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The United Arab Emirates (UAE) ( , ) is a federation of seven emirates situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia on the Persian Gulfmarker, bordering Omanmarker and Saudi Arabiamarker. The UAE consists of seven states, termed emirates, which are Abu Dhabimarker, Dubaimarker, Sharjahmarker, Ajmanmarker, Umm al-Quwainmarker, Ras al-Khaimahmarker and Fujairahmarker. The capital and second largest city of the United Arab Emirates is Abu Dhabimarker. It is also the country's center of political, industrial, and cultural activities.

Before 1971, the UAE was known as the Trucial States or Trucial Oman, in reference to a 19th-century truce between the United Kingdommarker and several Arab Sheikhs. The name Pirate Coast was also used in reference to the area's emirates in the 18th to early 20th century.

The political system of the United Arab Emirates, based on the 1971 Constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language.

The United Arab Emirates has the world's sixth largest oil reserves and possesses one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It is currently the thirty-sixth largest economy at market exchange rates, and has a high per capita gross domestic product, with a nominal per capita GDP of $54,607 as per the IMFmarker. The country is fourteenth largest in purchasing power per capita and has a relatively high Human Development Index for the Asian continent, ranking 31st globally. The United Arab Emirates is classified as a high income developing economy by the IMFmarker.

The United Arab Emirates is a founding member of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, and a member state of the Arab League. It is also a member of the United Nations, Organisation of the Islamic Conference, the OPEC, and the World Trade Organization.



The earliest known human habitation in the United Arab Emirates dated from the Neolithic period, 5500 BCE. At this earlystage, there is proof of interaction with the outside world, particularly with civilizations to the north. These contacts persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountainsmarker, which commenced around 3000 BCE. Foreign trade, the recurring motif in the history of this strategic region, flourished also in later periods, facilitated by the domestication of the camel at the end of the second millennium BCE.

By the first century CE overland caravan traffic between Syriamarker and cities in southern Iraqmarker began. Also, there was seaborne travel to the important port of Omana (perhaps present-day Umm al-Qaiwain) and then to Indiamarker. These routes were an alternative to the Red Seamarker route used by the Romans. Pearls had been exploited in the area for millennia but at this time the trade reached new heights. Seafaring was also a mainstay and major fairs were held at Dibbamarker, bringing in merchants from as far as Chinamarker.

Advent of Islam

The arrival of envoys from the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 630 heralded the conversion of the region to Islam. After Muhammad's death, one of the major battles of the Ridda Wars was fought at Dibbamarker resulting in the defeat of the non-Muslims and the triumph of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula.

In 637, Julfarmarker (today Ra's al-Khaimahmarker) was used as a staging post for the conquest of Iran. Over many centuries, Julfar became a wealthy port and pearling center from which dhows traveled throughout the Indian Ocean.

Portuguese control

Portuguese expansion into the Indian Oceanmarker in the early sixteenth century following Vasco da Gama's route of exploration saw them battle the Safavid Persiamarker up the coast of the Persian Gulfmarker. The Portuguese controlled the area for 150 years, in which they conquered the inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula. Vasco da Gama was helped by Ahmad Ibn Majid, a navigator and cartographer from Julfarmarker, to find the route of spices from Asia.

British and Ottoman rule

During the 16th century, portions of the nation came under the direct influence of the Ottoman Empire. Thereafter the region was known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", as raiders based there harassed the shipping industry despite both European and Arab navies patrolling the area from the 17th century into the 19th. British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimahmarker led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast in 1819. The next year, a peace treaty was signed to which all the sheikhs of the coast adhered. Raids continued intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. In 1853, they signed a treaty with the United Kingdom, under which the sheikhs (the "Trucial Sheikhdoms") agreed to a "perpetual maritime truce." It was enforced by the United Kingdom, and disputes among sheikhs were referred to the British for settlement.

Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the United Kingdom and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the UK with other Persian Gulfmarker principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the United Kingdom and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the United Kingdom without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack.

The rise and fall of the pearling industry

During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the pearling industry thrived in the relative calm at sea, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulfmarker. It began to become a good economic resource for the local people. Then the First World War had a severe impact on the pearl fishery, but it was the economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the Japanese invention of the cultured pearl, that all but destroyed it. The industry eventually faded away shortly after the Second World War, when the newly independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.The decline of pearling resulted in a very difficult era, with little opportunity to build any infrastructure.
Dubai in the mid-20th century

Beginning of the oil era

At the beginning of the 1930s, the first oil company teams carried out preliminary surveys and the first cargo of crude was exported from Abu Dhabimarker in 1962. As oil revenues increased, Ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads. When Dubai’s oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the de facto ruler of Dubaimarker, was also able to use oil revenues to improve the quality of life of his people.

In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabimarker in the latter's dispute with Omanmarker over the Buraimi Oasismarker, another territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the UAE government and is not recognised by the Saudi government. The border with Omanmarker also remains officially unsettled, but the two governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999.

Sheikh Zayed and the union

In the early 1960s, oil was discovered in Abu Dhabimarker, an event that led to quick unification calls made by UAE sheikdoms. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan became ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1966 and the British started losing their oil investments and contracts to U.S. oil companies. The British had earlier started a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. The sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. They formed the Trucial States Council, and appointed Adi Bitar, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed.

In 1968, the United Kingdommarker announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms which had been, together with Bahrainmarker and Qatarmarker, under British protection. The nine attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union, even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year.

