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F-15s of the 366th FW over Idaho
A-10s of the 355th FW over Arizona
Twelfth Air Force (12 AF) is one of four Numbered Air Forces assigned to the United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC). It is headquartered at Davis-Monthan Air Force Basemarker, Arizonamarker.

Headquarters Twelfth Air Force is dual hatted as the air and space component to United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM). In this capacity, Twelfth Air Force is referred to as United States Southern Command Air Forces (AFSOUTH)

The commander of Twelfth Air Force/AFSOUTH is Lt Gen Norman Seip.


Twelfth Air Force

The mission of Twelfth Air Force is to provide combat ready forces to ACC Additionally, Twelfth Air Force is responsible for the operational readiness of Twelfth Air Force-gained units of the Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard in the western and midwestern United States.

Twelfth Air Force is also leading the way in bringing the Chief of Staff of the Air Force's Warfighting Headquarters (WFHQ) concept to life. The WFHQ is composed of a command and control element, an Air Force forces staff and an Air Operations Center. Operating as a WFHQ since June 2004, Twelfth Air Force has served as the Air Force model for the future of Combined Air and Space Operations Centers and WFHQ Air Force forces.

United States Southern Command Air Forces

The mission of AFSOUTH is to conduct Air Force, joint and combined air and space operations in addition to information operations in the USSOUTHCOM Area of Responsibility (AOR). To fulfill these responsibilities AFSOUTH employs a full spectrum of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), intra-theatre airlift and information assets. In addition the CAOC staff is responsible for developing strategy and plans to execute air and space operations in support of USSOUTHCOM objectives. The CAOC also provides command and control of all air and space assets in the AOR.

AFSOUTH oversees Air Force assets, five forward operating locations, and civil and military engagements in the USSOUTHCOM area of responsibility - Central and South America, and the Caribbeanmarker. AFSOUTH is also responsible for the combat readiness of one of five Falconer CAOC weapons systems in the Air Force.


Twelfth Air Force serves as a primary conventional fighter and bomber WFHQ trained and ready for worldwide employment of airpower. It is responsible for the combat readiness of seven active-duty wings, which comprise more than 33,000 personnel and 400 aircraft. Twelfth Air Force is also responsible for three active-duty direct reporting units, which comprise more than 1,200 personnel; and 14 gained units of the AFR and ANG, featuring an additional 18,800 personnel and more than 200 aircraft.

As a result of the Global War on Terrorism, most 12 AF units have operated in the United States Central Command AOR.


Typically, the 12 AF/CC and his command and control staff form the core of the AFSOUTH command section. Unlike the 12 AF/CC, who reports to COMACC and has only a training mission, the commander of AFSOUTH (COMAFSOUTH) reports to the commander of US Southern Command (CDRUSSOUTHCOM) and has a warfighting responsibility. AFSOUTH has no organic assets, but draws on forces provided to it by CDRUSSOUTHCOM. Currently, AFSOUTH manages four rotational Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard C-130s based out of Muniz Air National Guard Basemarker, Puerto Rico.

The SOUTHCOM JFACC is a warfighting commander who reports to CDRUSSOUTHCOM and directs air and air defence forces provided to him for tasking by CDRUSSOUTHCOM. This typically only takes place during crisis situations in the SOUTHCOM Area of Responsibility. However, the JFACC has a significant command and control capability which is used to manage some air operations, along with the Joint Interagency Task Force South, battling illegal narcotics trafficking from several forward operating locations. Similarly to AFSOUTH, the SOUTHCOM JFACC usually draws its staff, including the commander, from the 12 AF/CC staff.

In 1963, Congress established US Southern Command and its service components, including what was know at the time as Southern Air Force (SOUTHAF). In 2007, SOUTHAF was formally redesignated AFSOUTH. The Commander of AFSOUTH is part of an operation chain of command from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the CDRUSSOUTHCOM, to the AFSOUTH commander.


Active Duty

Direct Reporting Units

Air Force Reserve


Established in the United States during World War II to be the Army Air Forces air component of Operation Torchmarker in 1942, Twelfth Air Force initially moved to England for training, then participated in the invasion of North Africa. It engaged in tactical operations for the remainder of the war in the Mediterraneanmarker. Some of the complicated organizational history of the 12th Air Force during this period is presented here:

Since World War II, Twelfth Air Force has subsequently served both in Europe and later the United States. The Twelfth Air Force serves as the Air Force component to the United States Southern Command.


