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The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterraneanmarker to Siberiamarker and Western Chinamarker, and are considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.

Turkic languages are spoken by some 180 million people as a native language; and the total number of Turkic speakers is over 200 million, including speakers as a second language. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper, or Anatolianmarker [and Balkan] Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers. Characteristic features of Turkish, such as [[vowel harmony]], [[agglutination]], and lack of [[grammatical gender]], are universal within the Turkic family and the Altaic languages. There is also a high degree of [[mutual intelligibility]] between the various Oghuz languages, which include [[Turkish language|Turkish]], [[Azerbaijani language|Azeri]], [[Turkmen language|Turkmen]], [[Qashqai language|Qashqai]], [[Gagauz language|Gagauz]], and [[Balkan Gagauz Turkish language|Balkan Gagauz Turkish]].{{cite web|publisher=[[UCLA]] International Institute, Center for World Languages|url=http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/Profile.aspx?LangID=67&menu=004|title=Language Materials Project: Turkish|accessdate=2007-04-26|month=February | year=2007}} == Characteristics == {{seealso|Altaic languages}} The characteristic features of the Turkic languages are [[vowel harmony]], extensive [[Agglutinative language|agglutination]] by means of [[suffix]]es, and lack of [[noun class]]es or [[grammatical gender]]. [[Subject Object Verb]] word order is universal within the family. All of these distinguishing characteristics are shared with the [[Mongolic languages|Mongolic]] and [[Tungusic languages|Tungusic]] language families, as well as with the [[Korean language]] (with the exception of vowel harmony), which are by some linguists considered to be genetically linked with the Turkic languages in the proposed [[Altaic languages|Altaic language family]], a language family rejected by most linguists Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco. 2007. ''A Glossary of Historical Linguistics''. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. Pp. 7-8.
Anatole V. Lyovin. 1997. ''An Introduction to the Languages of the World''. Oxford University Press. Pp. 113-114. though accepted in the Voegelin & Voegelin classification (1977:18-19).Voegelin, C.F. & F.M. Voegelin. 1977. ''Classification and index of the World's languages''. New York: Elsevier. == History == The geographical distribution of Turkic-speaking peoples across [[Eurasia]] ranges from the North-East of [[Siberia]] to Turkey in the West (see picture in the box on the right above).[http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90010 Turkic Language tree] entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking regions. [[Image:Altaic family2.svg|left|thumb|300px|Distribution of the [[Altaic languages]] across [[Eurasia]]. The inclusion of [[Japanese language|Japanese]] and [[Korean language|Korean]], and to a lesser degree the existence of a single Altaic language family, is [[Altaic languages#The controversy over Altaic|controversial]].]] {{seealso|Proto-Turkic language|Turkic peoples|Turkic migration}} === Early written records === The first established records of the Turkic languages are the 8th century [[Orkhon inscriptions]] by the [[Göktürks]], recording the [[Old Turkic language]], which were discovered in 1889 in the [[Orkhon Valley]] in Mongolia. The ''Compendium of the Turkic Dialects'' ( ''Divânü Lügati't-Türk''), written during the 11th century by [[Mahmud al-Kashgari|Kaşgarlı Mahmud]] of the [[Kara-Khanid Khanate]], constitutes an early linguistic treatment of the family. The ''Compendium'' is the first comprehensive dictionary of the Turkic languages and also includes the first known map of the Turkic speakers' geographical distribution. It mainly pertains to the [[Oghuz languages|Southwestern branch]] of the family.{{cite book|last=Soucek|first=Svat|title=A History of Inner Asia|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2000|month=March|isbn=978-0521651691}} The [[Codex Cumanicus]] (12th - 13th centuries) concerning the [[Kypchak languages|Northwestern branch]] is another early linguistic manual, between [[Kipchak language]] and [[Latin]], used by the [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholic]] [[Missionary|missionaries]] sent to the Western [[Cumans]] inhabiting a region corresponding to present-day [[Hungary]] and [[Romania]]. The earliest records of the language spoken by [[Volga Bulgaria|Volga Bulgars]], the parent to today's [[Chuvash language]], are dated to 13th - 14th centuries. === Geographical expansion and development === With the [[Turkic expansion]] during [[Early Middle Ages]] (c. 6th - 11th centuries), Turkic languages, in the course of just a few centuries, spread across [[Central Asia]], stretching from [[Siberia]] (the [[Sakha Republic]]) to the [[Mediterranean]] ([[Seljuk Turks]]). Various elements from the Turkic languages have passed into [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]], [[Persian language|Persian]], [[Urdu]], [[Russian language|Russian]], [[Chinese language|Chinese]] and to a lesser extent, [[Arabic language|Arabic]].{{cite book|last=Findley|first=Carter V.|title=The Turks in World History|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2004|month=October|isbn=0-19-517726-6}} {{Sectstub|date=May 2008}} == Classification == For centuries, the Turkic speaking peoples have migrated extensively and intermingled continuously, and their languages have been influenced mutually and through [[language contact|contact]] with the surrounding languages, especially the [[Iranian languages|Iranian]], [[Slavic languages|Slavic]], and [[Mongolic languages]].{{cite paper|author=Johanson, Lars|title=Discoveries on the Turkic linguistic map|publisher=Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul|year=2001|url=http://www.srii.org/admin/filer/Map.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2007-03-18}} This has obscured the historical developments within each language and/or language group, and as a result, there exist several systems to classify the Turkic languages. The modern genetic classification schemes for Turkic are still largely indebted to Samoilovich (1922)[http://web.archive.org/web/20070528154132/http://s155239215.onlinehome.us/turkic/40_Language/LangClassificationEn.htm Classification of Türkic languages] and are mainly based on the development of *d. However, there are still many elements of questioning for which ongoing research has not yet found an adequate solution. The Turkic languages may be divided into six branches (Johanson 1998):Lars Johanson, The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds), The Turkic Languages, London, New York: Routledge, 81-125, 1998.[http://www.turkiclanguages.com/www/classification.html Classification of Turkic languages] #Southwestern ([[Oghuz languages|Oghuz Turkic]]) #Northwestern ([[Kypchak languages|Kypchak Turkic]]) #Southeastern ([[Uyghur Turkic]])This branch is also referred to as Uyghuric to distinguish the branch from one of its members, [[Uyghur language|Uyghur]]. #Northeastern ([[Siberian Languages|Siberian Turkic]]) #[[Oghur languages|Oghur Turkic]] #[[Arghu-Turkic language|Arghu Turkic]] In this classification, [[Oghur languages|Oghur Turkic]] is also referred to as [[Lir-Turkic]] and the other branches are subsumed under the title of [[Shaz-Turkic]] or [[Common Turkic]]. It is not clear when these two major types of Turkic can be assumed to have actually diverged.See the main article on [[Lir-Turkic]]. With less certainty, the Southwestern, Northwestern, Southeastern and Oghur groups may further be summarized as '''West Turkic''', the Northeastern, Kyrgyz-Kypchak and Arghu (Khalaj) groups as '''East Turkic'''.