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The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, California, Berkeley, and UC Berkeley), is a public research university located in Berkeley, Californiamarker, United States. The oldest of the ten major campuses affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley offers some 300 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. The university occupies with the central campus resting on approximately .

The University was founded in 1868 in a merger of the private College of Californiamarker and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College. Berkeley was a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Sixty-five Nobel Laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty, researchers, or alumni.

The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked UC Berkeley 3rd internationally, while Newsweek and Webometrics placed Berkeley 5th in the World. According to the National Research Council, 35 of 36 of the university's graduate programs rank in the top 10 in their respective fields, and in the US News and World Report graduate school survey, Berkeley is the only university to achieve top 5 rankings in all of the Ph.D. disciplines covered.

Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project which he personally headquartered at Los Alamos, New Mexicomarker, during World War II. Since that time, the university has managed or co-managed the Los Alamos National Laboratorymarker, as well as its later rival, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratorymarker, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratorymarker for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Cal student-athletes compete intercollegiately as the California Golden Bears. A member of both the Pacific-10 Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in the NCAA, Cal students have won national titles in many sports, including football, men's basketball, baseball, men's gymnastics, softball, water polo, rugby, and crew. In addition, they have won over 100 Olympic medals. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are Yale Blue and California Gold.

History



In 1866, the land comprising the current Berkeley campus was purchased by the private College of Californiamarker. Because it lacked sufficient funds to operate, it eventually merged with the state-run Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state of California. The university opened in September 1869. Frederick Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870 Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Hallsmarker in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 222 female students and held its first classes.

Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings, and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Emile Bernard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramentomarker, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davismarker. By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.

Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard Universitymarker in the number of distinguished departments.

During World War II, following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratorymarker began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratorymarker (formerly the Radiation Lab), Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratorymarker (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratorymarker (1952).

Originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Cal's ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including James Harold Doolittle ("Jimmy" Doolittle), who graduated with a B.A. in 1922. Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from Cal's ROTC program, earning B.A. degrees in 1937 in 1938, respectively. During World War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by 1944, the student body at Berkeley included more than 1,000 Navy personnel. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962.

During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed; ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay.

In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, and Clark Kerr became the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley.

Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement in 1964, and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the highly publicized People's Parkmarker protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land; the National Guard was called in and violence erupted. Modern students at Berkeley are less politically active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives. Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1.

Various human and animal rights groups have recently conflicted with Berkeley. Native American conflicted with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Animal-rights activists have threatened faculty members using animals for research. The school's response to tree sitters protesting construction caused controversy in the local community.

As state funding (now about 25%) has declined, Berkeley has turned to private sources: BP donated $500 million to develop biofuels, the Hewlett Foundation gave $113 million to endow 100 faculty chair, and Dow Chemical gave $10 million to research sustainability. The BP grant has been criticized for diverting food production to fuel production.

The original name University of California was frequently shortened to California or Cal. Its athletic teams date to this time and so are known as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or Cal. Today University of California refers to a statewide school system and the official name is University of California, Berkeley, frequently shortened to UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal. Usage of UCB and University of California 'at Berkeley is discouraged and the domain name is berkeley.edu. The term "Cal Berkeley" is not a correct reference to the school, but occasionally used. Berkeley is unrelated to the Berklee College of Musicmarker or Berkeley College.

Campus

Aerial view of Berkeley campus
The Berkeley campus encompasses approximately 1,232 acres (5 km²), though the "central campus" occupies only the low-lying western 178 acres (0.7 km²) of this area. Of the remaining 1000 acres (4 km²), approximately are occupied by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratorymarker; other facilities above the main campus include the Lawrence Hall of Sciencemarker and several research units, notably the Space Sciences Laboratorymarker, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institutemarker, an undeveloped ecological preserve, the University of California Botanical Gardenmarker and a recreation center in Strawberry Canyon. To the west of the central campus is the downtown business district of Berkeley; to the northwest is the neighborhood of North Berkeley, including the so-called Gourmet Ghetto, a commercial district known for high quality dining due to the presence of such world-renowned restaurants as Chez Panissemarker. Immediately to the north is a quiet residential neighborhood known as Northsidemarker with a large graduate student population ; situated north of that are the upscale residential neighborhoods of the Berkeley Hillsmarker, where many faculty members live . Immediately southeast of campus lies fraternity row, and beyond that the Clark Kerr Campus and an upscale residential area named Claremontmarker. The area south of the universitymarker includes student housing and Telegraph Avenuemarker, one of Berkeley's main shopping districts with stores, street vendors and restaurants catering to college students and tourists. In addition, the University also owns some land to the northwest of the main campus, a married student housing complex in the nearby town of Albany ("Albany Village" and the "Gill Tract") and a field research station several miles to the north in Richmond, Californiamarker. Outside of the Bay Area, the University owns various research laboratories and research forests in both northern and southern Sierra Nevada.