Bahrainmarker became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Shaikhdoms treaty expired on December 1, 1971, they became fully independent. The rulers of Abu Dhabimarker and Dubaimarker decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two that the constitution be written by December 2, 1971. On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimahmarker joined later, in early 1972.

Recent history

After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United Statesmarker the UAE was identified as a major financial center used by Al-Qaeda in transferring money to the hijackers (two of the 9/11 hijackers, Marwan al-Shehhi and Fayez Ahmed Bannihammad, who crashed United Flight 175 into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, were UAE citizens). The nation immediately cooperated with the U.S, freezing accounts tied to suspected terrorists and strongly clamped down on money laundering.

The UAE supports military operations from the United States and other Coalition nations that are engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations supporting the Global War on Terrorism for the Horn of Africa at Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabimarker. The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch. The country had already signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995.

On 2 November 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded as ruler of Abu Dhabimarker. In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh Mohammad bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles.


Geography of the UAE
Coastline 1,318 km
Bordering countries Saudi Arabia, and Oman
The United Arab Emirates is situated in Southwest Asia, bordering the Gulf of Omanmarker and the Persian Gulfmarker, between Omanmarker and Saudi Arabiamarker; it is in a strategic location along southern approaches to the Strait of Hormuzmarker, a vital transit point for world crude oil.
The mountainous region in the north
UAE lies between 22°50′ and 26° north latitude and between 51° and 56°25′ east longitude. It shares a 530-kilometer border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a 450-kilometer border with Oman on the southeast and northeast. The land border with Qatar in the Khawr al Udaydmarker area is about nineteen kilometers in the northwest; however, it is a source of ongoing dispute. The total area of the UAE is approximately 77,700 square kilometers. The country's exact size is unknown because of disputed claims to several islands in the Persian Gulf, because of the lack of precise information on the size of many of these islands, and because most of its land boundaries, especially with Saudi Arabia, remain undemarcated. Additionally, island disputes with Iran and Qatar remain unresolved.The largest emirate, Abu Dhabimarker, accounts for 87% of the UAE's total area (67,340 square kilometers). The smallest emirate, Ajmanmarker, encompasses only 259 square kilometers (see figure).

The UAE coast stretches for more than 650 kilometers along the southern shore of the Persian Gulfmarker. Most of the coast consists of salt pan that extend far inland. The largest natural harbor is at Dubaimarker, although other ports have been dredged at Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and elsewhere. Numerous islands are found in the Persian Gulf, and the ownership of some of them has been the subject of international disputes with both Iranmarker and Qatarmarker. The smaller islands, as well as many coral reefs and shifting sandbars, are a menace to navigation. Strong tides and occasional windstorms further complicate ship movements near the shore.

South and west of Abu Dhabimarker, vast, rolling sand dunes merge into the Rub al-Khali (Empty Quarter) of Saudi Arabiamarker. The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oases with adequate underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation. The extensive Liwa Oasis is in the south near the undefined border with Saudi Arabia. About 100 kilometers to the northeast of Liwa is the Al-Buraimimarker oasis, which extends on both sides of the Abu Dhabi-Oman border.

Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britainmarker delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. In general, the rulers of the emirates accepted the British intervention, but in the case of boundary disputes between Abu Dhabimarker and Dubaimarker, and also between Dubaimarker and Sharjahmarker, conflicting claims were not resolved until after the UAE became independent. The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbimarker Mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves.

Flora and fauna

In the oases grow date palms, acacia and eucalyptus trees. In the desert the flora is very sparse and consists of grasses and thornbushes. The indigenous fauna had come close to extinction because of intensive hunting, which has led to a conservation program on Bani Yas island initiated by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan in the 1970s, resulting in the survival of, for example, Arabian oryx and leopards. Coastal fish consist mainly of mackerel, perch and tuna, as well as sharks and whales.


The climate of the U.A.E generally is hot and dry. The hottest months are July and August, when average maximum temperatures reach above 48° C (118° F) on the coastal plain. In the Al-Hajar AL-Gharbimarker Mountains, temperatures are considerably cooler, a result of increased altitude. Average minimum temperatures in January and February are between 10°C (50°F) and 14°C (57°F). During the late summer months, a humid southeastern wind known as Sharqi (i.e. "Easterner") makes the coastal region especially unpleasant. The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is fewer than 120 mm (5 in), but in some mountainous areas annual rainfall often reaches 350 mm (14 in). Rain in the coastal region falls in short, torrential bursts during the summer months, sometimes resulting in floods in ordinarily dry wadi beds. The region is prone to occasional, violent dust storms, which can severely reduce visibility. The Jebel Jais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimahmarker has experienced snow only twice since records began.

Government and politics


The politics of the United Arab Emirates take place in a framework of a federal, presidential, elective monarchy. The UAE is a developed country and federation of seven absolute monarchies: the emirates of Abu Dhabimarker, Ajmanmarker, Fujairahmarker, Sharjahmarker, Dubaimarker, Ras al-Khaimahmarker and Umm al-Qaiwainmarker. The President of the United Arab Emirates is its head of state, and the Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates is its head of government, including foreign affairs, security and defense, nationality and immigration issues, education, public health, currency, postal, telephone and other communications services, air traffic control, licensing of aircraft, labor relations, banking, delimitation of territorial waters and extradition of criminals. All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the emirates.