{{cite web|author=Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.)|authorlink=Ethnologue|url=http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90010|title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Language Family Trees - Turkic|accessdate=2007-03-18|year=2005}} The reliability of ''Ethnologue'' lies mainly in its statistics whereas its framework for the internal classification of Turkic is still based largely on Baskakov (1962) and the collective work in Deny et al. (1959-1964). A more up to date alternative to classifying these languages on internal camparative grounds is to be found in the work of Johanson and his co-workers. Geographically and linguistically, the languages of the Northwestern and Southeastern subgroups belong to the central Turkic languages, while the Northeastern and Khalaj languages are the so-called peripheral languages. === Classification Schema === The following [[isogloss]]es are traditionally used in the classification of the Turkic languages: * '''[[Rhoticisation]]''', e.g. in the last consonant of the word for "nine" *'''toqqız'''. This separates the Oghur branch, which exhibits /r/, from the rest of Turkic, which exhibits /z/. In this case, rhoticisation refers to the development of *-/r/, *-/z/, and *-/d/ to /r/ in this branch.Larry Clark, Chuvash. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds), The Turkic Languages, London, New York: Routledge, 434-452, 2006. * '''Intervocalic *d''', e.g. in the second consonant in the word for "foot" *hadaq * '''Word-final -G''', e.g. in the word for "mountain" *tāğ * '''Suffix-final -G''', e.g. in the suffix *lIG, in e.g. *tāğlığ Additional isoglosses include: * '''Preservation of word initial *h''', e.g. in the word for "foot" *hadaq ** This separates Khalaj as a peripheral language * '''Denasalisation of palatal *ń''', e.g. in the word for "moon", *ań {|class="wikitable" style="font-size: 85%" !|isogloss !'''[[Old Turkic language|Old Turkic]]''' !'''[[Turkish language|Turkish]]''' !'''[[Uzbek language|Uzbek]]''' !'''[[Uyghur language|Uyghur]]''' !'''[[Tatar language|Tatar]]''' !'''[[Kazakh language|Kazakh]]''' !'''[[Kyrgyz language|Kyrgyz]]''' !'''[[Altay language|Altay]]''' !'''[[Western Yugur language|Western Yugur]]''' !'''[[Fuyü Gïrgïs language|Fu-yü Gyrgys]]''' !'''[[Khakas language|Khakas]]''' !'''[[Tuvan language|Tuvan]]''' !'''[[Sakha language|Sakha/Yakut]]''' !'''[[Khalaj language|Khalaj]]''' !'''[[Chuvash language|Chuvash]]''' |- |'''z/r''' (''nine'') |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toquz |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|dokuz |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toqqiz |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toqquz |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tuğız |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toğız |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toğuz |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toğus |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|doğus |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toğıs |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tos |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toğus |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toqquz |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|tăχăr |- |'''*h-''' (''foot'') |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|adaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|ayak |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|oyoq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|ayaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|ayaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|ayaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|ayaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|azaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|azıχ |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|azaχ |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|adaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|ataχ |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|hadaq |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|ura |- |'''*VdV''' (''foot'') |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|adaq |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|ayak |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|oyoq |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|ayaq |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|ayaq |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|ayaq |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|ayaq |style="background-color: #ece0f0"| |style="background-color: #f0f1df"|azaq |style="background-color: #f0f1df"|azıχ |style="background-color: #f0f1df"|azaχ |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|adaq |style="background-color: #dff1e0"|ataχ |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|hadaq |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|ura |- |'''*-g''' (''mountain'') |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tağ |style="background-color: #d6e1ec"|dağ* |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|toğ |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tağ |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|taw |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|taw |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|tō |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|tū |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tağ |style="background-color: #dff1e0"|daχ |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tağ |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|dağ |style="background-color: #dff1e0"|tıa |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tāğ |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|tu |- |'''suffix *-g''' (''mountainous'') |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|tağlığ |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|dağlık* |style="background-color: #dff1e0"|toğlık |style="background-color: #dff1e0"|tağlıq |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|tawlı |style="background-color: #ece0f0"|tawlı |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|tōlū |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|tūlu |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #dff1e0"| |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #dff1e0"| |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"| |- |'''*-ń''' (''burn'') |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|köy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|köy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|kuy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|köy-/küy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|köy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|küy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|küy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|küy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"|köy- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |style="background-color: #dff1e0"| |style="background-color: #f1dfe5"|kie̯n- |style="background-color: #d1ebeb"| |} *In the standard Istanbul dialect of Turkish, the ğ in dağ and dağlı is not realized as a consonant, but as a slight lengthening of the preceding vowel.


