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The US Open, formally the United States Open tennis championships, is a tennis tournament which is the modern incarnation of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, with the U.S. National Championship, which for mens' singles was first contested in 1881. Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tennis tournament each year.

It is held annually in August and September over a two-week period (the weeks before and after Labor Day weekend). The main tournament consists of five different event championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, with additional tournaments for senior, junior, and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Centermarker at Flushing Meadows-Corona Parkmarker in Queensmarker, New York Citymarker.

The US Open is unique in that there are final-set tiebreaks; in the other three Grand Slam tournaments, the deciding set (fifth for men, third for women) continues until it is won by two games.

History

The US Open has grown from an exclusive entertainment event for high society to a championship for more than 600 male and female professional players who, as of 2008, compete for total prize money of over US$19 million, with $1.5 million for each winner of the singles tournaments.

In the first few years of the United States National Championship, only men competed, and only in singles competition. The tournament was first held in August 1881 at the Newport Casinomarker, Newport, Rhode Islandmarker and in that first year only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association were permitted to enter. From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final. In 1915, the tournament moved to the West Side Tennis Clubmarker at Forest Hills, New Yorkmarker. From 1921 through 1923, it was played at the Germantown Cricket Clubmarker in Philadelphiamarker and returned to Forest Hills in 1924.

Six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first official U.S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club in 1887, followed by the U.S. Women's National Doubles Championship in 1889. The first U.S. Mixed Doubles Championship was held alongside the women's singles and doubles. The first U.S. National Men's Doubles Championship was held in 1900. Tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two teams, which competed in a play-off to see who would play the defending champions in the challenge round.

The open era began in 1968 when all five events were merged into the US Open, held at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, New York. The 1968 combined tournament was open to professionals for the first time. That year, 96 men and 63 women entered the event, and prize money totaled $100,000 ($ in current dollar terms).

In 1970, the US Open became the first of the Grand Slam tournaments to use a tiebreak at the end of a set. The US Open is also the only Grand Slam that continues to use the tiebreak in the 5th set. All the other three grand slams play it out with service games in the 5th set.

The US Open was originally played on grass until Forest Hills switched to Har-Tru clay courts in 1975 for three years. In 1978, the event moved north from Forest Hills to its current home at nearby Flushing Meadowsmarker and the surface changed again, to the current DecoTurf.

Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on all three surfaces, while Chris Evert is the only woman to win on two surfaces.

Player challenges of line calls

In 2006, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to implement instant replay reviews of calls, using the Hawk-Eye computer system. Each player was allowed three challenges per set plus one additional challenge during a tiebreak. The player keeps all 3 challenges if the challenge is successful. If the challenge is unsuccessful and the original ruling is upheld, the player loses a challenge. Instant replay was initially available only on the stadium courts (Ashe and Armstrong), until became available on the Grandstand in 2009.

Once a challenge is made, the official review (a 3-D computer simulation based on multiple high-speed video cameras) is shown to the players, umpires, and audience on the stadium video boards and to the television audience at the same time. The system is said to be accurate to within five millimeters, resulting in an accuracy of 99.2%.

During the 2006 US Open, 30.5% of men's challenges and 35.85% of women's challenges were overturned. During the 2007 US Open, 95 challenges were overturned - or 30.6%.

Grounds

The Arthur Ashe stadium


The DecoTurf surface at the US Open is a fast surface, having slightly less friction and producing a lower bounce compared to other hard courts (most notably the Rebound Ace surface formerly used at the Australian Openmarker). For this reason, many serve-and-volley players have found success at the US Open.

The main court is located at the 24,000-seat Arthur Ashe Stadiummarker, opened in 1997. It is named after Arthur Ashe, the African American tennis player who won the men's final of the inaugural US Open in 1968. The next largest court is Louis Armstrong Stadiummarker, opened in 1978, extensively renovated from the original Singer Bowlmarker. It was the main stadium from 1978-96, and its peak capacity neared 18,000 seats, but was reduced to 10,000 after the opening of Arthur Ashe Stadium. The third largest court is the Grandstand Stadium, attached to the Louis Armstrong Stadium. Sidecourts 4, 7, and 11 each have a seating capacity of over 1,000.

All the courts used by the US Open are lit, meaning that television coverage of the tournament can extend into prime time to attract higher ratings. This has recently been used to the advantage of the USA Network on cable and especially for CBS, the American broadcast television outlet for the tournament for many years, which used its influence to move the women's singles final to Saturday night to draw better television ratings.

In 2005, all US Open (and US Open Series) tennis courts were given blue inner courts to make it easier to see the ball on television; the outer courts remained green.

The USTA National Tennis Center was renamed in honor of four-time tournament champion and tennis pioneer Billie Jean King during the 2006 US Open.