The UAE government comprises three branches: the executive, legislature, judiciary. The executive branch consists of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister Federal Supreme Council, and a Council of Ministers (the cabinet). The Federal Supreme Council is composed of the emirs of the seven emirates. It elects the president, vice president, members of the Council of Ministers, and judges of the Federal Supreme Court. The Supreme Council also formulates government policy, proposes and ratifies national laws, and ratifies treaties.

Although elected by the Supreme Council, the president and prime minister are essentially hereditary. The emir of Abu Dhabi holds the presidency, and the emir of Dubai is prime minister. All but one prime minister served concurrently as vice president. The political influences and financial obligations of the emirates are reflected by their respective positions in the federal government. While each emirate still retains autonomy over its own territory, a percentage of its revenue is allocated to the UAE’s central budget.

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the UAE's president from the nation's founding until his death on November 2, 2004. On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to the post. Abu Dhabi's crown prince, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, is the heir apparent.

The legislature is the Federal National Council, which consists of 40 members drawn from all the emirates. Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are indirectly elected to serve two-year terms. The first indirect elections took place in 2006, and the goal is a wholly elected council. The council carries out the country’s main consultative duties and has both a legislative and supervisory role provided by the constitution. The council scrutinizes and amends proposes legislation, but cannot prevent it from becoming law.

A constitutionally independent judiciary includes the Federal Supreme Court. However, Dubaimarker and Ras al-Khaimahmarker do not belong to the national judiciary. All emirates have their own secular and Islamic law for civil, criminal, and high courts.


When contrasted with other Arab states, such as Saudi Arabiamarker for instance, the UAE has comparatively very liberal laws. The country has a civil law jurisdiction. However, Shari'a or Islamic law is applied to aspects of family law, inheritance and certain criminal acts. Women can drive in the UAE and there is a strong emphasis in equality and human rights brought by the UAE's National Human Rights Committee.

A federal court system applies to all emirates except Dubai and Ras Al Khaimah, which are not fully integrated into the federal judicial system. All emirates have secular courts to rule about criminal, civil, and commercial matters, and Islamic court to review family and religious disputes.

The country has undergone a period of liberalization and modernisation during the reign of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. The laws of the UAE tolerate alcohol to a certain extent. However, public bars and nightclubs in the UAE operate mainly in hotels and clubs, much like in Qatarmarker, although some do operate independently.

In the UAE the establishment of the Civil and Criminal Courts resulted in diminishing the role of the Sharia Courts. Nevertheless, the competence of the Sharia Courts in some emirates, particularly Abu Dhabi, was substantially expanded later on to include, in addition to matters of personal status, all types of civil and commercial disputes as well as serious criminal offences. Therefore, in addition to the Civil Courts, each of the seven emirates maintains a parallel system of Sharia Courts which are organised and supervised locally.

In common with other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, sponsorship laws exist in the UAE. These laws have been widely described as akin to modern-day slavery. The sponsorship system (Kafeel or Kafala) exists throughout the GCC and means that a worker (not a tourist) may not enter the country without having a kafeel, cannot leave without the kafeel's permission (an Exit Permit must first be awarded by the sponsor, or kafeel), and the sponsor has the right to ban a former employee who has quit the job from entering the UAE for 2–5 years after his first departure. Many sponsors do not allow the transfer of one employee to another sponsor.

Civil cases may also be tried under Sharia courts with one exception: Shi'ite Muslims may try such cases in their own courts. Other civil proceedings include those involving claims against the government and enforcement of foreign judgments

Human rights and social development

Human rights are legally protected by the Constitution of the United Arab Emirates, which confers equality, liberty, rule of law, presumption of innocence in legal procedures, inviolability of the home, freedom of movement, freedom of opinion and speech, freedom of communication, freedom of religion, freedom of council and association, freedom of occupation, freedom to be elected to office and others onto all citizens, within the limit of the law. The UAE is held to be one of the most liberal countries in the Middle East, particularly if compared to its neighbors, Saudi Arabiamarker and Iranmarker.

Due to the rapid development of the UAE from a traditional, homogeneous society in the mid-20th century to a modern, multicultural one at the beginning of the 21st century, the concurrent development of legal provisions and the practical enforcement of existing laws has been challenging and, in consequence, problems exist mainly in regard to human rights of non-citizens, who make up around 80% of the population. Main issues include companies' and employers' non-compliance with labor laws.

Many expatriate workers, mostly of South Asian origin, have after their arrival in the UAE been turned into debt-ridden de facto indentured servants. Confiscation of passports, although illegal, occurs on a large scale, primarily of unskilled or semi-skilled employees.

The UAE's system of employment for non-citizens ties an employee to the employer and prevents him or her from seeking alternative employment without the expressed approval of the original employer. Also, non-payment of wages, cramped and unsanitary living conditions and poor safety practices are widespread and have been the subject of foreign media attention.

The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic servants is an area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE Labor Law of 1980 or the Draft Labor Law of 2007.

Worker protests have been cracked down on. Until today, the government has not allowed for trade unions to form despite having promised to do so since 2004.

As Sharia prohibits sodomy, homosexual relationships are not commonly disclosed and homosexual behavior in public may result in imprisonment or even the death penalty, whereas foreigners generally receive deportation. Prospective foreign employees infected with Hepatitis, Tuberculosis, and HIV will not be given work visas and have to leave the country. There is, however, no screening of tourists.

