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The Ukrainian Naval Force ( ) is the navy of Ukrainemarker and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. It was established in 1992. It consists of 5 branches: surface forces, submarine forces, Navy aviation, coast rocket-artillery and marines. The Navy numbers 15,470 people.

The navy operates in the Black Seamarker basin (including Sea of Azovmarker and Danube Delta), as a permanent ocean presence is neither logistically practical nor geographically possible. Hence it is a green-water navy.

The Headquarters of the Ukrainian Naval Force is situated in Sevastopolmarker.

History

Early history

The first naval activities in the area now known as Ukraine date back to the late Middle Ages, when Zaporizhian Host Cossacks conducted raids in the Lower Dnieper, Southern Buhmarker rivers and the Black Seamarker against Ottoman Empire. Cossacks were using chaikas - light vessels propelled by sail and rowing, and armed with light hand held cannons. By a simple but genius technology, chaika could be transformed into a makeshift shallow-waters submarine used for reconnaissance and surprise landings. Cossack sea raids delivered huge blows to Ottoman coast cities, including capital port city of Constantinople/Istanbulmarker. However, Cossacks never had either permanent ports on coast or the will to become a sea power.

1917-1921

During 1917 Russian Revolution, several ships of the Russian Imperial Navy's Black Sea Fleet, commanded and crewed by ethnic Ukrainians, declared themselves the Navy of the newly-autonomous Ukrainian People's Republicmarker. However, few further steps on establishing a navy were made as the Ukrainian government lost control over coastal territories.

After the Revolution 1917, a time of anarchy and demoralization overtook the former Russian Black Sea Fleet. The Fleet, stationed in Sevastopolmarker, was commanded by a collective, "Centroflot". Different political influences clashed: Ukrainian, Bolshevist, Menshevik, Social Revolutionaries and Anarchist. Very different flags were hoisted over ships: Ukrainian bicolors, old Russian ensigns, Bolshevist red flags and Anarchist black flags. They were hoisted and lowered even several times daily, according to changes of each crew's political orientation. The Ukrainian People's Republic aspired to take control of the Fleet. On 22 December 1917 the Naval Ministry in Kiev was established.

Raising of Ukrainian Flag on April 29, 1918 by Leonid Perfetsky
Gunboat "Donets" of Ukrainian Naval Forces, July-November 1918


Starting October 1917 the crews of the ships established military councils; the blue-yellow flags were flying from the masts. The destroyers Zavidniy (Enviable) and Pamyat Merkuriya were the first examples. The General Secretariat for Naval Affairs was established within the government of the Central Rada in Kievmarker (in January 1918 it was reformed in a Ministry). The head of it became D. Antonovich. The Main Navy Staff was led by Captain Yu. Svirski. For the educational and agitational purposes of the seamen the Central Rada seconded the commissars to Odessamarker, Nikolaev, Khersonmarker and Sevastopol. November 22, 1917 the whole crew of the newest and most powerful warship of the Black Sea Fleet Volya swore fealty to the Central Rada, followed soon by several ships and submarines. On 29 April 1918, Rear-admiral M. Sablin was appointed commander-in-chief of the Ukrainian Navy. A telegram to Kiev was sent from the staff ship Georgiy Pobedonosets “Effective today the Sevastopol fortress and the Fleet in Sevastopol raised the Ukrainian flag. Admiral Sablin assumed the command of the Fleet”. Having no reply the admiral ordered to repeat the telegram beginning with the words “Comrades of Kiev Central Rada…”. But Sablin was unaware that at that moment the Central Rada in Kiev was already history.

Медаль Украинского Флота, 1918 год.


Ukraine had a navy for five months. From October 1917 till March 1918 the following came to be at the disposal of the Ukrainians: nine battleships, seven cruisers, 18 destroyers, 14 submarines, 16 patrol ships and avisos, 11 military transports and mother ships. Additionally, the Fleet’s Headquarters, all military institutions and plants, all coastal fortifications were in hands of the Ukrainians. But they were yet to face a disaster.