Prize Money

The total prize money for the 2008 US Open (in US dollars) is divided as follows:

Singles (men & women - 128 player draws)

Winners (2009) $1,600,000 EACH
Runners-up (2009) $800,000
Semifinalists (2009) $350,000
Quarterfinalists (2009) $175,000
Round of 16 $80,000
Third Round $48,000
Second Round $31,000
First Round $19,000
Total $17,320,000


Doubles (Per Team, Men & Women - 64 Draws)

Winners $420,000
Runners-Up $210,000
Semifinalists $105,000
Quarterfinalists $50,000
Round of 16 $25,000
Second Round $15,000
First Round $10,000
Total en je kontgat $1,800,000 ($3,600,000)


Mixed Doubles (Per Team - 32 Draws)

Winners $180,000
Runners-Up $90,000
Semifinalists $30,000
Quarterfinalists $15,000
Second Round $10,000
First Round $5,000
Total $500,000


Men's and Women's Qualifying (128 Draws)

Third Round Losers (16) $8,000
Second Round Losers (32) $5,625
First Round Losers (64) $3,000
Total $500,000 ($1,000,000)


Totals

Total Championship Events $19,200,000
Total for Champions Invitational $385,000
Player per diem $1,072,000
Total Player Compensation $20,657,000


Champions

Past champions



Current champions

File:DelpotroUSOpen2009.jpg|Juan Martin Del Potro defeated Roger Federer in five sets in 2009. This is his first slam title of his career.File:Kim Clijsters Wimbledon 2006.jpg|Kim Clijsters won the title over Caroline Wozniacki in 2009. This is her second slam title of her career, and the second US Open Women's Singles title.File:Lukáš Dlouhý.jpg|Lukáš Dlouhý part of the winning men's doubles team in 2009. This is his second men's doubles slam title of his career, and first US Open Men's Doubles title. Also, the second men's doubles slam of the year with the French title..File:Leander Wimbledon trim.jpg|Leander Paes part of the winning men's doubles team in 2009. This is his sixth men's doubles slam title of his career, and second US Open Men's Doubles title. Also, the second men's doubles slam of the year with the French title.File:Serena Williams at the 2008 WTA Tour Championships2.jpg|Serena Williams part of the winning women's doubles team in 2009. This is her tenth women's doubles slam title of her career, and second US Open Women's Doubles title. Also, this is the third women's doubles slam title of the year, along with the Australian and Wimbledon crowns.File:Venus at us open 2009-cropped.jpg|Venus Williams part of the winning women's doubles team in 2009. This is her tenth women's doubles slam title of her career, and second US Open Women's Doubles title. Also, this is the third women's doubles slam title of the year, along with the Australian and Wimbledon crowns.File:Carly Gullickson Albuquerque 2008.jpg|Carly Gullickson part of the winning mixed doubles team in 2009. This is her first mixed doubles slam title of her career.-|Travis Parrott (not pictured) part of the winning mixed doubles team in 2009. This is his first mixed doubles slam title of his career.
Event Champion Runner-up Score
2009 Men's Singles Juan Martin Del Potro Roger Federer 3–6, 7–6 (5), 4–6, 7–6 (4), 6–2
2009 Women's Singles Kim Clijsters Caroline Wozniacki 7–5, 6–3
2009 Men's Doubles Lukáš Dlouhý

Leander Paes
Mahesh Bhupathi

Mark Knowles
3–6, 6–3, 6–2
2009 Women's Doubles Serena Williams

Venus Williams
Cara Black

Liezel Huber
6–2, 6–2
2009 Mixed Doubles Carly Gullickson
Travis Parrott
Cara Black
Leander Paes
6–2, 6–4


Records

Record Era Player(s) Count' Years
Men since 1881
Winner of most
Men's Singles titles
Before 1968: Richard Sears

Bill Larned

Bill Tilden
7 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887

1901, 1902, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911

1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1929
After 1967: Jimmy Connors

Pete Sampras

Roger Federer
5 1974, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1983

1990, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2002

2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Winner of most consecutive
Men's Singles titles
Before 1968: Richard Sears 7 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967: Roger Federer 5 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Winner of most
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1968: Richard Sears

James Dwight
6 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967: Bob Lutz

Stan Smith

John McEnroe
4 1968, 1974, 1978, 1980

1968, 1974, 1978, 1980

1979, 1981, 1983, 1989
Winner of most consecutive
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1968: Richard Sears

James Dwight
6 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967: Todd Woodbridge

Mark Woodforde
2 1995, 1996
1995, 1996
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles - Men
Before 1968: Bill Tilden

Bill Talbert
4 1913, 1914, 1922, 1923

1943, 1944, 1945, 1946
After 1967: Todd Woodbridge

Bob Bryan
3 1990, 1993, 2001

2003, 2004, 2006
Winner of most Championships
(total: singles, men's doubles,
mixed doubles) - Men

Before 1968: Bill Tilden 16 1913–1929 (7 singles, 5 men's doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
After 1967: John McEnroe 8 1979–1989 (4 singles, 4 men's doubles)
Women since 1887
Winner of most
Women's Singles titles
Before 1968: / Molla Bjurstedt Mallory 8 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1926
After 1967: Chris Evert 6 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1982
Winner of most consecutive
Women's Singles titles
Before 1968: / Molla Bjurstedt Mallory