The UAE authorities on the federal and local level have instituted a number of mechanisms and policies to improve the protection of human rights. For example, in 2004 the Dubai police opened designated departments in all emirate police stations that are mandated to protect the human rights of both victims and perpetrators of crime.

The "UAE National Human Rights Report", prepared by a committee comprising representatives from various ministries and government institutions, with the participation of representatives from civil society and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and presented to the UN Human Rights Council on 4 December 2008 outlines efforts in the field of human rights observance and listed challenges facing the country, such as:

  • Providing more mechanisms to protect human rights, keeping up with national and international developments, and updating laws and systems
  • Meeting the state's expectations with regards to building national capabilities and deepening efforts for education on human rights and basic freedoms through a national plan
  • Striving to regulate the relationship between employers and workers in framework that preserves dignity and rights, and is in harmony with international standards, especially with regards to domestic help
  • Increasing the empowerment of women's role in society, increasing opportunities for involvement in a number of fields based on their skills and abilities
  • Working to confront human trafficking crimes by reviewing the best international practices in the field, working to update and improve the state's legislature in accordance with international standards, working to establish institutions and agencies to confront human trafficking crimes, and working to support the foundations of international cooperation with international organizations and institutions.

The UAE government is currently studying the establishment of a national human rights commission.

Foreign policy and military

The UAE’s liberal climate towards foreign cooperation, investment and modernization has prompted extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. It plays a significant role in OPEC, the UN and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council.

Regionally, the UAE has a very close relationship with other GCC members as well as most of the Arab countries. The Emirates have long maintained close relations with Egyptmarker and remain the highest investor in the country from among the rest of the Arab world. Pakistanmarker has also been a major recipient of economic aid and relations have been extremely close since the founding of the federation. Pakistan had been first to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners with about 400,000 expatriates receiving employment in the UAE. Indiamarker’s large expat community in the UAE also has over the centuries evolved into current close political, economic and cultural ties. The largest demographic presence in the Emirates is Indian. Like most countries in the region, the UAE and Iranmarker dispute rights to a number of islands in the Persian Gulf but this has not significantly impacted relations due to the large Iranian community presence and strong economic ties.

Following the 1990 Iraq invasion of Kuwait, the UAE has maintained extensive relations with its Western allies for security and cooperation towards increasing interoperability of its defense forces and for liberating Kuwaitmarker. Francemarker and the USAmarker have played the most strategically significant roles with defense cooperation agreements and military material provision. Most recently, these relations culminated in a joint nuclear deal for the US to supply the UAE with nuclear technology, expertise and fuel. Commercially, the UKmarker and Germanymarker are the UAE’s largest export markets and bilateral relations have long been close as a large number of their nationals reside in the UAE.

Diplomatic relations between UAE and Japan were established as early as UAE's independence in December 1971. The two countries had always enjoyed friendly ties and trade between each other. Exports from the UAE to Japan include crude oil and natural gas and imports from Japan to UAE include cars and electric items.

Foreign aid

The UAE has continuously been a major contributor of emergency relief to regions affected byconflict and natural disasters in the developing world.The main UAE governmental agency for foreign aid is the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) which was established in 1971.Since its establishment, the ADFD has provided over Dh12.6 billion (US$3.45 billion) in softloans and grants to countries mainly in Africa.Since 1971, these have accounted for a further Dh10 billion (US$2.72 billion), bringing the total amount of the loans, grants and investments provided by the fund or the Abu Dhabi government, and managed by the fund, to around Dh24 billion (US$6.54 billion), covering 258 different projects in a total of 52 countries.

In November 2008, the Abu Dhabi Fund announced a long term loan of around US$278 million for rehabilitation of agricultural land in the state of Uzbekistanmarker.Between 1994 to mid-2008, for example, around Dh15.4 billion (US$4.2 billion) has been provided for the Palestinians, including, most recently, US$300 million pledged at a donor conference in Paris and an annual commitment of US$43 million to support the Palestine National Authority.

The UAE has also used the Red Crescentmarker authority and charities such as Dubai Cares and Noor Dubai to donate aid to foreign countries as well.

Political divisions

The United Arab Emirates is divided into seven emirates, with Abu Dhabimarker the largest of all seven emirates with an area of 67,340 square kilometers, equivalent to 86.7 per cent of the country’s total area, excluding the islands. It has a coastline extending for more than 400 kilometers and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions.The Emirate of Dubaimarker extends along the Persian Gulf coast of the UAE for approximately 72 kilometers. Dubai has an area of 3,885 square kilometers, which is equivalent to 5 per cent of the country’s total area, excluding the islands.The Emirate of Sharjahmarker extends along approximately 16 kilometers of the UAE’s Persian Gulf coastline and for more than 80 kilometers into the interior.The northern emirates which include Fujairahmarker, Ajmanmarker, Ras al-Khaimahmarker, and Umm al-Qaiwainmarker all have a total area of 3,881 square kilometers.There are two areas under joint control. One is jointly controlled by Omanmarker and Ajmanmarker, the other by Fujairahmarker and Sharjahmarker.

There is an Omanimarker enclave surrounded by UAE territory, known as Wadi Madhamarker. It is located halfway between the Musandammarker peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjahmarker. It covers approximately 75 square kilometres (29 sq mi) and the boundary was settled in 1589. The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkanmarker-Fujairahmarker road, barely 10 metres (33 ft) away. Within the enclave is a UAE exclave called Nahwamarker, also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah (formerly known as Bhubi Dhubhi). It is about 8 kilometres (5 mi) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange.