Architecture

What is considered the historic campus today was the result of the 1898 "International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California," funded by William Randolph Hearst's mother and initially held in the Belgian city of Antwerpmarker; eleven finalists were judged again in San Francisco in 1899. The winner was Frenchman Émile Bénard, however he refused to personally supervise the implementation of his plan and the task was subsequently given to architecture professor John Galen Howard. Howard designed over twenty buildings, which set the tone for the campus up until its expansion in the 1950s and 1960s. The structures forming the “classical core” of the campus were built in the Beaux-Arts Classical style, and include Hearst Greek Theatre, Hearst Memorial Mining Building, Doe Memorial Librarymarker, California Hall, Wheeler Hall, (Old) Le Conte Hall, Gilman Hall, Haviland Hall, Wellman Hall, Sather Gatemarker, and the Sather Towermarker (nicknamed "the Campanile" after its architectural inspiration, St Mark's Campanilemarker in Venice). Buildings he regarded as temporary, nonacademic, or not particularly "serious" were designed in shingle or Collegiate Gothic styles; examples of these are North Gate Hall, Dwinelle Annex, and Stephens Hall. Many of Howard's designs are recognized California Historical Landmarks and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Built in 1873 in a Victorian Second-Empire-style, South Hallmarker is the oldest university building in California. It, and the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Piedmont Avenue east of the main campus, are the only remnants from the original University of California before John Galen Howard's buildings were constructed. Other architects whose work can be found in the campus and surrounding area are Bernard Maybeck (best known for the Palace of Fine Artsmarker in San Francisco), Maybeck's student Julia Morgan (Hearst Women's Gymnasium), Charles Willard Moore (Haas School of Businessmarker) and Joseph Esherick (Wurster Hall).

Natural features

Flowing into the main campus are two branches of Strawberry Creek. The south fork enters a culvert upstream of the recreational complex at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon and passes beneath California Memorial Stadiummarker before appearing again in Faculty Glade. It then runs through the center of the campus before disappearing underground at the west end of campus. The north fork appears just east of University Housemarker and runs through the glade north of the Valley Life Sciences Building, the original site of the Campus Arboretum.

Trees in the area date from the founding of the University in the 1870s. The campus, itself, contains numerous wooded areas; including: Founders' Rock, Faculty Glade, Grinnell Natural Area, and the Eucalyptus Grove, which is both the tallest stand of such trees in the world and the tallest stand of hardwood trees in North America.

The campus sits on the Hayward Fault, which runs directly through California Memorial Stadiummarker. There is ongoing construction to retrofit the stadium. The treesit protest revolved around the controversy of clearing away trees by the stadium to build the new Student Athlete High Performance Center. As the stadium sits directly on the fault, this raised campus concerns of the safety of student athletes in the event of an earthquake as they train in facilities under the stadium stands.

Student housing

Cunningham Hall and the newly built Towle Hall, part of the Unit 2 residence hall complex
UC Berkeley's student housing accommodates a variety of personal and academic preferences and styles. Presently, the university offers two years of guaranteed housing for entering freshmen, and one year for entering transfer students. The immediately surrounding community offers apartments, Greek (fraternity and sorority) housing, and the Berkeley Student Co-ops.

There are four residence hall complexes south of campus in the City of Berkeley: Units 1, 2, 3, and Clark Kerr. Units 1, 2 and 3 offer high-rise accommodations with common areas on every other floor. Dining commons and other central facilities are shared by the high-rises. Because of their communal design and location in the city, these residence halls tend to be the more social of the housing options. Units 1 and 2 also have many of the newest residence hall buildings, which are intended for continuing and transfer students. Just outside these complexes are the Channing-Bowditch and Ida Jackson apartments, also intended for older students. Farther away from campus is Clark Kerr, a residence hall complex that houses many student athletes and was once a school for the deaf and blind. This complex is considered the most spacious and luxurious accommodation south of campus.