Members

The following table is based upon the classification scheme presented by Lars Johanson (1998)
Proto-Turkic Southwestern Common Turkic (Oghuz)  
West Oghuz
East Oghuz
South Oghuz
Northwestern Common Turkic  
West Kipchak
North Kipchak (Volga-Ural)
South Kipchak (Aralo-Caspian)
Southeastern Common Turkic (Uyghuric) West
East
Northeastern Common Turkic (Siberian) North Siberian
South Siberian Sayan Turkic
Yenisei Turkic
Chulym Turkic
Altai Turkic
  • Altay Oirot and dialects such as Tuba, Qumanda, Qu, Teleut, Telengit
Oghur  
Arghu  


Vocabulary comparison

The following is a brief comparison of cognates among the basic vocabulary across the Turkic language family (about 60 words). Note that empty cells do not necessarily imply that a particular language is lacking a word to describe the concept, but rather that the word for the concept in that language may formed from another stem and is not a cognate with the other words in the row or that the equivalent was unknown to contributors to this article. Also, there may be shifts in the meaning from one language to another, and so the "common meaning" given is only approximate. In some cases the form given is found only in some dialects of the language. Forms are given in native Latin orthographies unless otherwise noted.

common meaning Old Turkic Turkish Azerbaijani Turkmen Tatar Kazakh Kyrgyz Uzbek Uyghur Sakha/Yakut Chuvash
- Sound Avaz Avaz Avaz Avaz Awaz Avaz Avaz Avaz Avaz Avaz Avaz
Mother Ana Anne/Ana Ana Ene Ana Ana Ene Ona Ana Anne
Son O'gul Oğul Oğul Oğul Ul, uğıl Ul Uul O'gil Oghul Uol Yvăl, Ul
Man Er(kek) Er(kek) Er/Kişi Erkek İr Er(kek) Erkek Erkak Er Er Ar/Arşçin
Girl Kyz Kız Qız Gyz Qız Qız Kız Qiz Qiz Ky:s Hĕr
Person Kişi Kişi Şəxs Kişi Keşe Kisi Kishi Kishi Kishi Kihi Şçin
Bride Kelin Gelin Gəlin Gelin Kilen Kelin Kelin Kelin Kelin Kylyn Kin
Mother-in-law Kaynana Qaynana Gayın ene Qayın ana Qayın ene Kaynene Qayın ona Qeyinana Hun'ama
Body parts Heart Yürek Yürek Ürək Ýürek Yöräk Jürek Jürök Yurak Yürek Süreq Čĕre
Blood Qan Kan Qan Ga:n Qan Qan Kan Qon Qan Qa:n Jun
Head Baš Baş Baş Baş Baş Bas Bash Bosh Baş Bas Puś
Hair Qıl Kıl Qıl Qyl Qıl Qıl Kıl Qil Qil Kıl
Eye Köz Göz Göz Göz Küz Köz Köz Ko'z Köz Kos Kuś
Eyelash Kirpik Kirpik Kiprik Kirpik Kerfek Kirpik Kirpik Kiprik Kirpik Kirbi: Hărpăk
Ear Qulqaq Kulak Qulaq Gulak Qolaq Qulaq Kulak Quloq Qulaq Gulka:k Hălha
Nose Burun Burun Burun Burun Borın Murın Murun Burun Burun Murun
Arm Qol Kol Qol Gol Qul Qol Kol Qo'l Qol Hul/Hol
Hand El(ig) El Əl El Alaqan Alakan Ili: Ală
Finger Barmak Parmak Barmaq Barmak Barmaq Barmaq Barmak Barmoq Barmaq Pürne/Porn'a