Ethnicity (2008)
Emirati 19.0%
Other Arabs 15.0%
Iranian 8.0%
South Asian 50.0%
Westerners & East Asians 8.0%

In 2009, UAE's population stood at about 4.8 million, of which approximately 21.9% were nationals and the rest foreigners. As a consequence, UAE nationals form a minority of those who reside in the country.UAE has one of the most diverse populations in the Middle East. 23% of the population are non-Emirati Arabs or Persians and the majority of the population, about 50%, is from South Asia. The UAE's high standard of living and economic opportunities have attracted workers from Indiamarker, the Philippinesmarker, Egyptmarker, Jordanmarker, Yemenmarker, Pakistanmarker, Sri Lankamarker and Bangladeshmarker. In 2007, there were approximately 1.4 million Indian nationals residing in the UAE, making them the single largest expatriate community in the oil-rich nation. Thousands of Palestinians, who came as either political refugees or temporary employment, also live in the United Arab Emirates. There is also a sizable population of people from Egypt, Somaliamarker and Sudanmarker who migrated to the UAE before its formation. The UAE has also attracted a small number of expatriates from developed countries in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania.

The population of the UAE has a skewed sex distribution consisting of more than twice as many males as females. The 15–65 age group has a male/female sex ratio of 2.743. The UAE's gender imbalance is only surpassed by other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf region.

The most populated city is Dubaimarker, with approximately 1.6 million people. Other major cities include Abu Dhabimarker, Al-Ainmarker, Sharjahmarker, and Fujairahmarker. About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban. The remaining inhabitants live in tiny towns scattered throughout the country or in one of the many desert oilfield camps in the nation.

The average life expectancy is 78.24 years, higher than any other Arab country.


The education system through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education. It consists of primary schools, middle schools and high schools. The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates development's goals and values. The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary.

The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its undergraduate institutions.

A recent survey showed that the illiteracy rate is on the decline in the UAE, and is now in the region of 7 per cent. This is mainly due to programmes that combat illiteracy amongst the adult population. Currently there are thousands of nationals pursuing formal learningat 86 adult education centres spread across the country.

The Government has launched many programs and initiatives to improve the quality of education at schools across the country.

The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. Enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centers and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and institute for enterprise development.


Standards of healthcare are considered to be generally high in the United Arab Emirates, resulting from increased government spending during strong economic years. According to the UAE government, total expenditures on healthcare from 1996 to 2003 were US$436 million. According to the World Health Organization, in 2006 total expenditures on health care constituted 2.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and the per capita expenditure for health care was US$673. General government expenditure on health as percentage of total government expenditure is 8.7% andHealth care currently is free only for UAE citizens. Hospital beds (per 10 000 population) was 18 in 2005. The number of doctors per 100,000 (annual average, 1990–2005) was 17 and dentistry personnel (per 100 000 population) was 30 in 2002. The pharmaceutical personnel (per 100 000 population) was 40.

The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 78.5 years.According to World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics, the UAE is ranked forty-fourth in the world in terms of health care.

In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabimarker and Dubaimarker, do not have separate healthcare authorities. The strategy focuses on unifyinghealthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. Nine were scheduled to open in 2008.

The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependents was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme.Recently the country has been benefiting from medical tourists from all over the GCC. The UAE currently attracts medical tourists seeking plastic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Gulf countries.

Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28 percent of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies. Diabetes and Cancer are also the main causes of death in the country.


Islam is by far the largest religion in the United Arab Emirates and is practised by approximately 96% of the country's populace. Of these, 80% practice Sunni Islam, while 16% practice Shia Islam.

The rest of the population primarily practises Christianity and Hinduism. Most of the Christians in the country are from Philippines, Lebanon and India while almost all Hindus in the country are of Indian origin.

Although Islam is the UAE's state religion, the government follows a policy of tolerance towards other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims. However, it is illegal in the UAE to spread the ideas of any religion apart from Islam through any form of media as it is a form of proselytizing. There are approximately 31 churches throughout the country and one Hindu temple in the region of Bur Dubaimarker.


More than 80% of the population of the United Arab Emirates are non-citizens. Most of the country's citizens are Muslims; approximately 85% are Sunni and the remaining 15% are Shi'a. Foreigners are predominantly from South and Southeast Asia, although there are substantial numbers from the Middle East, Europe, Central Asia, the former Commonwealth of Independent States, and North America. According to a ministry report, which collected census data, 76 percent of the total population is Muslim, 9 percent is Christian, and 15 percent is "other". Unofficial figures estimate that at least 15 percent of the population is Hindu, 5 percent is Buddhist, and 5 percent belong to other religious groups, including Parsi, Bahá'í, and Sikh. These estimates differ from census figures because census figures do not count "temporary" visitors and workers, and Bahá'ís and Druze are counted as Muslim.

Other Religions

The official religion in the UAE is Islam, however because of the presence of foreign cultures, other religions are also practised in the country.Since the union of the seven emirates in 1971, immigration from many countries, mainly from the subcontinent, and the Middle East, have resulted in a considerable growth in Christianity, Hinduism, and Sikhism in the United Arab Emirates. Zoroastrians, Buddhists, Bahai Faith, and other religious backgrounds can also be found. Residents who profess a different faith are allowed to perform their religious duties such as attending worship services or mass in churches or temples. The government, however, disallows overt religious activities that may interfere with Islam such as handing out evangelical leaflets near a mosque or in other designated public places.


