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Storefronts in Two Harbors


Two Harbors is a city in and the county seat of Lake Countymarker, Minnesotamarker, United Statesmarker, along the shore of Lake Superiormarker. The population was 3,613 at the 2000 census.Minnesota Highway 61 serves as a main arterial route in the city.

Gooseberry Falls State Parkmarker is located to the northeast.

General History

In the early years Two Harbors was called Agate Bay. In 1888, when it became incorporated as a village, its common name also changed to Two Harbors. The first residence ever constructed was by Thomas Sexton, he created a fourteen by sixteen foot shack. The early settlers lived in primitive conditions, which was common for both the area and time. Their homes were made of logs and had dirt floors. Diets often consisted of homegrown vegetables and animals that could be caught in the area (at that time there were many dense forests, so deer meat was not an abundant food source).The most common transportation was by boat. It took only "one short day" to get from Duluth to Two Harbors. A mail route was established between Superior and Grand Marais, and some years later a wagon road was extended to reach Two Harbors. The early 1900s was the first time the town would see twice a week transportation by stage coach between Two Harbors and Duluth, but even then most travel remained by boat.Thirty five logging camps were set up within the vicinity, one of these located on Fourth Avenue.A fuller overview of the towns history may be available by a visit to the Lake County Historical Depot Museum.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.2 square miles (8.3 km²).It borders Lake Superior, which contributes the two natural harbors for which it is named, Burlington Bay and Agate Bay. The warmest month in the year is July with the coldest month being January. The record high temperature was in 1948 with the coldest temperature on record being in 1996.According to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Two Harbors is located in a region called the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province which contains broad areas of coniferous forest, mixed hardwood, and conifer bogs and swamps. The region averages 21 to of precipitation per year and has an average temperature of 34 to .

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,613 people, 1,636 households, and 953 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,120.7 people per square mile (433.2/km²). There were 1,631 housing units at an average density of 505.9/sq mi (195.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.06% White, 0.06% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.08% from other races, and 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.61% of the population. 19.4% were of Norwegian, 18.0% Swedish, 12.2% German, 9.6% Finnish, 8.0% Irish and 5.7% English ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 1,523 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.86.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 21.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,708, and the median income for a family was $47,113. Males had a median income of $39,712 versus $29,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,793. About 7.2% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over.

History

Whiskey Row

Whiskey Row consisted of 22 saloons, dance halls, dens, and brothels. It is assumed that most people were either squatters or they rented the land as there is only one transaction on record. Many murders occurred, but those responsible were never caught, and, for that matter, never looked for. On a 1885 night a fire started in the west, and blown by a strong wind, wiped out the entire street.

Two Harbors High School

In 1901 the village of Two Harbors decided it needed a high school. February 12, 1902 Two Harbors Central High School was dedicated at a total cost of $35,025. This school was on the 400 block of Fourth Avenue. It had fifty students and three teachers. The first of these students to graduate were Mary Rylander and Ann Paulson. The school offered arithmetic, grammar, and American History. Very little English was taught at the time. In 1903 Latin and music were introduced. Courses in science and sewing were added in 1906. Manual training and domestic services were not introduced until 1908. By 1909 the school had almost doubled with ninety-eight students and seven teachers. By 1910 one of the school's proudest achievements, its library, had seven thousand books. Plans for a new building were announced in 1935, at an estimated $100,000. The original Central High School was demolished and the new building was completed in 1939. At completion, and after all additions were made, the total cost was $585,000. A referendum for a new building to be located two miles (3 km) north of town on Highway 2 was passed in 2003. Building was completed and classes began in 2005. The former high school on 4th Avenue was demolished in 2008.

Railroad

The North Shore Scenic Railroad offers a variety of trips to today's patrons. On the twenty-six miles of track between Duluth and Two Harbors, one can choose options for two to six hour rides through the woodlands and along the shore of Lake Superior. These options include the Casual Pizza train, Elegant Dining, Dinner Train, Charters, and Steam Train trips.

The iron ore railroad is deeply engraved in Two Harbors history. In fact, if it weren't for the discovery of nearby iron ore, Two Harbors would not exist. The Minnesota Iron Company bought of land in order to build their track. In Agate Bay (Two Harbors) most of the land was bought from Thomas Sexton, who by that time had owned the land for twenty years.

Although different locations were considered for the railroad terminus and shipping port, Agate Bay was chosen because it was closer to the iron ore site and provided a clay bottom bay, while most others were rocky.

