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Tuxtla Gutiérrez is a municipality and the capital city of the Mexican state of Chiapasmarker. It is the seat of the local public administration, the local authorities, and of the federal government delegations in the state. It covers more than 40% of the municipal territory, and continues to grow.

Geography

The city lies inside the Depression of Chiapas, between the Tuxtla valley on the Northeast, Meseta de Copoya on the South, Mount Mactumatza on the Southwest and the mountain range on the North which includes Animas, Don Ventura and the Sumidero, which includes the National Park with the same name.

The valley begins on the border at the city of Berriozabal and continues until the Rio Grande. The valley is at an altitude of 540 m. A large part of the city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez lies in this valley, while the rest lies over the northern mountain range.

Borders

  • To the North, the Cerro de las Ánimas (Hill of the Sprits), a prolongation of the central Chiapas mountain range, which at its eastern border reaches a height of 1400 m, creating the Cañón del Sumidero (Sumidero Canyon).


  • To the East, the county extends towards the Río Grande (not to be confused with the Rio Grandemarker that separates Mexico on its border with the United Statesmarker), better known as the Grijalva Rivermarker. The river forms a natural limit with the municipality of Chiapa de Corzo.


  • To the South, the Meseta de Copoya (Mesa of Copoya), whose height rises from East to West, where it culminates on Cerro Mactumatzá (Mactumatzá Hill), at a height of 1600 m. The center of the mesa has a height of between 800 m and 900 m, and in which the towns of El Jobo and Copoya are located.


  • To the West, the Valle de Tuxtla (Valley of Tuxtla) extends until it disappears in the hills and heights of the municipalities of Ocozocuautla y Berriozabal.


Climate

The climate of the municipality changed during the 1970s, after the filling of dams in the center of Chiapas, especially the Nezahualcóyotl, to power hydroelectric plants. The water held back by these dams cools the surrounding atmosphere and increases wind intensity, which blows from Northwest to Southeast with an average speed of 2.4 km/h, reaching its peak intensity between October and December

Urbanization has caused a rise in temperature, as concrete areas and internal combustion gas emission increase. Currently, the hottest months are March, April and May, with temperatures up to 36 °C, and the coldest months are November, December and January, with temperatures as low as 8 °C.

The normal rainy season begins in early May and can last until early October. The average annual precipitation is 940 mm.

The climate varies within the municipality; in the suburban neighborhoods El Jobo and Copoya (still considered associative), and the El Zapotal and Cerro Hueco mountains the climate is cool and pleasant all year long due to the abundant vegetation, its greater altitude, and its environmental humidity.

Hydrography

To the East flows the Río Grande (a section of the Grijalva River, not to be confused with the Rio Grande which forms the border berween the US and Mexico). To the South flows the Suchiapa River, natural limit with the homonym municipality. Neither of the rivers are important to municipality's hydrological network.

The most important stream of the municipality is the Río Sabinal, which originates in the municipality of Berriozabal; it flows through the central valley of Tuxtla, passes the city and merges with the Río Grande. The official plan of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, of 1982, showed that the Sabinal was fed by 7 streams but, due to the growth of the city, they are now dry. The streams that fed it included the Chacon and Poti to the city's north, and the San Roque to the south, but all of these have now disappeared. The Sabinal was the natural border of the small city of Tuxtla, but in the 1960s, urban areas proliferated on both sides of the river that since then has received massive drains, and it is now part of that system.

The municipality now supplies itself with drinkable water originating in the Río Santo Domingo in the municipality of Chiapa de Corzo, by means of pumps and storage tanks, but at a very high cost. Other suppliers of water are the aquifers in the municipality of Tuxtla and the artesian wells excavated to hundreds of meters of the Sabinal whose drinkability is questionable, although its water is consumed.

Flora

Due to the growing populations during the last part of the 20th century, many native species have disappeared and others are already endangered. The mountains Cerro Hueco, El Zapotal, the plateaus, and del Sumidero sobre el cañón, are green areas protected against deforestation. Although the majority of the municipal territory is green areas, the gradual expansion of the city has seized much land. The Montecriso disappeared, deforested, some time ago.







Economy and politics

Because of its geographical location, Tuxtla Gutiérrez has been the permanent seat of Plan Puebla Panama (PPP) since the establishment of the Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla, agreed by the heads of state of the governments of Belizemarker, Costa Ricamarker, El Salvadormarker, Guatemalamarker, Hondurasmarker, Mexicomarker, Nicaraguamarker, and Panamamarker prior to the initial round of meetings in the Mesoamerican Poliforum in 2001.

Its economic activity depends on the governmental spending and on the consumption of the local bureaucracy. Tuxtla Gutiérrez has few industries, though it does have a growing commerce of goods. It has the second largest economic revenue in the state, after Tapachulamarker. Its most dynamic industry is construction which is still rising.

Education

The city contains various universities, the main of which are in the far west and are:
  • Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla Gutierrez
  • ITESMmarker (Chiapas Campus)
  • Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas (UNACH) seated in Tuxtla
  • Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Chiapas
  • U.V.M. (Universidad Valle de México) Campus Tuxtla


The main public library is the public university's library (UNACH) followed by the Centro Cultural Jaime Sabines. The city contains two large theaters, the Emilio Rabasa and the Poliforum, in front of the convention center.