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The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is one of the most developed countries in the world, based on various socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita, energy consumptionper capita, and the HDI.

The GDP per capita is currently the 14th in the world and 3rd in the Middle East after Qatarmarker and Kuwaitmarker as measured by the CIA World Factbook, or the 17th in the world as measured by the International Monetary Fundmarker; while at $168 billion in 2006, with a small population of 4 million, the GDP of the UAE ranks second in the CCASG (after Saudi Arabiamarker), third in the Middle East — North Africa (MENA) region (after Saudi Arabia and Iranmarker), and 38th in the world (ahead of Malaysiamarker).

There are various deviating estimates regarding the actual growth rate of the nation’s GDP. However, all available statistics indicate that the UAE currently has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. According to a recent report by the Ministry of Finance and Industry, real GDP rose by 35% in 2006 to $175 billion, compared with $130 billion in 2005. These figures would suggest that the UAE had the fastest growing real GDPin the world, between 2005 and 2006.

Although the United Arab Emirates is becoming less dependent on natural resources as a source of revenue, petroleum and natural gas exports still play an important role in the economy, especially in Abu Dhabimarker.A massive construction boom, an expanding manufacturing base, and a thriving services sector are helping the UAE diversify its economy. Nationwide, there is currently $350 billion worth of active constructionprojects. Such projects include the Burj Dubaimarker, which is slated to become the world's tallest building, Dubai World Central International Airportmarker which, when completed, will be the most expensive airport ever built, and the three Palm Islands, the largest artificial islands in the world.Other projects include the Dubai Mallmarker which is the world's largest shopping mall, and a man-made archipelago called The Worldmarker which seeks to increase Dubai's rapidly growing tourism industry.Also in the entertainment sector is the construction of Dubailandmarker, which is expected to be twice the size of Disney Worldmarker, and of Dubai Sports Citymarker which will not only provide homes for local sports teams but may be part of future Olympic bids.

Major increases in imports occurred in manufactured goods, machinery, and transportation equipment, which together accounted for 80% of total imports. Another important foreign exchangeearner, the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority--which controls the investments of Abu Dhabi, the wealthiest emirate—manages an estimated $360 billionin overseas investments & an estimated $900 billion in assets.

More than 200 factories operate at the Jebel Alimarker complex in Dubai, which includes a deep-water port and a free trade zone for manufacturing and distribution in which all goods for re-export or transshipment enjoy a 100% duty exemption.A major power plantwith associated water desalinationunits, an aluminium smelter, and a steel fabrication unit are prominent facilities in the complex. The complex is currently undergoing expansion, with sections of land set aside for different sectors of industry. A large international passenger and cargo airport, Dubai World Central International Airportmarker, with associated logistics, manufacturing and hospitality industries, is also planned here.

Emirati exports in 2006
Except in the free trade zones, the UAE requires at least 51% local citizen ownership in all businesses operating in the country as part of its attempt to place Emiratis into leadership positions. However, this law is under review and the majority ownership clause will very likely be scrapped in order to bring the country into line with World Trade Organisation regulations.

As a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC), the UAE participates in the wide range of GCC activities that focus on economic issues. These include regular consultations and development of common policies covering trade, investment, banking and finance, transportation, telecommunications, and other technical areas, including protection of intellectual property rights.

The currency of the United Arab Emirates is the Emirati Dirham.


The UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure and is the biggest projects market in the region, accounting for 37 percent of total project value within the construction, oil and gas, petrochemicals, power and water and waste sectors. Many huge investments have been poured into real estate, tourismand leisure. These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabimarker and Dubaimarker.In the former, Masdar Citymarker and Saadiyat Island highlighte the status as an emerging market.Dubai World Central, a 140-square kilometre multi-phase development under construction near Jebel Alimarker, will create 900,000 jobs, and will include Al Maktoum International Airportmarker, which will be the largest airport in the world by 2020.Property developer Emaar’s Burj Dubaimarker is a Dh3.67 billion (US$1billion) tower that is destined to be the world's tallest skyscraper.

Governments in the northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property. In addition, UAE President Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyanhas allocated Dh16 billion (US$4.4 billion) for infrastructure projects in the northern emirates. The allocation will be used to fund the construction of road networks, new housing communities, drainage networks and other projects, providing integrated solutions to some infrastructure deficits in these areas.

The United Arab Emirates has an extensive road network that connects all major cities and towns. Roads in the western and southern regions are still relatively undeveloped. Those are highly dangerous roads passing through desert regions and many are still unsealed, gravel roads. This has resulted in the continued use of airplanes as the main or alternative mode of transportationfor the residents.

There are seaportsthroughout the country. The major ports are Port Jebel Alimarker, Port Rashidmarker, Port Khalid, Port Saeedmarker, Port Khor Fakkanmarker, and Port Zayedmarker.