The Kaiser’s forces had been advancing on Sevastopol with a goal to capture the Black Sea Fleet. Having no support from the land forces, Admiral Sablin was forced enter negotiations regarding cessation of hostilities. The Germans however rejected the armistice proposals and the advance continued.

In April 1918 German and Ukrainian troops invaded Crimeamarker. On 29 April 1918, fleet-commanding Rear-admiral Sablin (Russian) gave an order to hoist Ukrainian national flags over all ships in Sevastopol (the medal to the right commemorates that event). But Germans started to occupy Sevastopol, because the bolshevists began to lead away ships. Centroflot (the combined fleet revolutionary committee), in order to save the Fleet, took a decision to move it to Novorossiyskmarker. But on April 30, 1918, only the small part of the fleet under command of Admiral Sablin, which trusted bolshevists, headed for Novorossiysk and hoisted Russian St. Andrew (saltire) ensigns. The greater part of the Ukrainian fleet remained in Sevastpol - there were 30 destroyers and torpedo boats, 25 auxiliaries, 7 battleships and small craft as well as 15 submarines left in Sevastopol under Admiral Myhaylo Ostrogradskiy who in this situation assumed command.

Ukrainian marines in 1921


On 1 May 1918 Germans captured the ships remaining in Sevastopol, because the actions of Bolshevists violated a peaceful agreement. On 17 June 1918, 1 dreadnought and 6 destroyers returned from Novorossiysk to Sevastopol, where they were also captured. The most part of the ships remaining in Novorossiysk were destroyed by their own crews on Lenin's command. In July-November 1918 Germans gradually transferred many ships to the command of Ukrainian government (Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi). The main Ukrainian sea power concetrated in Odessa and Nikolayev, where it was more than 20 minesweepers, 7 small cruisers, 1 dreadnought and more than 30 auxiliaries. In Sevastopol there was only 2 old battleships under Ukrainian flags. On 18 July 1918 the Naval Ministry in Kievmarker established new naval ensigns and some rank flags (e.g. flag of Naval Minister, flag of Deputy Minister). Old Russian jack remained as Ukrainian naval jack. It was regarded as symbol of glory of Black Sea Fleet, whose crews were in large part previously Ukrainian. On 17 September Germans gives Ukraine 17 U-boats. In December 1918, when naval forces of the Entente were approaching Sevastopol, Ukrainian Rear-admiral W. Klochkowskyy (В'ячеслав Клочковський) commanded all ships to hoist Russian St. Andrew ensigns. It was a demonstration of good intentions for the Entente. However, the Entente captured the Black Sea Fleet and subsequently transferred it over to Russian "White" forces. In Ukrainian hands there are only small in numbers subdivisions of marines. Ukrainian naval authorities existed until 1921.

File:C.Шрамченко.jpg|File:Святослав Шрамченко и Сечевой Стрелец.jpg|File:Капітан-ляйтенант Шрамченко, 1930-і.jpg|File:Шрамченко и морской пехотинец УНР.jpg|File:Шрамченко и Бельский.jpg|

Establishment of the modern Ukrainian navy

Emblem of Ukrainian Navy
In September 1991 at Sevastopol the Union of Ukrainian officers was organized on the initiative of major V.V. Kholoduk, captain-liatenant I.O. Tenukha, M.P. Guk. This union become the initiator and nucleus of organization group of the Navy of Ukraine.

Early in 1992, part of the Black Sea Fleet personnel had begun to swear allegiance to the people of Ukraine. Starting in January, the Ukrainian oath was taken by the personnel of the Training Company at the Naval Diving School, the 880th Detached Battalion of the Naval Infantry (Marines) Brigade, and various naval surface ships.

The current history of the Ukrainian Naval Force started on August 1, 1992 when it was formally established by order of the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk. This was followed by a long and controversial partition of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet between newly independent Ukraine and the Russian Federationmarker.

