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The University of Aberdeen is an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeenmarker, Scotlandmarker. It is the third oldest university in Scotlandmarker making it the fifth oldest in what is now the United Kingdommarker, and in the wider English-speaking world.

The modern University of Aberdeen was formed in 1860 by the merger of two pre-existing ancient universities: King's Collegemarker, located in Old Aberdeenmarker and Marischal Collegemarker, founded in 1593 and located in the new city of Aberdeen.

History

King's and Marischal Colleges

See also King's College, Aberdeenmarker and Marischal Collegemarker for history pre-1860


The University of Aberdeen is one of the ancient universities of Scotland. The first university in Aberdeen, King's Collegemarker, was founded in February 1495 by William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen and Chancellor of Scotlandmarker, drafting a request on behalf of King James IV to Pope Alexander VI resulting in a Papal Bull being issued. The university was established near St Machar's Cathedralmarker, and its chapel, concecreated in 1509, was dedicated to the Trinity and the Blessed Virgin Mary in her Nativity. The first principal was Hector Boece, graduate and professor of the University of Parismarker, who worked closely with Elphinstone to develop the university.

Following the Reformation, King's College was purged of its Roman Catholic staff but in other respects was largely resistant to change. George Keith, the fifth Earl Marischal was a moderniser within the college and supportive of the reforming ideas of Peter Ramus. In April 1593 he consequently founded a second university in the city, Marischal Collegemarker. (It is noteworthy that Aberdeen was highly unusual at the time for having two universities in one city: as 20th-century University prospectuses wryly observed, Aberdeen alone had the same number as existed in all of England at the time.) It is also possible that the founding of another college in nearby Fraserburghmarker by Sir Alexander Fraser, a business rival of Keith, was instrumental in its creation.

Initially, Marischal College offered the Principal of King's College a role in selecting its academics, but this was refused by the King's authorities - cited as the first blow in a future rivalry. Marischal College, being located in the commercial heart of the city rather than the ancient but much smaller collegiate enclave of King's in Old Aberdeen, was quite different in nature and outlook, very much integrated into the life of the city, for example allowing its students to live outwith the College. The two rival colleges often clashed, sometimes more abstractly in legal matters, but not infrequently also more physically in brawls between students on the streets of Aberdeen itself.

As the institutions eventually began to put aside their differences a process of attempted (but unconsummated) mergers began in the seventeenth century and it was during this time that notable contributions were made by both to the Scottish Enlightenment. Both Colleges supported the Jacobite cause and following the defeat of the 1715 rising both were largely purged of their academics and officials.

The University of Aberdeen's creation

The nearest the two colleges had come to full union was as the "Caroline University of Aberdeen", a merger initiated by Charles I of Scotland in 1641. The final unification was brought following the ratification of Parliament by Oliver Cromwell during the interregnum in 1654. This united university survived until the Restoration whereby all laws made during this period were rescinded by Charles II and the two colleges reverted to independent status. Charles I is still recognised as one of the university's seven Founders, due to his part in creating the Caroline University and his benevolence towards King's College. Further unsuccessful suggestions for union were brought about throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries.

The two universities in Aberdeen were finally merged on 15 September 1860 in accordance with the Universities Act 1858, which also created a new medical school at Marischal. The 1858 Act stated that the "united University shall take rank among the Universities of Scotland as from the date of erection of King's College and University." The University is thus Scotland's third oldest and the United Kingdommarker's fifth oldest University.

The university's coat of arms display the founders and locations of the previous two colleges. Top left is the arms of the burgh of Old Aberdeenmarker. Top right is that of George Keith, the fifth Earl Marischal. Bottom left belongs to Bishop William Elphinstone. The bottom right quarter is a simplified version of the usual symbol (of three castles) representing the burgh and now City of Aberdeenmarker.

The modern university

The focus between the two ex-college campuses has alternated over the years. While at the time of unification there were roughly equal divisions of numbers between the two, Marischal began an expansion in the later nineteenth century with a significant rebuilding effort ending in 1906. However in more recent years, the teaching of medicine has graduated towards the university's Foresterhill hospital site and science and engineering towards King's, benefiting from its less urban position and expanding from its traditional collegiate appearance to a modern campus with the traditional buildings at its heart. There are no longer any students being taught at the Marischal College campus as the building is currently being refurbished by Aberdeen City Council as its new headquarters.