The UAE contains a number of significant airports. Dubai International Airportmarker (DXB) is the main airport of the country.In 2008, the airport was the 20th busiest airport in the worldby passenger traffic and 11th busiestby cargo traffic.The airport also was the 6th busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic.Other important airports include Abu Dhabi International Airportmarker, Sharjah International Airportmarker, and Al-Ain International Airportmarker.There are also airports in smaller towns, as well as small domestic airstrips in the rural Western region. There are daily flight services between West and East UAE, which is the only convenient option for passengers travelling between the two parts of the country to places such as Sir Bani Yasmarker.The UAE is home to the largest airlinein the Middle East, Emirates Airline. It has Dubai as its hub, and flies to over 100 destinations across six continents. The airline was the eighth-largestairlinein the world in terms of international passengers carried, and fifth-largestin the world in terms of scheduled international passenger-kilometres flown in 2008.Etihad Airways, from Abu Dhabi, is also growing, with over 100 aircraft on order.

The Dh15.5 billion (US$4.2 billion) Dubai Metro project includes a 52-kilometre Red Line viaduct, which stretches the length of Sheikh Zayed Roadmarker between Al Rashidiyamarker and Jebel Alimarker and was opened in September 2009 after round-the-clock work for three years.The Red Line when fully complete will carry an estimated 27,000 passengers per hour in each direction on 42 trains. Work also on the Green Line, which will link Al Qusaismarker to Dubai Healthcare Citymarker, began in 2006 and is scheduled for completion in late 2010.In Abu Dhabimarker plans are underway for all a metro system and also a country-wide national railway, which will connect all the major cities and is later to connect to the GCC wide network.The cost for the railway will be between Dh25bn and Dh30bn, and will be a total length of 1,100 kilometres, connecting Ghuwaifat, bordering the Kingdom of Saudi Arabiamarker, in the west and the border with the Sultanate of Omanmarker in the east.

The Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA) is the body responsible for overseeing federal utilities, whilst authorities in individual emirates, including Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA), Dubai Water and Electricity Authority (DEWA) and Sharjah Water and Electricity Authority (SEWA), oversee power and water generation in their individual emirates. The UAE plans to build 68 rechargeable dams in the coming five years to augment the 114 dams in existence, all but two of which are rechargeable, to help with providing for the growing population.

The UAE is also planning develop a peaceful nuclear energy programmeto generate electricity. So far, the UAE has signed peaceful nuclear agreements with Francemarker, United Statesmarker, and South Koreamarker, and a MOU with the United Kingdommarker.

The UAE is presently serviced by two telecommunications operators, Etisalatand du. Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007. However, Etisalat, with over 80 per cent of the market, remains the UAE's biggest telecom provider and is expanding dramatically internationally and is now the sixteenth largest telecommunications firm inthe world. Du is targeting a 30 per cent market shareby 2010. Between 2002 and 2007, the number of mobile phonesubscribers in the UAE grew by an annual average of 25.6 per cent, almost fourtimes its population growth. Forecasts indicate that the UAE mobile market will increase from 7.7 million subscribers in 2007 to 9.2 million in 2008 and to 11.9 million by 2012.

Current UAE internet penetration figures assume 2.4 users per subscription. TRA projections indicate that over the next few years growth in both users and subscriptions will becoupled with a fall in the number of users per subscription: the number of subscribers are expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007to 1.15 million in 2008, 1.44 million in 2009and 2.66 million in 2012.Internet use is extensive; by 2007 there were 1.7 million users. According to Reporters Without Borders, the authorities filter websites for religious, political and sexual content.


The United Arab Emirates has a diverse and multicultural society. The country's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogenous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indiansmarker and Pakistanismarker in the 1960s.Dubai has been criticized for perpetuating a class-based society, where migrant workersare in the lower classes. Despite the diversity of the population, only minor and infrequent episodes of ethnic tensions, primarily between expatriates, have been reported in the city. Major holidays in Dubai include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day(2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.

Emirati culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islamand traditional Arab, and Bedouin culture. Being a highly cosmopolitan society, the UAE has a diverse and vibrant culture. The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisineand lifestyleare very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslimsare called to prayer from the minaretsof mosqueswhich are scattered around the country. The weekend begins on Friday, the holiest day for Muslims. All Muslim countrieshave a Friday–Saturday or Thursday–Friday weekend.

This unique socioeconomic development in the Persian Gulfmarker has meant that the UAE is relatively liberal.While Islam is the main religion, the UAE has been known for its tolerant practices. Christian churchescan be found alongside mosquesand this courtesy has seemingly been extended to Hinduismand Sikhismas there is a place tucked away inside a residential style building which houses a Hindu templeand a Sikh gurudwara. There is evidently no persecution of Hindusor Sikhswhich is why it is home to several communities that have faced persecution elsewhere, whom are now contributing to the cosmopolitan atmosphere. There are a variety of Asian-influenced schools, cultural centers and restaurants. Increasing numbers of European centers, schools, and restaurants can also be seen in the UAE.

Dress and etiquette

The Islamic dress code is not compulsory, unlike in neighboring Saudi Arabiamarker.Most Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white shirt woven from wool or cotton, and most Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment covering most parts of the body. This attire is particularly well-suited for the UAE's hot and dry climate. Western-style clothing is, however, dominant due to the large expatriate population, and this practice is beginning to grow in popularity among Emiratis.

Etiquette is an important aspect of UAE culture and tradition, to which visitors are expected to conform. Recently, many expatriates have disregarded the law and been arrested for indecent clothing, or lack thereof, at beaches. Western-style dress is tolerated in appropriate places, such as bars or clubs, but the UAE has maintained a strict policy of protecting highly public spaces from cultural insensitivity. This is due, in large part, to the effects such practices may have on the social integration and participation of a largely conservative Emirati population.


The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish, and meat. The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from the surrounding countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Oman.