  • Established as Twelfth Air Force, and activated, on August 20, 1942
Inactivated on August 31, 1945
  • Activated on May 17, 1946
Discontinued on July 1, 1950
  • Organized and Activated on January 21, 1951


Major Components

Redesignated: 830th Air Division, January 1, 1989 – February 15, 1991
Redesignated: Air Forces Panama, February 15, 1991 – February 11, 1992


World War II

12th USAAF patch in World War II
AFSOUTH (Twelfth Air Force) origins are traced back to a series of mid-1942 Allied planners' meetings to develop a strategy for the North African invasion or "Operation TORCHmarker". Because this extensive operation required a new organization to provide enough manpower and equipment, activation plans were prepared simultaneously with the invasion strategy.

On August 20, 1942, Twelfth Air Force was activated at Bolling AAFmarker, Marylandmarker. On September 23, 1942. Brigadier General Jimmy Doolittle formally assumed 12th AF command with Colonel Hoyt S. Vandenberg as chief of staff. Barely four months after it was conceived, 12th AF made its first contributions to World War II. When D-Day for the invasion of North Africa (Operation Torch) arrived on November 8, 1942, 12th AF was organized as shown in the table below:

XII Bomber Command XII Air Support Command XII Fighter Command 51st Troop Carrier Wing Photographic Reconnaissance Wing
*97th BG (B-17) 47th BG (A-20) *1st FG (P-38) 60th TCG (C-47) 3rd Photo Group (B-17, F-4)
*301st BG (B-17) 310th BG (B-25) *14th FG (P-38) 62nd TCG (C-47) 68th Observation Group (A-20)
+17th BG (B-26) 33rd FG (P-40) 31st FG (Spitfires) 64th TCG (C-47)
+319th BG (B-26) *81st FG (P-39) 52nd FG (Spitfires)
+320th BG (B-26) *350th FG (P-39)
+321st BG (B-25) *82nd FG (P-38) (*Groups from 8th Air Force)
*15th BS (Bostons) (+Groups training in U.S.)

Initially, 12th AF was a composite organization containing both strategic heavy bombardment groups; and tactical light and medium bombardment, fighter-bomber, and fighter groups. Based in French Morocco and Algeria after Operation Torch, it became very important for 12th AF to coordinate and cooperate with the Royal Air Force which had been fighting in North Africa for two years. Such Allied cooperation was a major concern of American President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and their staffs at the Casablanca Conference in January 1943 where they created the Mediterranean Air Command (MAC) with Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder as Air Commander-in-Chief. For planning of the Tunisia Campaign, Tedder's MAC headquarters were adjacent to those of his immediate superior, the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower at Algiers, Algeria soon after the new Allied air force reorganization took effect on February 18, 1943.

One priority of the MAC organization was to encourage USAAF-RAF cooperation by creating various operational commands in which the commanders came from one air force and their deputies came from the other air force. Additionally, the organization was modeled after the successful RAF Middle East Command campaign in Egypt and Libya that consisted primarily of:

Another priority of the new organization was to encourage coordination of USAAF and RAF with their respective ground forces. While this concept may seem rather obvious today, at the time, the role of the air force was still being explored and experimented with on the battlefield. The successful close tactical support of British 8th Army pioneered primarily by Tedder as Commander-in-Chief of RAF Middle East and Air Vice-Marshal Arthur Coningham as Air Officer Commanding of Air HQ Western Desert, provided the classic air interdiction model.

The first tier of Air Commander-in-Chief Sir Arthur Tedder's Mediterranean Air Command (Allied) consisted of:

The Northwest African Air Forces (NAAF) was the largest component of MAC and was established primarily according to the tri-force model (No. 205 Group, No. 201 Group, and Air Headquarters Western Desert) indicated above consisting of strategic, coastal, and tactical air forces, respectively. Consequently, the three major combat commands of NAAF were:

In keeping with the MAC priority of encouraging USAAF-RAF cooperation, Air Vice-Marshal James Robb was named Spaatz's deputy commander of NAAF and he handled operations.

Additionally, the following groups were assigned to NAAF:

Lieutenant General Lewis Brereton's 9th Air Force was assigned to RAF Middle East although its 12th Bombardment (B-25Cs) and 57th Fighter (P-40Fs) Groups formed a Desert Air Task Force detached to NATAF's Western Desert Air Force under Air Vice-Marshal Harry Broadhurst who replaced Coningham when he was promoted to NATAF commander.