The Future (Curriculum Reform and the new Library)

Plans are now being implemented to provide students at the University of Aberdeen with the advantages of restructured and enhanced degree programmes, with wider student choice, more flexible entry and exit, and enhanced student support and facilities.The proposals follow an extensive 18-month review process to modernise the structure, content, delivery and flexibility of Aberdeen degrees to ensure they match the needs of graduates and employers.The new programmes will help Aberdeen graduates to leave the University more academically excellent, more intellectually flexible, and more committed to personal development. They will have enhanced skills as critical thinkers and effective communicators, and will be better prepared to be active citizens.

Including:

  • Increased curriculum flexibility, to add further context to core subjects, and to provide opportunities to choose new cross-disciplinary courses focused on real world problems or sustained study in a language or business.
  • Increased opportunities to broaden experience and skills through a wide range of optional activities overseen by the University, such as study overseas, work placements and voluntary work.
  • Flexibility to meet today’s changing needs, including increased support for study breaks, accrediting completed periods of study, and a flexible framework to allow exit and re-entry to programmes depending on qualifications.
  • Enhanced support for students, including more scholarships, new student centres to act as ‘one-stop shops’ for support services, and new, flexible learning spaces on campus to complement lecture theatres and labs.


New Library

A brand new £57million (fundraising target of £30million) library will be opening on campus in 2011 to replace the current Queen Mother Library, which many believe is not sufficient for student or staff life. Construction of the library has already started and should be done for summer 2011.

Governance

Main Article Ancient university governance in Scotland
In common with the other ancient universities in Scotland, the university's structure of governance is largely regulated by the Universities Acts. This gives the university a tripartite constitution containing the a General Council of senior academics and graduates, a University Court responsible for finances and administration, and the Academic Senate (Senatus Academicus) - the university's supreme academic body.

There are correspondingly three main officers of the university. It is nominally headed by the Chancellor, a largely ceremonial position traditionally held by the Bishop of Aberdeen but divorced as a result of the Scottish Reformation and elected for life by the General Council. There is also a Rector of the University, who chairs the University Court and is elected by the students for a three year term to represent their interests.

The administrative head and chief executive of the university is its Principal and Vice Chancellor. The Principal acts as chair of the Senatus Academicus and his status as Vice Chancellor enables him to perform the functions reserved to the Chancellor in the latter's absence, such as the awarding of degrees.

Chancellor

David Wilson, Baron Wilson of Tillyorn

A retired diplomat and former Governor of Hong Kong, Lord Wilson of Tillyorn was installed as Chancellor in 1997. The office may be held for life. Nominally head of the University, the Chancellor, or, if necessary, his deputy, confers degrees on graduands. He is President of the General Council, the University’s graduate body, and has other, largely ceremonial duties. Lord Wilson is President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Principal and Vice-Chancellor

Professor Sir Duncan Rice

Professor Sir Duncan Rice has been Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen since September 1996. He was previously Dean of the Faculty (1985-91), and Vice-Chancellor (1991-96) at New York University, playing an important role in one of the most successful US higher education fund-raising campaigns, which raised over $1 billion in 10 years.

Sir Duncan Rice was born in Aberdeen, and took a first in history at the University of Aberdeen in 1964. He taught briefly at Aberdeen and completed an Edinburgh doctorate before spending much of his professional life at Yale and New York University.

Sir Duncan Rice has published widely as a professional historian. He is the recipient of many academic awards and honours, including Honorary Degrees from New York University and Robert Gordon University, an Honorary Fellowship from the UHI Millennium Institute, and fellowships at Harvard and Yale, as well as being a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He serves on the Heritage Lottery Fund Committee for Scotland, is Honorary Vice-President of Scottish Opera and is Chair of the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (Europe). He has previously served on the Boards of Scottish Enterprise Grampian, Scottish Opera/Ballet, BT Scotland, and The National Trust for Scotland. He was Chairman of the Circumpolar Universities Association from 1997-1999, is a former Chairman of the UK Socrates-Erasmus Trust, and a former member of the Universities and Colleges Employers Association Board. He was knighted in 2009 for services to higher education.

Sir Duncan Rice is married to Susan Rice, the Managing Director for Lloyds Banking Group Scotland. They have three children and live in Old Aberdeen. His interests include hillwalking, contemporary literature, and opera.

Rector

Stephen Robertson MBE

Following a career of 25 years as a solicitor, Stephen Robertson joined up with three friends from student days at the University of Aberdeen to form the well-known Doric comedy act Scotland the What? The trio debuted at Edinburgh Fringe Festival in 1969 and retired after their final performance at His Majesty's Theatre Aberdeen in 1995. Stephen Robertson has an honorary degree from the University of Aberdeen, an MBE for services to entertainment in Scotland, and the Freedom of the City of Aberdeen.Stephen Robertson was elected Rector in 2008 for a three-year term. The Rector is an ancient post dating back to the foundation of the University in 1495, with the role (since 1860) of representing the students on the University Court.