Seafoodhas been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. Meat and rice are other staple foods; lamb and mutton are the more favored meats, then goat and finally beef.

Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be supplemented with cardamom, saffron, or mint to give them a distinct flavor.

Muslims are prohibited from eating pork, so it is not included in local menus. Hotels frequently have pork substitutes such as beef sausages and veal rashers on their breakfast menus. If pork is available, it is clearly labelled as such.

Alcohol is generally only served in hotel restaurants and bars (but not in Sharjahmarker).All nightclubs and golf clubs are permitted to sell alcohol. Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol and pork, but these products are sold in separate sections.

Dishes forming part of the Emarati cuisine:

Literature and poetry

The main themes in Emarati poetry for Arab Poets range from satire, chivalry, self-praise, patriotism, religion, familyand love, and could range from descriptive to narrative.

The style and form of ancient poetry in the UAE was strongly influenced by the 8th-century Persian Gulfmarker Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed, who followed sixteen metres.This form underwent slight modification (Al Muwashahat) during the period of Islamic civilization in Andalucia (Spainmarker).

The earliest known poet in the UAE is Ibn Majid, who was born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimahmarker.Coming from a family of successful sailors, Ibn Majid's oeuvre has a total of 40 surviving compositions, 39 of which are verses.

The greatest luminaries in the UAE literary realm during the 20th century, particularly for Classical Arabicpoetry, were Mubarak Al Oqaili (1880–1954), Salem bin Ali al Owais (1887–1959) and Ahmed bin Sulayem (1905–1976). Three other poets from Sharjahmarker, known as the Hirah group, also thrived during the 20th century including Khalfan Musabah (1923–1946), Sheikh Saqr Al Qasimi (1925–1993), an ex-ruler of Sharjah, and Sultan bin Ali al Owais (1925–2000).The Hirah group’s works are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and romantic poets.

Museums and art galleries

Many emirates have established museumsof regional repute, most famously Sharjahwith its Heritage District containing 17 museums, which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World. Abu Dhabimarker's cultural foundation is also an important place for the presentation of indigenous and foreign art.In Dubaimarker, the area of Al Quozmarker has attracted a number of art galleries.

Abu Dhabi has embarked on the path to become an art center of international caliber, by creating a culture district on Saadiyat Island. There, six grand projects are planned: the Sheikh Zayed National Museum by Foster + Partners, the modern art museum Guggenheim Abu Dhabimarker to be built by Frank Gehry, the classical museum Louvre Abu Dhabimarker by Jean Nouvel, a maritime museum by Tadao Ando, a Performing Arts Center by Zaha Hadid, and a Biennale Park with 16 pavilions.

Dubai also plans to build a Kunsthalmarker museum and a district for galleries and artists.

Music, dance and cinema

The United Arab Emirates is a part of the khalijitradition, and is also known for Bedouinfolk music.Liwais a type of music and dance performed mainly in communities which contain descendants of East Africans.During celebrations singing and dancing also took place and many of the songs and dances, handed down from generation to generation, have survived to the present time. Young girls would dance by swinging their long black hair and swaying their bodies in time to the strong beat of the music. Men would re-enact battles fought or successful hunting expeditions, often symbolically using sticks, swords or rifles.

Bollywood movies are the most popular in the UAE followed by Hollywoodmarker movies.The UAE has an active music scene, with musicians Amr Diab, Diana Haddad, Tarkan, Aerosmith, Santana, Mark Knopfler, Christina Aguilera, Elton John, Pink, Shakira, Celine Dion, Coldplay, and Phil Collinsand a slew of Bollywoodstars having performed in the country. Kylie Minogue was paid 4.4 million dollars to perform at the opening of the Atlantis resortmarker on November 20, 2008.The Dubai Desert Rock Festivalis also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists.


Football is the national sportof the United Arab Emirates. Emirati Soccer clubs Al-Ain, Al-Wasl, Al-Shabbab ACD, Al-Sharjah, Al-Wahda, and Al-Ahliare the most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions. The great rivalries keep the UAE energized as people fill the streets when their favorite team wins. The United Arab Emirates Football Associationwas first established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organizing youth programsand improving the abilities of not only its players, but of the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. The UAE football teamqualified for the World Cupin 1990—with Egyptit was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying after Kuwaitand Algeriain 1982and Iraqand Algeriaagain in 1986.The UAE also recently won the Gulf Cup Championship held in Abu Dhabimarker January 2007.

Cricketis one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely due to the expatriate population from the Indian subcontinent. The Sharjah Cricket Association Stadiummarker in Sharjahmarker has hosted 4 international test match so far.Sheikh Zayed Stadiummarker and Al Jazira Mohammed Bin Zayed Stadiummarker in Abu Dhabimarker also host international cricket matches.Dubaimarker has two cricket stadiums (Dubai Cricket Ground No.1 and No.2) with a third, 'S3' currently under construction as part of Dubai Sports Citymarker.Dubai is also home to the International Cricket Council.The United Arab Emirates national cricket teamqualified for the 1996 Cricket World Cupand narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2007 Cricket World Cup.

Other popular sports include camel racing, falconry, endurance riding, and tennis.

See also

Outline of the United Arab Emirates



External links


Economic indicators
Unemployment 4%May 2009
GDP growth 7.4%2008
CPI inflation 1.9%April 2008 – April 2009
National debt $142 billionJune 18, 2009

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