The 12th AF, the largest air force ever assembled soon after its inception several months earlier, ceased to exist in the new MAC organizational structure. As an operational organization, the 12th AF simply disappeared as its groups were dissipated among the various new MAC commands listed above. The only remaining reference to the 12th AF among the new organizational commands was Major General Edwin House's XII Air Support Command which along with Broadhurst's Western Desert Air Force, Air Vice-Marshal Sir Laurence Sinclair's Tactical Bomber Force, and Air Vice-Marshal Sir Kenneth Cross' No. 242 Group, became part of Coningham's NATAF. Later, XII Air Support Command was even less obvious when it was detached to No. 242 Group. The curious status of the 12th AF in February 1943 is illustrated by the quotation below taken from Craven and Cate, Eds., The United States Army Air Forces in WWII, Volume 2, Europe: Torch to Pointblank, Chapter 6, Climax in Tunisia, p 167, 1949.

"One of the admittedly minor problems of the reorganization concerned the status of the Twelfth Air Force. Its units, personnel, and equipment having been transferred entirely to NAAF on 18 February, both on paper and in actuality the Twelfth seemed to have vanished. At his last staff meeting, on 22 February, Doolittle expressed the opinion that once such matters as courts-martial had been wound up, the "skeleton" of the Twelfth--"the name only"--would have either to be returned to the States for a reincarnation or be decently interred by War Department order. Spaatz put the question to Eisenhower and, receiving answer that Headquarters, Twelfth Air Force, would be continued as the administrative headquarters for the U.S. Army elements of NAAF, he took command of the Twelfth on 1 March. As commander, however, he had no staff as such, it being assumed that AAF officers named to the NAAF staff had been automatically placed in equivalent positions in the Twelfth. Actually, all administrative functions were carried on by NAAF and the half-existence of the Twelfth served mainly to mystify all but a few headquarters experts."

Before transferring to the European Theater of Operations (ETO), the 9th Air Force's 12th and 340th Bombardment Groups, and its 57th, 79th, and 324th Fighter Groups were transferred to the 12th AF on August 22, 1943.

The general MAC structure persisted until December 10, 1943 when MAC was disbanded and reorganized as the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces (MAAF) with Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder as Air Commander-in-Chief. In mid-January 1944, Lieutenant General Ira Eaker took over MAAF when Eisenhower chose Tedder to oversee air operations and planning for the Normandy Landings. The new MAAF organization retained the original RAF model adopted by the Casablanca Conference in creating MAC nearly one year earlier:

Components of the 12th AF, also under Cannon, were assigned to his various MATAF sub-commands after the 12th's heavy bomb groups (and three B-26 medium bomb groups that were eventually returned to the 12th), were transferred to the newly created 15th Air Force (November 1, 1943; briefly under Doolittle and then Twining) as part of MASAF. In January 1944, Doolittle took over the 8th AF in England which along with the 15th AF in Italy, formed the United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) under former 12th AF, NAAF, and 8th AF commander Spaatz.
Units and Organization of the U.S.
12th and 15th Air Forces in December of 1943.
Units and Organization of the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces in January of 1944.

As the U.S. tactical air force in the Mediterranean, the 12th AF primarily provided close tactical support to U.S. ground forces in Italy and Southern France and targeted lines of transportation and communication, particularly roads, railroads, and bridges until the end of the war.

12th AF operated in the Mediterraneanmarker, French Morocco, Algeriamarker, Tunisiamarker, Greecemarker, Italymarker, Southern Francemarker, Yugoslavia, Albaniamarker, Romaniamarker, and Austriamarker. By V-E Day, 12th AF had flown 430,681 sorties, dropped 217,156 tons of bombs, claimed destruction of 2,857 enemy aircraft, and lost 2,667 of its own aircraft.

When hostilities ended, Twelfth Air Force was inactivated at Florencemarker, Italy, on August 31, 1945.

12th AF Stations: Bolling Field, DC, 20 to 28 August l942; England, 12 September to 22 October l942; Algeria, 9 November l942; Tunisia, 10 August l943; Italy, 5 December l943 to 31 August l945.

12th AF Commanders: Lt. Col. Roger J. Browne, 26 August l942; Lt. Col. Harold L. Neely, 28 August l942; Maj. Gen. James H. Doolittle, 23 September l942; Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz, 1 March l943; Lt. Gen. John K. Cannon, 21 December l943; Maj. Gen. Benjamin W. Chidlaw, 2 April l945; Brig. Gen. Charles T. Myers, 26 May to 31 August l945.