In the foothills, east of the central campus, there are three additional residence hall complexes: Foothill, Stern, and Bowles. Foothill is a co-ed suite-style hall reminiscent of a Swiss chalet. Just south of Foothill, overlooking the Hearst Greek Theatre, is the all-girls traditional-style Stern Hall, which boasts an original mural by Diego Rivera. Because of their proximity to the College of Engineeringmarker and College of Chemistrymarker, these residence halls often house science and engineering majors. They tend to be quieter than the southsidemarker complexes, but because of their location next to the theatre, often get free glimpses of concerts. Bowles Hallmarker, the oldest state-owned residence hall in California, is located immediately north of California Memorial Stadiummarker. Dedicated in 1929 and on the National Register of Historic Places, this all-men's residence hall has large quad-occupancy rooms and has the appearance of a castle. This residence hall is like a fraternity, with many of its residents staying all four years. However, in 2005 the university decided to limit Bowles to freshmen because of complaints that it had become too raucous and was jeopardizing the learning environment. Bowles Hall was once ranked as one of Playboy magazine's top-10 college parties during Halloween, however the university within the past few years has cracked down on this activity. Currently, the residence is being courted by the Haas School of Businessmarker to become housing for scholars and business professionals who visit Berkeley. There was a great deal of opposition to this plan and since then the school has backed down from that decision.

Family student housing consists of two main groups of housing: University Villagemarker and Smyth-Fernwald. University Village is located three miles (5 km) north-west of campus in Albany, Californiamarker. The demolition of older buildings and their subsequent replacement with new, more expensive apartment units has prompted student protests. The Village Residents Association, a funding and advocacy group in University Village, filmed a video documentary regarding the lack of affordable student family housing in June, 2007. Smyth-Fernwald is scheduled for demolition in 2010.

Organization and administration

Berkeley is the oldest of the ten major campuses affiliated with the University of California. The University of California is governed by a 26-member Board of Regents, 18 of which are appointed by the Governor of California to 12-year terms, 7 serving as ex officio members, and a single student regent. The position of Chancellor was created in 1952 to lead individual campuses. The Board appointed Robert J. Birgeneau to be the 9th Chancellor of the university in 2004. 12 vice chancellors report directly to the Chancellor. The Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost serves as the chief academic officer and is the office to which the deans of the 14 colleges and schools report.

Berkeley's 130-plus academic departments and programs are organized into 14 colleges and schools. "Colleges" are both undergraduate and graduate, while "Schools" are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate majors, minors, or courses.

The 2006-2007 budget totaled $1.7 billion; 33% came from the State of California. In 2006-2007, 7,850 donors contributed $267.9 million and the endowment was valued at $2.89 billion.

UC Berkeley employs 24,700 people directly and employees are permitted to unionize and are represtented by AFSCME, CNA, CUE, UAW, UC-AFT, and UPTE.

akshay salianBerkeley is a large, primarily residential research university. The full-time, four year undergraduate program offers 108 degrees in the arts and sciences and has high graduate coexistence. The graduate program is a comprehensive doctoral program with 64 masters programs, 96 doctoral programs, and 32 professional programs. Berkeley is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

Rankings

In 2009, U.S. News & World Report ranked Berkeley as the top public university among "National Universities" in the United States.

According to the National Research Council, 35 of 36 Berkeley graduate programs rank in the top 10 in their respective fields. Berkeley is the only university in the nation to achieve top 5 rankings for all of its PhD programs in those disciplines covered by the US News and World Report graduate school survey.

Berkeley's undergraduate program is ranked 21st among National Universities by U.S. News & World Report and 1st by The Washington Monthly.
U.S. News ranked the undergraduate programs in engineering and business second in the nation . Berkeley ranks 9th among universities that have produced the largest number of living billionaires.


The Shanghai Jiao Tong Universitymarker's Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Berkeley third in 2009 again. In the 2006 international edition of Newsweek, Berkeley was the fifth-ranked global university, and the Center for Measuring University Performance placed Berkeley seventh among national research universities.

The Princeton Review ranks Berkeley as a college with a conscience and the 5th best value in public colleges.

Washington Monthly ranks Berkeley as the University doing the most public good. The rankings were based onsocial mobility, research done by the University, and service.

