola Tesla
using the Wardenclyffe
Tower, performed during one of Robert Peary's North Pole expeditions.
It should be noted that Admiral Peary did not leave New York until
July 6, 1908, six days after the Tunguska event.
Alien spaceship crash
A number of UFO theorists
have claimed that the Tunguska event was the result of the
activities of extraterrestrial
, including an exploding alien spaceship or even an alien
weapon going off to "save the Earth from an imminent threat". These
claims appear to originate from a science fiction
story "The Explosion" penned
by Soviet engineer Alexander
in 1946, in which a nuclear-powered Martian
spaceship, trying to land on the Earth, met with a disaster and
blew up in mid-air. Kazantsev never
Hiroshima, but his idea of the above-ground explosion of the
Tunguska space body was inspired by the news about the nuclear
explosion over this Japanese city, as well as by his talks with
some leading Soviet nuclear physicists.
Many events in Kazantsev's tale were subsequently confused with the
actual occurrences at Tunguska. The nuclear-powered UFO hypothesis
was adopted by TV drama critics Thomas Atkins and John Baxter in
their book The Fire Came By
(1976). The 1998 television series The Secret KGB UFO
Files (Phenomenon: The Lost Archives)
, broadcast on Turner Network Television
referred to the Tunguska event as "the Russian Roswell
" and claimed that crashed UFO
debris had been recovered from the site. In 2004, a group from the
Tunguska Spatial Phenomenon Foundation claimed to have found the
wreckage of an alien spacecraft at the site. In 2009, Dr Yuri
Labvin, president of the Tunguska Spatial Phenomenon Foundation
repeated these claims, based upon findings of the quartz slabs with
strange markings found at the site, which, as he claims, represent
the remnants of an alien spaceship control panel. The proponents of
the UFO hypothesis have never been able to provide any significant
evidence for their claims.
Astrophysicist Wolfgang Kundt has suggested the Tunguska event was
caused by the sudden release and subsequent explosion of 10 million
tons of natural gas
from within the
Earth's crust. The similar Verneshot
hypothesis has also been suggested as a possible cause of the
The Tunguska event is the strongest, but not the only, significant
meteorite airburst in recent history. A selection of similar events
||Yield of explosion (TNT
||Height of explosion
|June 30, 1908
northwest of Vanavara, at in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Imperial
|August 13, 1930
||Curuçá River Area, Amazonas, Brazil
|May 31, 1965
||material from meteorite found
|September 17, 1966
Huron, Michigan, United States
||No material from meteorite found
|February 5, 1967
||Vilna, Alberta, Canada
||Two very small fragments found - and .Stored at University of
Alberta, in Edmonton.
|September 22, 1979
||Southern Indian Ocean
controversial and assumed explosion over the Indian Ocean was named
been detected by the U.S. Vela satellite 6911. That sentry
satellite carried various instruments designed specifically to
detect nuclear explosions.
Three possible causes emerged over a several year period after the
event: 1) a secret nuclear test, likely by South Africa; 2) an asteroidal/meteorite impact
event, and 3) instrumentation failure on board the
Despite numerous sweeps by special U.S. detector aircraft, no
airborne nuclear contaminants were ever detected, which lent some
coinage to the initial speculation of a small asteroidal or large
|January 19, 1993
||Lugo, Northern Italy
|January 18, 1994
|December 9, 1997
km South of Nuuk, Greenland, at
||One airburst at 46 km, three more breakups detected between 25
and 30 km. No remains found so far. Yield only based on luminosity,
i.e. the total energy might have been considerably larger.
|June 6, 2002
||Mediterranean Sea between Libya and
|September 25, 2002
|October 7, 2008
||Object identified before impact as 2008
TC3. Systematic search for fragments found a total of 280
fragments, with a mass of 3.9 kilograms.
Tunguska event in popular culture
- Baxter, John and Thomas Atkins, The Fire Came By: The
Riddle of the Great Siberian Explosion, Macdonald and Jane's,
London 1975. ISBN 044689396X.