12th AF Campaigns: Air Combat, EAME Theater; Algeria-French Morocco; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; southern France; North Apennines; Po Valley.


XII Tactical Air Command
XII Tactical Air Command was constituted as XII Ground Air Support Command on September 10, 1942 and activated on September 17. It was assigned to 12th Air Force and redesignated as XII Air Support Command, and later redesignated as XII Tactical Air Command in April 1944. The command was moved to French Morocco on November 9, 1942 as part of the Operation Torchmarker landings in North Africa.

XII Tactical Air Command served in combat in the Mediterraneanmarker and European theaters until May 1945. Known units were:

(Groups transferred to XII Bomber Command)

27th Fighter Group (June 1943 – May 1945) (A-36)
31st Fighter Group (November 1942 – April 1944) (Spitfire)
33d Fighter Group (November 1942 – February 1944) (P-39)
86th Fighter Group (July 1943 – April 1945) (A-36, P-40, P-47)
324th Fighter Group (October 1943 – May 1945) (P-47)

Transferred from 9th Air Force
: (Groups transferred to XII Bomber Command)

57th Fighter Group (1944) (P-47)
86th Fighter Group (1944) (P-47)

Spitfire V of the 31st Fighter Group 309th Fighter Squadron
99th Bomb Group B-17F 42-29513
Colonel Demas T. Craw was awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism during the invasion of Algeria-French Morocco (Operation Torchmarker). When the Allies landed at Mehdia, Morocco on November 8, 1942, he volunteered to go behind enemy lines and meet with the French commander near Port Lyauteymarker, French Morocco, to broker a cease fire.

After landing on the beach under hostile fire, Craw, his interpreter Major Pierpont M. Hamilton, and their driver Private Orris Correy approached the French headquarters in a light truck. They came under machine gun fire, leaving Craw dead. Hamilton and Correy were captured. Although imprisoned, Major Hamilton succeeded in persuading the French to surrender and was awarded the Medal of Honor on February 19, 1943. Private Correy was promoted to Sergeant and Pierpont Hamilton, a descendant of Alexander Hamilton, became an intelligence officer in the Northwest African Tactical Air Force a subordinate command of the newly created Northwest African Air Forces under Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz who also assumed administrative command of the 12th Air Force on March 1, 1943.

Colonel Demas Craw was awarded his Medal of Honor posthumously on March 4, 1943 and the United States Navy named their air base at Port Lyautey, French Morocco Craw Fieldmarker in his honor on January 12, 1944 (see also: ). Ironically, the only member of the 12th Air Force to be awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism in the air was Lt. Raymond L. Knight of the 350th Fighter Group. Of course previous 12th Air Force commander, Major General James Doolittle was also a Medal of Honor recipient, but that was for the Doolittle raid on Japan in April, 1942 before the 12th Air Force existed.

XII Bomber Command
XII Bomber Command was constituted on February 26, 1942 and activated on March 13 at MacDill AAFmarker Floridamarker. It was assigned to 12th Air Force in August and transferred, without personnel and equipment, to High Wycombemarker Englandmarker where the command was re-formed. XII Bomber Command was moved to Tafaraoui, Algeriamarker on November 22, 1942 as part of the Operation Torchmarker landings in North Africa.

XII Bomber Command served in combat in the Mediterranean theater until November 1, 1943 when most of the personnel were withdrawn. The command was restaffed in January 1944 and served in combat until March 1. It was disbanded in Corsicamarker on June 10, 1944.

Known XII Bomber Command units were:

Units transferred from XII Tactical Air Command
Reassigned to Fifteenth Air Force, November 1943
Located in: French Morocco, Algeriamarker, Tunisiamarker, Italymarker

2d Bombardment Group (March–November 1943) (B-17)
47th Bombardment Group (November 1942 – November 1943) (A-20,A-26)
: 15th Bombardment Squadron (November 1942) (RAF Douglas A-20C Havoc Boston III)**
97th Bombardment Group (November 1942 – November 1943) (B-17)
: Transferred from Eighth Air Force
98th Bombardment Group (September–November 1943) (B-24)
: Transferred from Ninth Air Force
99th Bombardment Group (February–November 1943) (B-17)
301st Bombardment Group (December 1942 – November 1943) (B-17)
: Transferred from Eighth Air Force
376th Bombardment Group (September–November 1943) (B-24)
: Transferred from Ninth Air Force
1st Fighter Group (November 1942 – November 1943) (P-38)
14th Fighter Group (November 1942 – November 1943) (P-38)
: Transferred from Eighth Air Force
325th Fighter Group (February–November 1943) (P-40)
68th Reconnaissance Group (November 1942 – November 1943)
: (P-38, P-39, P-40, P-51, A-20, A-36, B-17, B-24)