The College Sustainability Report Card, published by the Sustainable Endowments Institute, gave Berkeley a B in 2009 for its efforts in environmental sustainability.

Student body

Demographics of student body
Undergraduate Graduate California U.S. Census
African American 4% 3% 6.2% 12.1%
Asian American 42% 17% 12.3% 4.3%
Caucasian 31% 42% 59.8% 65.8%
Hispanic American 12% 6% 35.9% 14.5%
Native American <1%></1%> 1% 0.7% 0.9%
International student 4% 18% N/A N/A


Berkeley enrolled 25,151 undergraduate and 10,258 graduate students in Fall 2008. Women make up 53% of undergraduate enrollments and 45% graduate and professional students. 90% of undergraduates and 62% of graduate and professional students are California residents. In the wake of Proposition 209, the plurality of Asian American students and under-representation of African-American and Hispanic students has received national attention.

Berkeley received 48,461 applications for admission to the undergraduate program in 2008; 10,474 were admitted (22%) and 4,261 enrolled (41%). 12,371 students from other colleges and universities applied for transfer admission in 2008; 3,232 were admitted (26%) and 2,012 (62%) enrolled. 97% of freshmen enrolled the next year, the four-year graduation rate was 61%, and the six-year rate was 88%. The average unweighted GPA of admitted freshmen in 2008 was 3.87 (4.35 weighted), and their SAT interquartile ranges were 620-730 (Reading), 650-770 (Math), and 620-730 (Writing). Berkeley's enrollment of National Merit Scholars was third in the nation until 2002, when participation in the National Merit program was discontinued. 31% of admitted students receive federal Pell grants.

There were 18,231 applications to masters programs with 20% admitted and 14,361 applications to doctoral program with 16% admitted.

The north side of Doe Library with Memorial Glade in the foreground.


Library system

Berkeley's 32 libraries tie together to make the fourth largest academic library in the United States surpassed only by the Library of Congressmarker, Harvard University Library, and Yale University Library. In 2003, the Association of Research Libraries ranked it as the top public and third overall university library in North America based on various statistical measures of quality. As of 2006, Berkeley's library system contains over 10 million volumes and maintains over 70,000 serial titles. The libraries together cover over of land and form one of the largest library complexes in the world. Doe Library serves as the library system's reference, periodical, and administrative center, while most of the main collections are housed in the subterranean Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library. The Bancroft Librarymarker, with holdings of over 400,000 printed volumes, maintains a collection that documents the history of the western part of North America, with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America.

Faculty and research

Berkeley's current faculty includes 227 American Academy of Arts and Sciencesmarker Fellows, 2 Fields Medal winners, 83 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 87 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 132 members of the National Academy of Sciencesmarker, 8 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Pulitzer Prize winners, 84 Sloan Fellows, and 7 Wolf Prize winners. 65 Nobel Laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty, alumni or researchers, the sixth most of any university in the world.

Sustainability

In 2009, UC Berkeley developed the Climate Action Plan, pledging to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by one-third, and eventually to achieve climate neutrality. The university tries to use as much post-consumer waste recycled copy paper as possible. The ReUse project allows for people to share unneeded office supplies and equipment. The Berkeley Green Campus Program is a student-led initiative, involving energy reduction challenges, light bulb swaps, and other programs designed to reduce the campus's eco-footprint. UC Berkeley's efforts toward sustainability earned the school a B on the College Sustainability Report Card; overall, the school's grades within the sections were high—it earned A's in the majority of the Report Card.

Student life and traditions

Sather gate and Sather tower (the Campanile) from Sproul Plaza on the UC Berkeley campus
The official university mascot is Oski the Bear, who first debuted in 1941. Previously, live bear cubs were used as mascots at Memorial Stadiummarker. It was decided in 1940 that a costumed mascot would be a better alternative to a live bear. Named after the Oski-wow-wow yell, he is cared for by the Oski Committee, whose members have exclusive knowledge of the identity of the costume-wearer.

The University of California Marching Band, which has served the university since 1891, performs at every home football game and at select road games as well. A smaller subset of the Cal Band, the Straw Hat Band, performs at basketball games, volleyball games, and other campus and community events.