- Brown, J.C, and Hughes, D.W. Nature 268, 512–514 (1977)
- Furneaux, Rupert. The Tungus Event, Nordon
Publications, New York, 1977. ISBN 058604423X.
- Gallant, Roy A. The Day the Sky Split Apart: Investigating
a Cosmic Mystery, Atheneum Books for Children, New York, 1995.
- Gasperini, Luca, Bonatti, Enrico and Longo, Giuseppe. The Tunguska Mystery 100 Years Later,
Scientific American, June, 2008
- Krinov, E. L. Giant Meteorites, trans. J.S.
Romankiewicz (Part III: The Tunguska Meteorite), Pergamon Press,
- Morgan, J. Phipps, Ranero, C.R., Reston, T.J. Contemporaneous mass extinctions, continental flood
basalts, and ‘impact signals’: are mantle plume-induced
lithospheric gas explosions the causal link?, Earth and
Planetary Science Letters. 217. 263-284 (2004)
- Lerman, J. C., Mook, W. G. & Vogel, J. C. Nature, Effect of the Tunguska Meteor and Sunspots on
Radiocarbon in Tree Rings, (9 December 1967) |
doi:10.1038/216990a0; 216, 990–1 (1967)
- Ol'khovatov, A.Yu. Earth, Moon and Planets, v.93,
pp. 163–173 (2003)
- Rubtsov, Vladimir. The Tunguska Mystery, Springer, New
York, 2009. ISBN 9780387765730.
- Stoneley, Jack. Cauldron of Hell: Tunguska, Simon and
Schuster, New York, 1977. ISBN 0671229435.
- Verma, Surendra. The Tunguska Fireball: Solving One of the
Great Mysteries of the 20th century, Icon Books, Cambridge,
2005. ISBN 1840466200.
- Verma, Surendra. The Mystery of the Tunguska Fireball,
Icon Books, Cambridge, 2006. ISBN 1840467282.
- P. Farinella, L. Foschini, Ch. Froeschlé, R. Gonczi, T. J.
Jopek, G. Longo, P. Michel Probable asteroidal origin of the Tunguska Cosmic
- Trayner, C. Perplexities of the Tunguska
- Lyne, J.E., Tauber, M. The Tunguska Event
- Verma (2005), p1.
- APOD: 2007 November 14 - Tunguska: The Largest
Recent Impact Event
- Traynor, Chris, The Tunguska Event, Journal of the
British Astronomical Association, 107, 3, 1997
- Cornell University (2009, June 25). Space Shuttle Science Shows
How 1908 Tunguska Explosion Was Caused By A Comet.
- Kelley, M. C., C. E. Seyler, and M. F. Larsen. (2009),
Two-dimensional Turbulence, Space Shuttle Plume Transport in the
Thermosphere, and a Possible Relation to the Great Siberian Impact
Event. Geophys. Res. Lett, (in press) DOI:
- N. V. Vasiliev, A. F. Kovalevsky, S. A. Razin, L. E. Epiktetova
(1981). Eyewitness accounts of Tunguska (Crash)., Section
6, Item 4
- Vasiliev, Section 5
- Vasiliev, Section 1, Item 2
- Vasiliev, Section 1, Item 3
- Vasiliev, Section 1, Item 5
- Boyarkina, A. P., Demin, D. V., Zotkin, I. T., Fast, W. G.
Estimation of the blast wave of the Tunguska meteorite from the
forest destruction. – Meteoritika, Vol. 24, 1964, pp.
112-128 (in Russian).