.** Survivors of Australian-based 27th Bomb Group transferred to 12th AF.
Absorbed into 47th BG

Reassigned to XII Tactical Air Command May 1945
Located in: Tunisiamarker, Sardinia, Corsicamarker, Francemarker

17th Bombardment Group (January 1944 – October 1945) (B-26)
319th Bombardment Group (July 1943 – January 1945) (B-25, B-26)
320th Bombardment Group (July 1943 – July 1945) (B-26)
1st Fighter Group (July–November 1943) (P-38)
325th Fighter Group (July–December 1943) (P-40)

  • 47th Bombardment Wing (November 1942 – November 1943)
Reassigned to 15th Air Force November 1943
Located in: French Morocco, Algeriamarker, Tunisiamarker

17th Bombardment Group (December 1942 – November 1943) (B-26)
98th Bombardment Group (September–November 1943) (B-24)
: Transferred from Ninth Air Force
310th Bombardment Group (December 1942 – November 1943) (B-25)
319th Bombardment Group (December 1942 – November 1943) (B-26)
320th Bombardment Group (December 1942 – November 1943) (B-26)
321st Bombardment Group (December 1942 – November 1943) (B-25)
376th Bombardment Group (September–November 1943) (B-24)
: Transferred from Ninth Air Force
33d Fighter Group (November 1942 – November 1943) (P-40)
81st Fighter Group (January–November 1943) (P-40)
82d Fighter Group (November 1942 – November 1943) (P-38)
325th Fighter Group (January–November 1943) (P-40)

Units transferred from XII Tactical Air Command
Inactivated in Italy September 1945
Located in: Tunisiamarker, Sicily, Italymarker, Corsicamarker

12th Bombardment Group (August 1943 – February 1944) (B-25)
: Transferred to Tenth Air Force
47th Bombardment Group (1943–1944) (A-20,A-26)
310th Bombardment Group (1944) (B-25)
319th Bombardment Group (1944) (B-25)
321st Bombardment Group (1943–1944) (B-25)
340th Bombardment Group (1943–1944) (B-25)
57th Fighter Group (August 1943 – September 1945) (P-40, P-47)
79th Fighter Group (August 1943 – September 1945) (P-40, P-47)

XXII Tactical Air Command
XXII Tactical Air Command was constituted on February 26, 1942 and activated on March 5. It was redesignated as XII Fighter Command in May 1942, and XXII Tactical Air Command in November 1944.

The command was assigned to 12th Air Force in August 1942 and was moved to RAF Wattishammarker Englandmarker in September, then on to Tafaraoui, Algeriamarker on November 8, 1942 as part of the Operation Torchmarker landings in North Africa.

XXII Tactical Air Command served in combat in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war. It was inactivated at Pomigliano Italymarker on October 4, 1945.

Known XXII Tactical Air Command units were:

Located in: Algeriamarker, Corsicamarker, Italymarker, Francemarker

52d Figher Group (Spitfire) (1943–1944)
350th Fighter Group (P-38, P-39, P-47, P-400) (1943–1944)
412th Night Fighter Squadron (January 1943 – October 1945) (P-61)

Located in: Algeriamarker, Italymarker, Corsicamarker

57th Fighter Group (P-47) (1944)
79th Fighter Group (P-47) (1944)
86th Fighter Group (P-47, A-36) (1944)

Located in: Algeriamarker, Tunisiamarker, Sicily, Italymarker, Francemarker

27th Fighter Group (A-36) (1943)
31st Fighter Group (P-51, Spitfire) (1943)
33d Fighter Group (P-38) (1943)
86th Fighter Group (P-47, A-36) (1943)
324th Fighter Group (P-40) (1943)
415th Night Fighter Squadron (February 1943 – October 1945) (P-61)

XII Troop Carrier Command

Postwar era

With the end of combat in the Mediterranean and European theaters in 1945, Twelfth Air Force was inactivated. However XII Tactical Air Command was reassigned as part of the occupation force in Germany of the United States Air Forces in Europe. The groups operated P-47 or P-51 aircraft. Units assigned for occupation duty were:

XII Tactical Air Command was inactivated at Bad Kissingenmarker Germanymarker on November 10, 1947.

