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Saint Ulrich (c.890–July 4, 973), sometimes spelled Uodalric or Odalrici, was Bishop of Augsburg and a leader of the Roman Catholic Church in Germanymarker. He was the first saint to be canonized.

Family

Ulrich was born in 890 at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerlandmarker or near Augsburg and studied at the monastery of St. Gallmarker. Ulrich's family were Alamanni and Swabian. He personally lived in simplicity and poverty.

He was a son of Hupald, Count of Dillingen (d. 909) and Dietpirch of Swabia (also known as Theoberga). His brother Theodbald, Count of Dillingen was killed in the Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955). His other brother Manegold was also named as Count in Medieval chronicles and ancestor of later Counts of Dillingen. An unnamed sister served as a nun in Buchaumarker. His other sister Liutgard was mother to Adalbero, administrator of the Bishopric of Augsburg in the 970s. This nephew died the same year as Ulrich. The cause of his death is unknown.

His maternal grandfather was Burchard I, Duke of Swabia. Burchard was reportedly the second husband of Liutgard. Liutgard was the widow of Louis the Younger. The siblings of Liutgard included Burchard II, Duke of Swabia. This family was connected with the dukes of Alamannia and the Ottonian dynasty.

Life account

As a child he was sickly; when old enough to learn he was sent to the monastic school of St. Gall, where he proved to be an excellent scholar. He resolved to enter the priesthood, but was in doubt whether to enter the Benedictine Abbey of St. Gall or to become a secular priest. He was sent before April, 910, for his further training to Adalbero, Bishop of Augsburg, who made him a chamberlain. On Adalbero's death (28 April 910) Ulrich returned home, where he remained until the death of Bishop Hiltine (28 November 923).

Through the influence of his uncle, Burchard II, Duke of Swabia, and other relatives, Ulrich was appointed bishop of Augsburg by Henry I of Germany, and was consecrated on 28 December 923. He proved himself to be a ruler who united severity with gentleness. He sought to improve the low moral and social condition of the clergy, and to enforce a rigid adherence to the laws of the Church. Ulrich hoped to gain this end by periodical visitations, and by building as many churches as possible, to make the blessings of religion more accessible to the common people. His success was largely due to the good example he set his clergy and diocese. For the purpose of obtaining relics he went on two journeys to Rome, in 910, and in 952 or 953.

Magyars repeatedly attacked in the territories of Bavariamarker and Swabia. Ulrich served as general in the defense of Augsburg. He built a stone wall fortification around the city. During these attacks many churches and buildings were destroyed, which Ulrich later rebuilt.

Ulrich attended several imperial meetings and synods, such as at Ingelheimmarker in 948, Augsburg 952, Rome in 972 and again at Ingelheimmarker in 972.

German emperor Otto I the Great granted Ulrich the right to mint coins.

When Ulrich was too old and weak to say Mass, angels are said to have come to him to assist him. After he died in 973 he was buried at the St. Afrachurch he had rebuilt in Augsburg; the burial was performed by Bishop Wolfgang of Ratisbonmarker. Later the St. Ulrich and Afra church was built in the same spot.

Ulrich demanded a high moral standard of himself and others. A hundred years after his death, a letter apparently written by him, which opposed celibacy, and supported the marriage of priests, suddenly appeared. The forger of the letter counted on the opinion of the common people, who would regard celibacy as unjust if St. Ulrich, known for the rigidity of his morals, upheld the marriage of priests (cf. "Analecta Boll.", XXVII, 1908, 474). Ulrich was also steadfastly loyal, as a prince of the empire, to the emperor. He was one of the most important props of the Ottonian policy, which rested mainly upon the ecclesiastical princes. He constantly attended the judicial courts held by the king and in the diet. He even took part in the Diet held on 20 September 972, when he defended himself against the charge of nepotism in regard to his nephew Adalbero, whom he had appointed his coadjutor on account of his own illness and desire to retire to a Benedictine abbey.

During the struggle between Otto I and his son Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, Ulrich had much to suffer from Liudolf and his partisans. When in the summer of 954 father and son were ready to attack each other at Illertissen in Swabia, at the last moment Ulrich and Bishop Hartbert of Churmarker were able to mediate between Otto and Liudolf. Ulrich succeeded in persuading Liudolf and Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, Otto's son-in-law, to ask the king's pardon on 17 December 954. Before long the Magyars entered Germany, plundering and burning as they went, and advanced as far as Augsburg, which they besieged with the fury of barbarians. It was due to Ulrich's ability and courage that Augsburg was able to hold out against the besiegers until the Emperor Otto arrived. On 10 August 955, the Battle of Lechfeld took place and the invaders were finally defeated. The later assertion that Ulrich himself took part in the battle is incorrect, as Ulrich could not have broken through the ranks of the Magyars, who were south of him, although north of the emperor.

As morning dawned on 4 July 973, Ulrich had ashes strewn on the ground in the shape of a cross; the cross sprinkled with holy water, and he was placed upon it. His nephew Richwin came with a message and greeting from the Emperor Otto II as the sun rose, and immediately upon this, while the clergy sang the Litany, St. Ulrich died. He was succeeded by Henry.

Cult

Places that were named after him are said to be host to healing abilities. Attesting to his early cultus, there is a very beautiful miniature from the tenth century in a manuscript now in the library of Einsiedelnmarker (no. 261, fol. 140). Other miniatures are at the Royal Library of Munichmarker, in manuscripts dating from the year 1454 (Cgm., 94, fo. 26v, and Cgm., no. 751).

Many miracles are said to have been wrought at his grave; only 20 years after his death, Ulrich was one of the first saints to be officially canonized by Pope John XV on July 4, 993 (the first saint to be canonized "officially" by the Vatican, rather than solely by public accord. Walter of Pontoise was the last saint in Western Europe to have been canonized by an authority other than the Pope; he was canonized by Hugh de Boves, the Archbishop of Rouen in 1153).

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