Sports

The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez is the seat of the Primera División de México soccer club, Jaguares de Chiapas, whose stadium is the Victor Manuel Reyna.

A NASCAR-sanctioned racetrack was opened in October 2008. The Autódromo Chiapas is a 0.75-mile oval with up to 14 degrees of banking. The track hosted Round 13 of the NASCAR Corona Series on October 12, 2008, in front of more than 15,000 spectators.

Tourism

Sumidero Canyon Ecological Preserve

Important Web Sites

Places of interest

  • ZOOMAT (Miguel Álvarez del Toro Zoo)
  • The Marimba Square
  • Cathedral of San Marcos
  • Church of San Pascualito


Museums and galleries

  • Tuxtla Gutiérrez Anthropology and History Museum
  • Eliseo Palacios Aguilera Paleontology Museum
  • Tuxtla Gutiérrez Botanical Museum


Parks and gardens

  • Faustino Miranda Botanical Garden
  • National Park of Canyon Sumidero (outside the city)


Commercial zones

The city includes three large malls: Plaza Cristal, Galerias Boulevard and Plaza del Sol, which are adjacent from one another. They are situated to the far west with another growing mall-like facility, the Plaza Poliforum, located to the far east.

The city also contains four multiplex cinemas, one each in the three large shopping centers.

Media

  • Local television channels:
    • XHDY Canal 5
    • XHTTG Canal 10
    • Canal 7 de Cable de Tuxtla


  • AM radio stations:
    • 580 (XEUE, La Invasora )
    • 710 (XEON, La radio mexicana)
    • 840 (XEIO, Radio Ranchito)
    • 920 (XEVV, La poderosa)
    • 950 (XETUG, Radiorama Siglo XXI)
    • 990 (XETG, La grande del sureste)
    • 1070 (XERPR, Extasis Digital )
    • 1240 (XELM, Romántica)
    • 1360 (XEUD, La máquina musical)


  • FM radio stations:
    • 93.1 (Bella música)
    • 93.9 (Vida FM)
    • 96.1 (Extremo FM)
    • 96.9 (Máxima FM)
    • 98.5 ( EXA FM)


  • Local publications include:
    • Cuarto Poder (newspaper)
    • Diario de Chiapas (newspaper)
    • Aerópago (political magazine)


Transportation

The most numerous means of public transportation are short buses and minibuses (commonly referred to as 'colectivos'), typically modified VW Transporter and Ford Transit vehicles. No railroad lines service the municipality, increasing the cost of shipping to or from the area. Tuxtla is connected to the country by a network of federal roads and an expressway that connects it to Mexico Citymarker, some ten hours away. An expressway connecting Tuxtla to San Cristóbal de las Casasmarker was completed in 2006.

Interstate bus lines that arrive in Tuxtla are:
  • ADO-GL
  • Autobuses de Oriente (ADO)
  • Autobuses UNO
  • Ómnibus Cristóbal Colón (OCC)
  • Rápidos del Sur (RS)
  • TRF


Tuxtla is well connected to the rest of Mexico, and has daily national departures, and frequent departures to San Cristóbal de las Casasmarker. A new dedicated bus terminal in the west part of town was placed into service in 2007.

A new national airport, which opened in 2006 was built 45 minutes east of town. There is currently no public transportation between the airport and the town, but this is subject to change. Previously, the national airport Llano San Juan, located in the town of Berriozábalmarker was in operation, but due to recurring adverse weather conditions, the new airport was built to ensure more timely arrivals and departures.

Culture

Theater

Theatrical works of local significance include the comedies Bienvenido Conde Drácula, Don Camilo, and El Tenorio Chiapaneco, which are staged annually. These plays preserve the traditional idiosyncrasy of Tuxtla that has, as a result of urbanization, almost disappeared. Additionally, they include in their dialogues recent trivialities regarding the media.

Local celebrations

Customs

Birthday and saint's day "coronations" include:

Ancient local legends

  • The Sombreroman
  • The Tisihua
  • The little baby
  • The Chepa's cave
  • The Firesow
  • The St. Pascual's small cart


Cuisine

During the Fair of San Marcos and Guadalupe, certain festive soups with vermicelli are in demand. Along with the soups comes bread containing olives, raisins, or plums, slices of hard-boiled egg, slices of fried plantain, and/or almonds.

Stews

  • Cabbage leaves and garbanzo beans
  • Chanfaina
  • Chicharrones con patashete y huevo en pipián
  • Chipilín con bolita
  • Cochito horneado
  • Estofado
  • Frijoles con chipilín y puerco con chirmol
  • Pepita con tasajo
  • Pux-xaxé
  • Sopa de chipilín
  • Sopa de fideos
  • Sopa de pan
  • Zispolá


Corn snacks

  • Picte de elote
  • Tamal de bola
  • Tamal de cambray
  • Tamal de chipilin
  • Tamal de mole
  • Tamal de picadillo
  • Tamal de toro pinto
  • Tamal de verduras
  • Tostada tuxtleca


Drinks



Candies



See also



References



External links




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