Cold War

Twelfth Air Force was reactivated at March Fieldmarker, Californiamarker, on May 17, 1946, and assigned to Tactical Air Command with training responsibilities.

In the late 1940s, following several assignments and inactivations, 12 AF reactivated on January 21, 1951 at Wiesbaden ABmarker, West Germanymarker, assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Twelfth Air Force became the first USAFE unit to be committed to NATOmarker. Along with Frenchmarker and Canadianmarker air units, 12 AF was part of the 4th Allied Tactical Air Forces (4 ATAF) charged with conducting NATO's Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) aerial mission.

On January 1, 1958, Twelfth Air Force relocated to Connally AFBmarker, Texasmarker, and was assigned to Tactical Air Command. During 10 years at Connally its mission began to focus on training tactical air crews to a state of combat readiness capable of conducting joint air operations.

In September 1968, Twelfth Air Force moved to Bergstrom AFBmarker, Texasmarker. During the Vietnam War, the Twelfth was a primary source for tactical fighter, reconnaissance, and airlift forces deployed to the war zone in Southeast Asia.

In 1987, the Twelfth Air Force commander took on the United States Air Force Southern Command responsibility. As such, 12 AF manages all Air Force personnel and assets in the United States Southern Command area of responsibility--Central and South America. During the 1989 Operation JUST CAUSE, for example, 12 AF and other Air Force units deployed in support of U.S. forces, returning democracy to Panamamarker. In 1994, 12 AF managed and orchestrated Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY's air operations, the mission to restore Haitianmarker democracy while at the same time supporting US Southern Command's Operation SAFE HAVEN for Cuban refugees.

Post Cold War

On July 13, 1993, Headquarters Twelfth Air Force officially moved from Bergstrom AFB to Davis-Monthan AFBmarker, Arizonamarker. Since then, 12 AF personnel and units have participated in operations in many other parts of the world: SOUTHERN WATCH, PROVIDE COMFORT, DENY FLIGHT, PROVIDE PROMISE, RESTORE HOPE, and JOINT ENDEAVOR. During Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM 12 AF provided fighter and reconnaissance aircraft to support U.S. Central Command Air Forces.

Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, AFSOUTH (Twelfth Air Force) has worked closely with Caribbean, Central, and South American countries in the Global War on Terrorism. The command has supported efforts to stem the flow of illegal drugs into the U.S. and neighboring counties. 12 AF has also provided forces to Operations ENDURING FREEDOM in Afghanistan, IRAQI FREEDOM, and NOBLE GUARDIAN in the U.S. Today 12 AF directs six combat wings, five Direct Reporting Units, as well as 12 AF gained Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard units.



  1. Norman Seip
  2. 8th Air Force transfers nonbomber units, continues nuclear enterprise transformation


  • Coles, Harry C. Participation of the Ninth and Twelfth Air Forces in the Sicilian Campaign (USAAF Historical Study, No. 37). Air Force Historical Research Agency, 1945.
  • Craven, Wesley F. and James L. Cate. The Army Air Forces in World War II, Vols. 1-3. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago University Press, 1948/51 (Reprinted 1983, ISBN 0-912799-03-X).
  • Larson, John W. History of the Twelfth Air Force. Kaiserslauternmarker, West-Germany: Heinz Rohr Verlag, 1956.
  • MacCloskey, Brig. Gen. Monro. Torch and the Twelfth Air Force. New York: Richard Rosen Press, 1971. ISBN 0-82390-240-4.
  • Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1983. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
  • Mayock, Thomas J. The Twelfth AIr Force in the North African Winter Campaign, 11 November to the Reorganization of 11 February 1943 (USAAF Historical Study No.114). Air Force Historical Research Agency, 1946.
  • Ravenstein, Charles A. Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories, 1947–1977. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1984. ISBN 0-91279-912-9.
  • Richardson, Harold W. A New Home for the Twelfth Air Force. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1955.
  • Rust, Kenn C. Twelfth Air Force World War II. Temple City, California: Historical Aviation Album, 1975 (republishished in 1992 by Sunshine House of Terre Haute, Indiana). ISBN 0-911852-77-8.
  • Weatherill, David. Aces, Pilots & Aircraft of the 9th, 12th & 15th USAAF. Melbourne, Australia: Kookaburra Technical Publications Pty Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-85880-032-2.

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