Fingernail Tyrnaq Tırnak Dırnaq Dyrnaq Tırnaq Tırnaq Tyrmak Tirnoq Tirnaq Tynyraq Čĕrne
Knee Tiz Diz Diz Dy:z Tez Tize Tize Tizza Tiz Tüsäχ Čĕrpuśśi
Calf Baltyr Baldır Baldır Baldyr Baltır Baldır Baltyr Boldyr Baldir Ballyr Pıl
Foot Adaq Ayak Ayaq Aýak Ayaq Ayaq Ayak Oyoq Ayaq Ataq Ura
Belly Qaryn Karın Qarın Garyn Qarın Qarın Karyn Qorin Qerin Qaryn Hyrăm
Animals Horse At At At At At At At Ot At At Ut
Cattle Siyir Sığır Inek Sygyr Sıyır Sïır Sıyır Sigir Siyir Vıleh
Dog Yt İt/Köpek İt It Et Ït It It/Ko'ppak/Kuchuk It Yt Jytă
Fish Balyq Balık Balıq Balyk Balıq Balıq Balık Baliq Beliq Balyk Pulă
Louse Bit Bit Bit Bit Bet Bït Bit Bit Pit Byt Pyjtă/Put'ă
Other nouns House Uy Ev Ev Öý Öy Üy Üy Uy Uy Av*
Tent Otag Otağ/Çadır Otaq/Çadır Otag Otaw Boz Üy O'toq/Chodir Otaq Otu:
Way Yol Yol Yol Yo:l Yul Jol Jol Yo'l Yol Suol Śul
Bridge Köprüq Köprü Körpü Köpri Küper Köpir Köpürö Ko'prik Kövrük Kürpe Kĕper
Arrow Oq Ok Ox Ok Uq Oq Ok O'q Oq Uhă
Fire Ot Od/Ateş Od/Ataş Ot Ut Ot Ot O't Ot Uot Vut/Vot
Ash Kül Kül Kül Kül Köl Kül Kül Kul Kül Kül Kĕl
Water Suv Su Su Suw Su Su Suu Suv Su Ui Šyv/Šu
Ship, boat Kemi Gemi Gəmi Gämi Köymä Keme Keme Kema Keme Kimĕ
Lake Köl Göl Göl Köl Kül Köl Köl Ko'l Köl Küöl Külĕ
Sun/Day Küneš Gün(eş) Gün(əş) Gün Kön Kün Kün Kun Kün Kün Kun
Cloud Bulut Bulut Bulud Bulut Bolıt Bult Bulut Bulut Bulut Bylyt Pĕlĕt
Star Yulduz Yıldız Ulduz Ýyldyz Yoldız Juldız Jıldız Yulduz Yultuz Sulus Śăltăr
Earth Topraq Toprak Torpaq Toprak Tufraq Topıraq Topurak Tuproq Tupraq Toburaχ Tăpra
Hilltop Töpü Tepe Təpə Depe Tübä Töbe Töbö Tepa Töpe Töbö Tüpĕ
Tree/Wood Yağac Ağaç Ağac Agaç Ağaç Ağaş Jygach Yog'och Yahach Jyvăś
God (Tengri) Tengri Tanrı Tanrı Taňry Täñre Täñiri Teñir Tangri Tengri Tanara Tură/Toră
Sky, Blue Kök Gök Göy Gök Kük Kök Kök Ko'k Kök Küöq Kăvak/Koak
Adjectives Long Uzun Uzun Uzun Uzyn Ozın Uzın Uzun Uzun Uzun Uhun Vărăm
New Yany Yeni Yeni Yany Yaña Jaña Jañı Yangi Yengi Sana Śĕnĕ
Fat Semiz Semiz/Şişman Şişgo Semiz Simez Semiz Semiz Semiz Semiz Emis Samăr
Full Tolu Dolu Dolu Do:ly Tulı Tolı Tolo To'la Toluq Toloru Tulli
White Aq Ak Ak Aq Aq Ak Oq Aq
Black Qara Kara Qara Gara Qara Qara Kara Qora Qara Xara Hura
Red Qyzyl Kızıl Qızıl Gyzyl Qızıl Qızıl Kızıl Qizil Qizil Kyhyl Hĕrlĕ
Numbers 1 Bir Bir Bir Bir Ber Bir Bir Bir Bir Bi:r Pĕrre
2 Eki İki İki Iki İke Eki Eki Ikki Ikki Ikki Ikkĕ
4 Tört Dört Dörd Dö:rt Dürt Tört Tört To'rt Tört Tüört Tăvattă
7 Yeti Yedi Yeddi Yedi Cide Jeti Jeti Yetti Yetti Sette Śiččĕ
10 On On On O:n Un On On O'n On Uon Vunnă/Vonnă
100 Yüz Yüz Yüz Yüz Yöz Jüz Jüz Yuz Yüz Sü:s Śĕr
Old Turkic Turkish Azerbaijani Turkmen Tatar Kazakh Kyrgyz Uzbek Uyghur Sakha/Yakut Chuvash