One of the episodes of this process was the story of the SKR-112 - effectively the first Ukrainian Navy ship. On July 20, 1992, the crew of SKR-112 declared itself a Ukrainian ship and raised the Ukrainian flag. The Navy headquarters in Moscow considered this a mutiny and attempted to act accordingly. But the ship left its base on the Crimean peninsula for Odessamarker, causing an armed chase and collision attempts by ships still loyal to Moscow. Soon several other ships, auxiliary vessels, and coastal units of the Black Sea Fleet followed SKR-112's decision but with less violent outcomes.

It was only in 1997 that the ships and equipment of the Black Sea Fleet were officially divided between the two countries. The new Russian formation retained its historical name "Black Sea Fleet". It was also granted rights to use the majority of its bases on the Crimea Peninsula, Ukraine on a renewable ten-year lease at least until 2017. The newly established Ukrainian Naval Forces received dozens of vessels (mostly obsolete or inoperative) and some shore-based infrastructure. However, the Russian Navy has lost several important facilities, most notably NITKA (Russian acronym for "Scientific testing simulator for shipborne aviation "), the naval aviation training facility in central Crimea, and the special forces base in Ochakivmarker. The process of fleet division remains painful since many aspects of the two navies' co-existence are under-regulated, causing recurring conflicts.

In the years since 1997 most of the Ukrainian naval units were scrapped or poorly maintained. By 2009, only the frigate Hetman Sahaidachny was capable of long endurance missions.

Current role

The Navy of the Armed Forces of Ukraine is aimed at defense of sovereignty and state interests of Ukrainemarker in the sea. It is required to neutralize naval groups of the enemy in its operational zone alone and with other branches of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, provide assistance to the Ground Forces during their operations from the sea. Main tasks of the Navy of the Armed Forces of Ukraine are the:

  • creation and maintenance of the combat forces on a level, sufficient to deter maritime aggression;
  • neutralization of enemy naval forces;
  • destruction of enemy transportation;
  • support of the landing of amphibious forces and fight against enemy amphibious forces;
  • maintenance of a beneficial operational regime in the operational zone;
  • defense of its bases, sea lines of communications;
  • protection of submarine space within the territorial sea;
  • protection of the merchant fleet, maritime oil and gas industry, and other state maritime activity;
  • assistance to the Army in their conduct of operations (military actions) along maritime axes;
  • participation in peacekeeping operations.


Recent deployments

On December 19, 2008 U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine William Taylor stated that Ukrainian Defense Minister Yuriy Yekhanurov and US Defense Secretary Robert Gates were discussing the transfer of one to three U.S. navy frigates to Ukraine. In December 2009 the design for a new corvette (designed exclusively by Ukraine and assembled at Ukrainian shipyards) for the Ukrainian Navy was completed.

Major Ships and Vessels



The Navy 2008/09 consisted of:



other vessels also in service

Aircraft inventory







Command, Control & Organization

Commanders

The Commandant of the Navy since March 23, 2006is AdmiralIgor Tenyuh.



Ranks and insignia

Bases

The main base of the Ukrainian Navy is located in Sevastopolmarker.Other bases are:

See also



References and External links



Aircraft
Origin
Type
Versions
In service
Notes
Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot
attack
Su-25
8
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 Fulcrum
fighter
Mig-29
13
Antonov An-26 Curl
Transport
An-26
7
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Transport Helicopter
Mi-8
8
Mil Mi-14 Haze
anti-submarine Helicopter
Mi-14PL
5
Kamov Ka-29
Assault transport helicopter
Ka-29
16
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
anti-submarine Helicopter
Ka-27/-28
21
Name
Rank
Period of command
Borys Kozhin
Vice Admiral
April 7 1992 - October 1993
Volodymyr Bezkorovainiy
Vice Admiral
October 1993 - October 1996
Mykhailo Ezhel
Admiral
October 28 1996 - May 20 2003
Ihor Kniaz
Vice Admiral
May 21 2003 - March 23 2006
Igor Tenyuh
Admiral
March 23 2006 - present

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