Helen Jacobs
4 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918

1932, 1933, 1934, 1935
After 1967: Chris Evert 4 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978
Winner of most
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1968: Margaret Osborne duPont 13 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1956, 1957
After 1967: / Martina Navrátilová 9 1977, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990
Winner of most consecutive
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1968: Margaret Osborne duPont 10 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950
After 1967: Virginia Ruano Pascual

Paola Suárez
3 2002, 2003, 2004
2002, 2003, 2004
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles - Women
All-time: Margaret Osborne duPont
Margaret Court
8 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1958, 1959, 1960
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1972
Before 1968: Margaret Osborne duPont 8 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1958, 1959, 1960
After 1967: Margaret Court

Billie Jean King

/ Martina Navrátilová
3 1969, 1970, 1972

1971, 1973, 1976

1985, 1987, 2006
Winner of most Championships
(total: singles, women's doubles,
mixed doubles) - women

All-time: Margaret Osborne duPont
Margaret Court
25
18
1941–1960 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
1961-1975 (5 singles, 5 women's doubles, 8 mixed doubles)
Before 1968: Margaret Osborne duPont 25 1941–1960 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
After 1967: / Martina Navrátilová 16 1977–2006 (4 singles, 9 women's doubles, 3 mixed doubles)
Miscellaneous
Youngest winner(single) Men: Pete Sampras 19 years and 1 month
Women: Tracy Austin 16 years and 8 months


Men's singles

Year Champion Runner-up
1926 Rene Lacoste Jean Borotra
1933 Fred Perry Jack Crawford
1956 Ken Rosewall Lew Hoad
1957 Mal Anderson Ashley Cooper
1958 Ashley Cooper Mal Anderson
1959 Neale Fraser Alex Olmedo
1960 Neale Fraser Rod Laver
1961 Roy Emerson Rod Laver
1962 Rod Laver Roy Emerson
1963 Rafael Osuna Frank Froehling
1964 Roy Emerson Fred Stolle
1965 Manuel Santana Cliff Drysdale
1966 Fred Stolle John Newcombe
1969 Rod Laver Tony Roche
1970 Ken Rosewall Tony Roche
1973 John Newcombe Jan Kodes
1977 Guillermo Vilas Jimmy Connors
1986 Ivan Lendl Miloslav Mecir
1987 Ivan Lendl Mats Wilander
1988 Mats Wilander Ivan Lendl
1989 Boris Becker Ivan Lendl
1990 Pete Sampras Andre Agassi
1991 Stefan Edberg Jim Courier
1992 Stefan Edberg Pete Sampras
1993 Pete Sampras Cedric Pioline
1994 Andre Agassi Michael Stich
1995 Pete Sampras Andre Agassi
1996 Pete Sampras Michael Chang
1997 Patrick Rafter Greg Rusedski
1998 Patrick Rafter Mark Philippoussis
1999 Andre Agassi Todd Martin
2000 Marat Safin Pete Sampras
2001 Lleyton Hewitt Pete Sampras
2002 Pete Sampras Andre Agassi
2003 Andy Roddick Juan Carlos Ferrero
2004 Roger Federer Lleyton Hewitt
2005 Roger Federer Andre Agassi
2006 Roger Federer Andy Roddick
2007 Roger Federer Novak Djokovic
2008 Roger Federer Andy Murray
2009 Juan Martin del Potro Roger Federer


Women's singles

Year Champion Runner-up
1937 Anita Lizana Jadwiga Jedrzejowska
1959 Maria Bueno Christine Truman Janes
1963 Maria Bueno Margaret Court
1973 Margaret Court Evonne Goolagong Cawley
1988 Steffi Graf Gabriela Sabatini
1990 Gabriela Sabatini Steffi Graf
1991 Monica Seles Martina Navratilova
1992 Monica Seles Arantxa Sanchez Vicario
1993 Steffi Graf Helena Sukova
1994 Arantxa Sanchez Vicario Steffi Graf
1995 Steffi Graf Monica Seles
1996 Steffi Graf Monica Seles
1997 Martina Hingis Venus Williams
1998 Lindsay Davenport Martina Hingis
1999 Serena Williams Martina Hingis
2000 Venus Williams Lindsay Davenport
2001 Venus Williams Serena Williams
2002 Serena Williams Venus Williams
2003 Justine Henin Kim Clijsters
2004 Svetlana Kuznetsova Elena Dementieva
2005 Kim Clijsters Mary Pierce
2006 Maria Sharapova Justine Henin
2007 Justine Henin Svetlana Kuznetsova
2008 Serena Williams Jelena Jankovic
2009 Kim Clijsters Caroline Wozniacki


Media coverage



See also



References

  1. 2009 "US Open Base Prize Money Tops Record $21.6 Million"


External links




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