Reputation

UK University Rankings]]
2010 2009 2008 2007
Times Good University Guide 33=th 26th 32nd 36th
Guardian University Guide 34rd 23rd 26th
Sunday Times University Guide 34th 34th= 34th= 34th
Independent 47th 39th 33rd
Daily Telegraph 33rd


The University of Aberdeen is renowned as having an excellent reputation for teaching quality and research, rising in The Times university league rankings to 129th in the world, the fasting rising University in the world's top 200.

In the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise 10 departments received the high rating of 5 as internationally distinguished and 19 departments received a rating of 4 recognising national excellence. As such, 85% of Aberdeen's staff are working in departments or research groups that are recognised as centres of national and international excellence.

A number of individual departments have been highly rated in various publications. The Times Good University Guide 2008 rated Aberdeen's Law School as the best in Scotland and the 2nd in the UK. It also has a very well known Zoology and Marine Biology department, being one of only 3 British universities with a current Zoology department (the others being England's Cambridgemarker and Oxfordmarker Universities).

  • 97% graduates enter directly into work, further study or training within 6 months


  • High quality teaching - with over 89% subjects rated Excellent / Highly Satisfactory


  • Research income trebled in the last decade


  • Libraries with over a million volumes, priceless historic material, and seven museum collections recognised as nationally important


  • Strong track record in commercialising research — with over 400 patents pending and 21 spin-off companies


Academic structure

The university is divided into three colleges, which are further separated into a number of academic schools and other institutions.

College of Arts and Social Sciences

The College is separated into a number of academic schools:
  • University of Aberdeen Business School
  • School of Divinity, History and Philosophy
  • School of Education Formerly the Aberdeen campus of the Northern College of Education which was amalgamated into the university in the later half of the 1990s.
  • School of Language & Literature
  • School of Lawmarker
  • School of Social Science
  • Graduate School


There are also a number of Research Centres and Institutes

College of Life Sciences and Medicine

The College is separated into four academic schools:
  • School of Biological Sciences
  • School of Medical Sciences
  • School of Medicinemarker
  • School of Psychology


and is supported by:
  • Graduate School
  • Institute of Applied Health Sciences
  • Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences
  • Institute of Medical Sciences


College of Physical Sciences

The College is divided into two main schools and a number of research centres:

  • School of Engineering and Physical Sciences:
:Department of Chemistry
:Department of Computing Science
:Department of Engineering
:Department of Mathematical Sciences
:Department of Physics


  • School of Geosciences:
:Department of Geography & Environment
:Department of Geology & Petroleum Geology
:Graduate Studies


  • College Research Centres:
:Aberdeen Institute for Coastal Science and Management
:Institute of Energy Technologies
:Institute for Transport and Rural Research


Locations

The original buildings of both colleges which united to form the University are much admired architectural features of Aberdeen. Many newer campus buildings are of largely modernist style and focused around the expanding campus around King's College, which now hosts all of the university's teaching facilities outside of the two more recent sites: Foresterhill and Hilton, home to the faculties of Medicine and Education respectively.

King's College campus

See also: King's College, Aberdeenmarker
King's College


King's College campus covers an area of some 35 hectares, formed around the ancient King's Collegemarker buildings. It hosts around two-thirds of the university's built estate, and lies 2 miles north of Aberdeenmarker city centre.

The historic King's College buildings form a quadrangle with interior court, two sides of which have been rebuilt and expanded with a library wing. The Crown Tower and the Chapel, the oldest parts, date from around 1500. The former is surmounted by a structure about 40 ft (12 m) high, consisting of a six-sided lantern and royal crown, both sculptured, and resting on the intersections of two arched ornamental slips rising from the four corners of the top of the tower. The choir of the chapel still contains the original oak canopied stalls, miserere seats, and lofty open screens in the French flamboyant style. They were preserved by the college's Principal during the Reformation, who fought off local barons who had attacked the nearby St Machar's Cathedralmarker. The library wing has now been converted into an exhibition and conference venue.

New Building, King's College ("New Kings")
The first of the modern age of construction in the King's campus began with the construction in 1913 of the New Building (informally known as "New King's"), largely in a similar architectural style to the old buildings. New King's groups to form a yet larger quadrangle-like green for the campus also bordered by the High Street, King's and Elphinstone Hallmarker, a traditional 1930 replacement for the Great Hall, which was turned into the library and later into university auditorium.