- Hou et al. Discovery of iridium and other element anomalies
near the 1908 Tunguska explosion site, Planetary and Space
Science, Volume 46, Issues 2-3, February-March 1998, Pages
- Kolesnikov et al. Isotopic anomaly in peat nitrogen is a
probable trace of acid rains caused by 1908 Tunguska bolide,
Planetary and Space
Science, Volume 46, Issues 2-3, February-March 1998, Pages
- Utyuzhnikov, S.V. and Rudenko, D.V. An adaptive moving mesh method with application to
nontstationary hypersonic flows in the atmosphere,, Proceedings
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G, J. of Aerospace
Engineering, 2008, 222 (5): 661-671
- " A possible impact crater for the 1908 Tunguska
Event", Department of Physics, University of Bolongna
- Rincon Paul (2007) " Team makes Tunguska crater claim", BBC
- Crater From 1908 Russian Space Impact Found, Team
- :Quoted in N. V. Vasilyev et al., Pokazaniya Ochevidtsev
Tungusskogo Padeniya (Testimony of Eyewitnesses to the
Tunguska Impact), VINITI (1981), available on line at
http://olkhov.narod.ru/tungwitn1.htm or at
http://tunguska.tsc.ru/ru/science/1/0. This document is in Russian,
but a translation of Kulesh's full report may be found at
- The nuclear and aerial dynamics of the Tunguska
- Universiteit Leiden - "Making a comet nucleus" - By
Greenberg, J.M. 1998
- Kolesnikov et al. Finding of probable Tunguska
Cosmic Body material: isotopic anomalies of carbon and hydrogen in
peat, Planetary and Space
Science, Volume 47, Issues 6-7, June 1, 1999, Pages
- “Was the Tungus Event due to a Black Hole?” Nature, vol. 245,
September 14, 1973, pp. 88-89.
- Beasley and Tinsley (1974) "Tungus event was not caused by a black hole."
- Cowan, C., Atluri, C. R. & Libby, W. F., Possible Anti-Matter Content of the Tunguska Meteor
of 1908. Nature 206, 861 - 865 (29 May 1965);
- Kazantsev, A. The Explosion. – Vokrug Sveta, 1946, No.
1 (in Russian).
- For details see: Rubtsov (2009), pp. 67-70.
- SPACE.com - "Russian Alien Spaceship Claims Raise
Eyebrows, Skepticism "
- The Sun - "UFO 'sacrificed itself for us'"
- Choi, Charles Q., Massive Tunguska Blast Still Unsolved 100 Years
News, July 1, 2008
- 100 years on, mystery shrouds massive 'cosmic
impact' in Russia, Agence France-Presse, June 28,
- Morgan et al., "Contemporaneous mass extinctions,
continental flood basalts, and ‘impact signals’: are mantle
plume-induced lithospheric gas explosions the causal link?",
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 217, January 15,
- Greenland meteor at goes.gsfc.nasa.gov
- Article about the events, special attention to
Leonid Kulik on MysteryDatabase.com
- Quasi Three-Dimensional Modeling of Tunguska Comet
Impact (1908) Dr. Andrei E. Zlobin, Paper of 2007 Planetary
Comet Impact 1908
- The Tunguska Event in 1908: Evidence from Tree-Ring
Anatomy - Evgenii A. Vaganov, Malkolm K. Hughes, Pavel P.
Silkin and Valery D. Nesvetailo, Astrobiology, Volume 4, Number 3,
2004, pp. 391–399
- Tunguska.ru Russian site with a tiny English section.
Includes some gorgeous Tunguska photos.
- Tunguska A research group at University
of Bologna that has conducted several recent expeditions to
- Tunguska pictures Many Tunguska-related pictures with
comments in English.
- Preliminary results from the 1961 combined Tunguska
- Probable asteroidal origin of the Tunguska Cosmic
Body A 2001 paper arguing for the asteroidal hypothesis.
- "Russian Alien Spaceship Claims Raise Eyebrows,
Skepticism" article, arguing the event was caused by meteor
- "The Vurdalak
Conjecture" website explores the science behind the black-hole
- 1908 Siberia Explosion. Reconstruction by
William K. Hartmann.
- Simulation of such an event & origin of King
- Team makes Tunguska crater claim (BBC
- Astronomy Picture of the Day on Tunguska
- Mystery space blast 'solved' (BBC News)
- Sound of the Tunguska event
- The Tunguska Event 100 Years later NASA
- There Was a Hot Time in Tunguska That