The UC Rally Committee, formed in 1901, is the official guardian of California's Spirit and Traditions. Wearing their traditional blue and gold rugbies, Rally Committee members can be seen at all major sporting and spirit events. Committee members are charged with the maintenance of the five Cal flags, the large California banner overhanging the Memorial Stadium Student Section and Haas Pavilionmarker, the California Victory Cannon, Card Stunts and The Big "C" among other duties. The Rally Committee is also responsible for safekeeping of the Stanford Axe when it is in Cal's possession. The Chairman of the Rally Committee holds the title "Custodian of the Axe" while it is in the Committee's care.

Overlooking the main Berkeley campus from the foothills in the east, The Big "C" is an important symbol of California school spirit. The Big "C" has its roots in an early 20th century campus event called "Rush," which pitted the freshman and sophomore classes against each other in a race up Charter Hill that often developed into a wrestling match. It was eventually decided to discontinue Rush and, in 1905, the freshman and sophomore classes banded together in a show of unity to build The Big "C". Owing to its prominent position, the Big C is often the target of pranks by rival Stanford Universitymarker students who paint the Big C red and also fraternities and sororities who paint it their organization's colors. One of the Rally Committee's functions is to repaint The Big "C" to its traditional color of King Alfred Yellow.

Cal students invented the college football tradition of card stunts. Then known as Bleacher Stunts, they were first performed during the 1910 Big Game and consisted of two stunts: a picture of the Stanford Axe and a large blue "C" on a white background. The tradition continues today in the Cal student section and incorporates complicated motions, for example tracing the Cal script logo on a blue background with an imaginary yellow pen.

The California Victory Cannon, placed on Tightwad Hillmarker overlooking the stadium, is fired before every football home game, after every score, and after every Cal victory. First used in the 1963 Big Game, it was originally placed on the sidelines before moving to Tightwad Hillmarker in 1971. The only time the cannon ran out of ammunition was during a game against Pacificmarker in 1991, when Cal scored 12 touchdowns.

Other traditions have included events which span only a period of a few years. William (or Willie) the Polka Dot Man was a performance artist who frequented Sproul Plaza during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The Naked Guy (now deceased) and Larry the Drummer, who performed Batman tunes, appeared in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

A few current traditions include streaking during finals week in the Main Stacks, the Happy Happy Man, and Stoney Burke.

Student groups

UC Berkeley has over 700 established student groups.

UC Berkeley has a reputation for student activism, stemming from the 1960s and the Free Speech Movement. Today, Berkeley is known as a lively campus with activism in many forms, from email petitions, presentations on Sproul Plaza and volunteering, to the occasional protest. Political student groups on campus numbered 94 during the 2006–2007 school year, including Berkeley MEChA, Berkeley ACLU, Berkeley Students for Life, Campus Greens, Cal Berkeley Democrats, and the Berkeley College Republicans. Berkeley sends the most students to the Peace Corps of any university in the nation.

The IDEAL Scholars Fund was established by four alumni to increase the number of underrepresented minorities at UC Berkeley. The Fund tries to counter the perceived effects of California Proposition 209, which ended Affirmative Action in Californiamarker and in the University of California system. Some claimed there was a reduction in the numbers of Latino, African American and Native American students and rekindled their activism on campus concerning issues of race. However, supporters of Proposition 209 have noted that the number of Asian American students, a small minority group, has dramatically increased following its passage. Racial preferences remain a controversial topic, with some students supporting them while many others are opposed to what they see as reverse racism, especially against Asian American students.
Dance Marathon, one of the campus's student-led fundraising events.


The Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC) is the student government organization that controls funding for student groups and organizes on-campus student events. It is considered one of the most autonomous student governments at any public university in the U.S. The two main political parties are "Student Action" and "CalSERVE." The organization was founded in 1887 and has a budget of $2 million.

The Residence Hall Assembly (RHA) is the student-run residence hall organization that oversees all aspects of residence wide event planning, legislation, sponsorships and activities for over 6000 on-campus undergraduate residents. Founded in 1988 by the President's Council, it is now funded and supported by the Residential and Student Service Programs department on campus.

UC Berkeley's student-run online television station, CalTV, was formed in 2005 and broadcasts online. It is run by students with a variety of backgrounds and majors. It can be viewed at caltv.org.

UC Berkeley's independent student-run newspaper is The Daily Californian. Founded in 1871, The Daily Cal became independent in 1971 after the campus administration fired three senior editors for encouraging readers to take back People's Parkmarker.