The Queen Mother Library is the university's current main library, one of the major facilities on King's College campus. The five-storey modernist structure houses some one million books. In April 2006 it was announced that a new £58 million library, designed by Danish architects schmidt hammer lassen, will be constructed, to be completed in 2011. In addition to its expanded facilities it will also house the University's historic collections, comprising more than a quarter of a million ancient and priceless books and manuscripts that have been collected over five centuries since the University's foundations.

King's College campus also includes other modern buildings; some, such as the Fraser Noble Building, with a distinctive concrete crown designed to resemble the one adorning King's College, echo the existing architecture of Old Aberdeenmarker. Also on the site is the Cruickshank Botanic Gardenmarker which was presented to the university in 1899.

Marischal College

See also: Marischal Collegemarker

Marischal College
Marischal Collegemarker is a stately neo-Gothic building, having been rebuilt in 1836-41, and greatly extended several years later. The additions to the buildings opened by King Edward VII in 1906, form one of the most splendid examples of neo-Gothic architecture in Great Britainmarker; the architect, Alexander Marshall Mackenzie, a native of Aberdeen, having adapted his material, white granite, to the design of a noble building to noteworthy effect. The beautiful Mitchell Tower is so named from the benefactor (Dr Charles Mitchell) who provided the splendid graduation hall. The opening of this tower in 1895 signalled the commemoration of the four hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the university. Formerly an open three-sided court, the college now forms a quadrangle.

The building is now mostly let to Aberdeen City Council, although the University controls the north wing of the building containing the Marischal Museum and Mitchell Hall, which is used for graduation and other academic ceremonies.

Others

Foresterhill

The Foresterhill site contains the university's medical school, library and associated buildings in the West End of the city of Aberdeen. It became part of the university's holdings in 1938 following the move of the Medical School and forms part of a modern teaching hospital complex alongside the Aberdeen Royal Infirmarymarker. The 41 hectare site is split between the university (owning around a third) and Grampian University Hospital NHS Trust.

Hilton

The Hilton site became part of the university estate following its merger with the Aberdeen Campus of the Northern Collegemarker in December 2001 and temporarily hosted the university's Faculty of Education. It lies under a mile south west of King's College campus. All teaching how now been transferred to King's College Campus.

Students

As of 2009/10 the university has around 15,700 students, 3900 being postgraduates, representing 120 different countries with about 46% men, 54% women, and 19% mature undergraduates. The university has more than 590 different first degree programmes and more than 110 postgraduate taught programmes.

Student representation

The student body is represented within the University by a Students' Association known as Aberdeen University Students' Association (AUSA). Additionally, the elected Rector of the University of Aberdeen serves along with the Rector's Assessor and AUSA President as a students' representatives on the University Court.

Following financial problems in the early 2000s, AUSA ceased to provide a traditional Students' Union) for its members. The organisation has been involved in the creation of "The Hub", a university-owned student dining and social centre created out of the former Central Refectory in King's College campus n campus, which opened in 2006.

During term time, AUSA publishes a weekly student newspaper called the Gaudie and hosts a radio station, Aberdeen Student Radio. An independent student newspaper is also published at the university, Vox Pop.

Organisations

A number of linked organisations cater to the students of the university. There are over a hundred clubs and societies formally affiliated with the students' association.

The oldest student organisation at the university is the Aberdeen University Debater, the university's debating union, constituted in 1848. The first successful university newspaper, Alma Mater, began under the auspices of the Debater in 1883. In 1884, the Debater also took the first steps towards the introduction of a Students' Representative Council under support from Alexander Bain the then Rector.

The creation of the Union in 1895 provided a new debating chamber in Marischal College and the first permanent home of the society. The chamber beneath Mitchell Hall in Marischal College is the oldest purpose-built debating chamber in Scotland. For a time immediately after the turn of the century both the Union and the society were organising debates, which ultimately led to a merger in 1913 before being revived as separate institutions in 1920.

The students' association is responsible for sport at the university, which is managed by the Aberdeen University Sports Union, an AUSA committee.

University accommodation

Halls of residence are managed by the University. Two large concentrations of University accommodation are provided on the campus in Old Aberdeen, consisting of Crombie-Johnston Halls (both individual but sister halls) and King's Halls of Residence, and a short distance away the Hillhead Halls Of Residence site, where there is a social centre with porters, catering, sports and computer facilities, in addition to on-site launderettes, a bar and a shop.

Following their first year, the majority of students opt to live in private accommodation off of the main university campus, although in recent years, prices and availability of accommodation has seen more second and third year students returning to university halls. This has forced the university to write to all students in university accommodation, in February 2008 and 2009, to let them know that accommodation will be reserved for first year students only in the academic year to follow.