Keep in mind that at time when the track was being developed the main transportation route was Lake Superior. This proved difficult when heavy loads such as railroad engines nearly sank the scows, or tugs, that carried them. The contractor, John. S. Wolfe, was told he would receive a bonus of $50,000 if the railroad was completed by August 1st 1884. Because the first of August was to fall on a Friday, and construction workers had strong superstitions about Fridays, it became important that the construction be completed by Thursday, July 31st. On that day, the first iron ore cars left Agate Bay early in the morning, along with a caboose for President Tower to ride in on the return trip.The completion of the railway between Duluth and Two Harbors did not occurred until 1886.

Industry

Two Harbors Cigar Factories

The first Two Harbors Cigar Factory was called just that. Built in 1900 by John H. Kallin, it was located on the 100 block of 7th Street. The local trade alone required about 30,000 cigars each month. These cigars came in eight regular brands and five specialty. In 1907 Ed Sorenson built "Sorenson Cigar Factory". Neither factory is still in operation.

Universal Fiberglass

In 1964 the abandoned DM&IR railroad buildings were used to open Universal Fiberglass. Producing three wheel mailsters for the United States Postal Service was their main contract, worth multi-millions. In addition, car fenders and like objects were also produced. When a fire caused enough damage that they could no longer fulfill the above mentioned contract, the GSA shut them down. The property was sold at a public auction.

Bottling Works

Two Harbors Bottling works began in 1912. They offered flavors of pop such as cream soda, ginger ale, cider, and seltzer water. The company became especially known for their strawberry pop's unique flavor-a creamier and more natural one than the rest. This business is no longer running.

3M

3M originally known as Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company was started by five men from the small town of Two Harbors, Minnesota. When the five founders of the company thought they had found mineral called corundum, which would be used for making sandpaper, they began the process of setting up a mining company. The five men who started the company were; Henry S. Bryan, Dr. J. Danley Budd, Herman Cable, William McGonagle, and John Dwan. To get the company started the men erected a large dock, crushing mill and bunk and storage houses. After selling the corundum to a company in Chicago the men learned that the corundum wasn’t really corundum and moved on to other ventures. In 1905 the company was moved to Duluth and then in 1907 it was moved to St. Paul. Despite moving the company out of Two Harbors the company still had ties in Two Harbors until the death of John Dwan. Now the only tie 3M has to Two Harbors is a museum in the original office of John Dwanmarker.This museum is found in the original building of 3M. It was here in 1902 the businessmen laid the foundation for a successful global corporation. Exhibits include: Attorney John Dwan's recreated office and other artifacts; a history of the company including photos and documents; a "lab" area representing the establishment of research and development, product diversification and growth; and hands-on interactive programs and technology applications. The original office building has been restored and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Community Service

Lake County Search and Rescue

Lake County Search and Rescue is a division of Lake County's Sheriff department. It was created in 1971 and placed in Two Harbors. The formation of the service was helped by Silver Bay Search and Rescue. Its first meeting place was a room at the depot, from there it moved to the old Svee Distributing building at 616 3rd Avenue (currently Social Services Office). In 1980 it took over the former U.S. Forestry Service garage complex on 16th Ave.

Events, Tourism, and Festivies

The Edna G. Tugboat

Built in 1896, the Edna Gmarker. was named after the president of the railroad's daughter, Edna Greatsinger, this tug is "one of a kind". The Edna G. stayed in Two Harbors its entire working career except for a small stint during World War II it spent two year on the east coast moving warships around. Until its retirement in 1981, the Edna G. was the last coal-fired, steam-powered tugboat in operation of the Great Lakes. The boat is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Tours of this vessel are available from trained guides in the spring-fall from 9 am to 5 pm. A trip is made worthy by the richly decorated captain's quarters, a visit to the engine room, and seeing the pilot house, where the guide will allow you to the blow the horn.

The Legend of John Beargrease

Mok-qua Bennete, or John Beargrease as he was better known, lived about the time of the Pony Express (between the years 1879 and 1899. An Ojibway man, he delivered the mail between Two Harbors and Grand Marais. The following is a story found in "Memoirs and Experiences at Beaver Bay and Duluth" by H.P. Wieland, as told by Mrs. John Stein (first caucasian child born in Lake County) about how John did indeed engage a bear.