See also



References

  1. Turkic Language family tree entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking populations and regions.
  2. Lars Johanson (1998) The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds) The Turkic Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 81-125. [1]
  3. Crimean Tatar and Urum are historically Kypchak languages, but have been heavily influenced by Oghuz languages.
  4. Tura, Baraba, Tomsk, Tümen, Ishim, Irtysh, Tobol, Tara, etc. are partly of different origin (Johanson 1998) [2]
  5. Of Altai Turkic origin, but recently closer to Kazakh (Johanson 1998)
  6. Deviating. Probably of South Siberian origin (Johanson 1998)
  7. Deviating. Historically developed from Southwestern (Oghuz) (Johanson 1998) [3]
  8. Aini contains a very large Persian vocabulary component, and is spoken exclusively by adult men, almost as a cryptolect.
  9. Some dialects are close to Kirghiz (Johanson 1998)
  10. Khalaj is surrounded by Oghuz languages, but exhibits a number of features that classify it as non-Oghuz.


Further reading

  • Baskakov, N.A. 1962, 1969. Introduction to the study of the Turkic languages. Moscow. (In Russian)
  • Boeschoten, Hendrik & Lars Johanson. 2006. Turkic languages in contact. Turcologica, Bd. 61. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3447052120
  • Clausen, Gerard. 1972. An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Deny, Jean et al. 1959-1964. Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Johanson, Lars & Éva Agnes Csató (ed.). 1998. The Turkic languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08200-5.
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "The history of Turkic." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 81-125.[5157]
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "Turkic languages." In: Encyclopaedia Britannica. CD 98. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, 5 sept. 2007.[5158]
  • Menges, K. H. 1968. The Turkic languages and peoples: An introduction to Turkic studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Öztopçu, Kurtuluş. 1996. Dictionary of the Turkic languages: English, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Uighur, Uzbek. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415141982
  • Samoilovich, A. N. 1922. Some additions to the classification of the Turkish languages. Petrograd.[5159]
  • Schönig, Claus. 1997-1998. "A new attempt to classify the Turkic languages I-III." Turkic Languages 1:1.117–133, 1:2.262–277, 2:1.130–151.
  • Starostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak. 2003. Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004131531
  • Voegelin, C.F. & F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and index of the World's languages. New York: Elsevier.


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