The University has advertised a First-Year Accommodation Guarantee in recent years, but due to the high demand for homes in the rapidly growing city it has become increasingly difficult to fulfil the guarantee. At the start of the 2007-2008 term, the university ran out of rooms, and had to resort to temporary accommodation (including putting students into hotel rooms, and making kitchens, study rooms and common rooms into dorm rooms).

Sports

The students' association is responsible for sport at the university, which is managed by the Aberdeen University Sports Union, an AUSA committee.

There are sports facilities at the back of King's College. Adjacent to the King's College playing fields is theAberdeen Sports Village, a partnership between the University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen City Council and sportscotland. The venue includes a nine-court indoor hall, full-sized synthetic football pitch, fitness suite, squash courts and a sports performance lab among other facilities. The £28 million development on the site of the former Chris Anderson Stadium, opened on 24 August 2009. A 50m swimming pool is to be constructed in the site by end of 2010.

Notable alumni

Entrance to King's College Quadrangle
See also: :Category:Alumni of the University of Aberdeen


Many distinguished and renowned figures have studied at the University of Aberdeen. Most recently it has produced several leading figures in the UK Government, including the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Alistair Darling and the Paymaster General, Tessa Jowell. Additionally, famous businessmen such as Stephen Carter and Will Whitehorn matriculated at UoA. Radio and television personalities such as Nicky Campbell, James Naughtie, Sandy Gall and Derek Rae were also students here.

The University is well known in philosophical and theological circles. Thomas Reid, the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense, and an important figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, earned his degree from Marischal Collegemarker. Robert Adamson and theologian William Robinson Clark also went here. Other academics who started here include Andrew Ross, Colin Campbell and James Legge.

Alumni of the medical faculty include Patrick Manson, who made important discoveries in parasitology and was the founder of the tropical medicine field. The Kai Tak Airportmarker was namesaked after Kai Ho, who along with Patrick Manson and Graeme Cantlie established the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887, which later became University of Hong Kongmarker in 1911.

Ali Smith, the author of the Booker Prize nominated novel Hotel World and the Whitbread Award winning novel The Accidental, took her undergraduate degree here. Contemporary playwright Simon Farquhar; Thomas Urquhart and Archibald Forbes are also alumni known in literary circles.

Those known in architectural circles include William Thornton, the designer of the United States Capitolmarker and Charles Mitchell who worked with John Dobson and commissioned the elegant art nouveau church of St George's Jesmond from Thomas Ralph Spence.

Other figures include botanist C. H. Gimingham; plant pathologist Lawrence Ogilvie; actor Iain Glen; mountaineer Tom Patey; Colonial Secretary of Hong Kongmarker Frederick Stewart; former leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, Nicol Stephen; and James Blair, the founder of the College of William and Marymarker in Williamsburg, Virginiamarker, USAmarker.

  • Prof. Richard Dawkins, David Attenborough, Dennis Law and J.K. Rowling are some of the high profile names to be awarded an honourary degree from the university.


Nobel Prize winners

See also: :Category:Academics of the University of Aberdeen


  • George Paget Thomson Professor of Natural Philosophy (Physics) at Aberdeen from 1922-1930, together with the American physicist C J Davisson "for their (independent) experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals". (1937)
  • John James Richard Macleod Jointly with Frederick Banting, for the research which led to the development of insulin as a treatment for diabetes. (1923)
  • John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr Director of the Rowett Institute and Professor of Agriculture from 1942 to 1945, in recognition of his contribution to the worldwide fight against hunger. (1949)
  • Frederick Soddy, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Aberdeen from 1914-1919, for his work on radioactivity and isotopes (1921)
  • Richard Laurence Millington Synge A biochemist with the Rowett Institute from 1948 to 1967, for the invention of partition chromatography - a technique used in the separation mixtures of similar chemicals that revolutionised analytical chemistry (1952)


References

  1. http://www.abdn.ac.uk/news/details-4649.pdf
  2. This Noble College: Building on the European tradition
  3. http://www.electricscotland.com/history/statistical/kings.htm
  4. http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mediareleases/archive/2004/pr1311.hti
  5. Guardian University Guide 2008
  6. Sunday Times University Guide 2010
  7. Sunday Times University Guide 2009
  8. Sunday Times University Guide 2008
  9. http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mediareleases/release.php?id=265
  10. Anderson, R.D The Student Community at Aberdeen: 1860-1939 (AUP)
  11. McLaren, C.A. Aberdeen Students 1600-1860 (AUP)
  12. Hargreaves, J.D. and Forbes, Angela Aberdeen University 1945-1981: Regional Roles and National Needs (AUP)


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