"Mok-qua Bennette was his real name. On the way to Beaver Bay in 1870 he spied a bear (named Mok-qua) sunning itself under a large spruce. Because of weather conditions - three feet of snow - it was impossible for the bear to move fast. The bear looked like good meat to the Indian who, unfortunately, didn't have a gun with him. He took a ten foot stick and attached a butcher knife to it thinking he would stab the bear to death. All he could do was tickle the bear. Seeing his method didn't work he cut a piece from a birch sapling with his tomahawk and tried to kill the bear by clubbing him to death. After the first blow he fell back while drawing away and got tangled in the limbs of the fallen tree. Mok-qua attacked the Indian, clawing his shoulder and arms. He did not bite him. The bear left the Indian who was unconscious. The Indian regained consciousness at night and when he did he was very sick and almost frozen. He somehow dragged himself to the farm of Jacob Hangarner who, after warming and feeding him, brough him to Beaver Bay. The Indian suffered more from exposure than from the attack."


It should be noted that Jacob Hangarner was Mrs. Stein's father.

In any situation, Beargrease's character showed through as committed and dependable. His role in the community was important because he was the only lifeline to the outside world.

A sled dog marathon was started as a tribute to John Beargrease for his vital role in the early history of the North Shore of Lake Superior. The race is considered "one of the most prestigious sled dog races" for the continental United States, covering nearly four hundred miles on the route between Duluth and Grand Portage. The race is traditionally held the last week of January.

Other

The city also hosts the Lake County Fair, The Two Harbors Folk Festival, as well as numerous other community activities held throughout the year.

Parks and Recreation

Two Harbors provides five parks within the city limits. These parks are well maintained and provide picnic tables, baseball, soccer, and football fields, and playground equipment. One of the parks also houses the "band shell" home of the Two Harbors City Band, the oldest city band existing in Minnesota.There are four state parks within a short drive of Two Harbors. These include Gooseberry Falls, Split Rock Lighthouse, Tettegouche, and George H.marker Crosby Manitou State Parkmarker.

Gooseberry Falls State Park

Gooseberry Falls State Park is a short drive from Two Harbors (13 miles) and offers a variety of activities for the entire family.The park includes scenic waterfalls, historic structures, miles of trails, visitor center, nature store, and a year-around naturalist. View the mighty Gooseberry River that contains the Upper, Middle, and Lower falls. Also, sit back and enjoy a passing ship on Lake Superior or Lake Superior itself. Camping is also available in the park.There is also a wayside rest area where you can view Caribou Falls, Flood Bay, and the Kodonce River.

Tettegouche State Park

Located on the Baptism River, Tettegouche is the largest park located on the North Shore covering over . Campers can stay in either the two campgrounds, remote hike-in or modern drive-in rental cabins. Features include six inland lakes, two and a half miles of Lake Superior Shoreline, and four beautiful waterfalls. Visitors can take advantage of the hiking, rock climbing, kayaking, skiing and snowmobile trails available.

Split Rock Lighthouse State Park

Split Rock Lighthouse State Park is also located near Two Harbors, Minnesota and offers a variety of activities to do in and around the park boundary.The park is most known for its historic lighthouse for which it is named after. Activities include hiking, camping,waterfalls, historic tours, and of course picnicking along the Lake Superior shoreline. Also, the parks hiking trails link to the well known Superior Hiking Trail which visitors are also encouraged to walk.

Split Rock Lighthouse

Today, Split Rock Lighthouse is part of Split Rock Lighthouse State Park. Split Rock Lighthouse was completed in 1910 by the United States Lighthouse Service following many shipwrecks from a November gale wind in 1905. Today, visitors to the lighthouse can take tours of the structure,the fog-signal building,and the renovated keeper's home. Located nearby the lighthouse is a visitor's center in which guests can find more information about the lighthouse as well as purchase souvenirs. Tours of the lighthouse structure take place during the summer months between May 15 and October 15 each year. However, the visitors center is open all year.

Trails

Two Harbors, Minnesota offers miles of trails for all types of recreation. These include the Trailhead to the North which is a starting point for many different hiking trails.The Sonju hiking trail is a great way to view the North Shore during the Summer months. Gitchi-Gami State Trail is available for use by pedestrians, bicyclists, and skaters. Northshore State Snowmobile Trail offers many miles of scenic views for snowmobilers. Although Yukon Snowmobile Trail and Brimson Snowmobile Trail are also great ways to get out and see the North Shore.If snowmbiling is not your thing, the Erkki Harju Ski Trail offers a great alternative for all nature lovers.

Ice Skating

The Two Harbors/Lake County Arena schedules free public ice skating during the winter on both the inside rink and two outside lighted rinks. Within the town there are two other outdoor rinks with lights available for use. One is located at Odegard Park, and the second is at Segog Park.

Notable natives



References



External links

  • http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/state_parks/split_rock_lighthouse
  • http://www.ci.two-harbors.mn.us/



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