Berkeley's FM radio station, KALXmarker, broadcasts on 90.7 MHz. It is run largely by volunteers, including both students and community members.

Berkeley Model United Nations is the oldest running high school Model United Nations conference in the nation holding an annual conference on campus with over 1500 high school students participating.

Democratic Education at Cal, or DeCal, is a program that promotes the creation of professor-sponsored, student-facilitated classes through the Special Studies 98/198 program. DeCal arose out of the 1960s Free Speech movement and was officially established in 1981. The program offers some 150 courses on a vast range of subjects that appeal to the Berkeley student community, including classes on The Simpsons, James Bond, Poker, South Park, Superman, Batman, The Iranian Revolution, conspiracy theories, political debate, meditation and DJing.

There are many a cappella groups on campus; two of the most popular are the UC Men's Octet and The California Golden Overtones. The UC Men's Octet is an eight-member a cappella group founded in 1948 featuring a repertoire of barbershop, doo-wop, contemporary pop, modern alternative, and fight songs. They are the only multiple time champions of the ICCA, having won the championship in both 1998 and 2000. The California Golden Overtones, founded in 1984, are the campus' only all-female a cappella group and have a very similar repertoire to the Octet. In 2001 the group placed second in the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella (ICCA). It is a tradition for every Berkeley a cappella group to perform under the campus' iconic Sather Gatemarker each week and the Octet and overtones are no exception; during the academic year you can hear the Octet every Wednesday at 1 PM and the Overtones every Friday at 1 PM with other groups performing at similar times on different days.

Fraternities and sororities

Athletics

Cal's sports teams compete in intercollegiate athletics as the California Golden Bears. They participate in the NCAA's Division I-A as a member of the Pacific Ten Conference. The official school colors, established in 1873 by a committee of students, are Yale Blue and California Gold. Yale Blue was chosen because many of the university's founders were Yale Universitymarker graduates (for example Henry Durant, the first university president), while California Gold was selected to represent the Golden State of California. Cal has a long history of excellence in athletics, having won national titles in football, men's basketball, baseball, softball, men's and women's crew, men's gymnastics, men's tennis, men's and women's swimming, men's water polo, men's Judo, men's track, and men's rugby. In addition, Cal athletes have won numerous individual NCAA titles in track, gymnastics, swimming and tennis. On January 31, 2009, the school's Hurling club made athletic history by defeating Stanfordmarker in the first collegiate hurling match ever to be played on American soil.

California finished in first place in the 2007-2008 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings (Formerly the Sears Cup), which measures the best overall collegiate athletic programs in the country, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports. Cal finished with 370 points.California finished in ninth place in the 2006-07 U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup. With 1030.00 points, this is Cal's highest point value in school history.California finished in sixth place in the NACDA Director's Cup standings, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports. With 865.5 points, Cal's seventh place finish is the highest in the school's history. Following the end of the 2008 season, California accepted an invitation to play the University of Miamimarker in the December 27 Emerald Bowl.

California-Stanford rivalry

The Golden Bears' traditional arch-rivalry is with the Stanfordmarker Cardinal. The most anticipated sporting event between the two universities is the annual football game dubbed the Big Game, and it is celebrated with spirit events on both campuses. Since 1933, the winner of the Big Game has been awarded custody of the Stanford Axe.

One of the most famous moments in Big Game history occurred during the 85th Big Game on November 20, 1982. In what has become known as "the band play" or simply The Play, Cal scored the winning touchdown in the final seconds with a kickoff return that involved a series of laterals and the Stanford marching band rushing onto the field.

National championships

Berkeley teams have won national championships in baseball (2), men's basketball (2), men's crew (15), women's crew (3), football (3), men's golf (1), men's gymnastics (4), men's lacrosse (1), men's rugby (24), softball (1), men's swimming (2), women's swimming (1), men's tennis (1), men's track & field (1), and men's water polo (13).

Notable people

Image:Earl Warren.jpg|14th Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren, BA 1912, J.D. 1914File:Steven Chu official DOE portrait crop.jpg|Steven Chu, Ph.D. 1976, Nobel laureate and current United States Secretary of EnergyImage:Norman Mineta, official portrait, DOT.jpg|Norman Mineta, BS 1953, 14th United States Secretary of Transportation and namesake of the Mineta San Jose International AirportmarkerImage:Crown Prince Håkon (50).jpg|Haakon Magnus, Crown Prince of Norway (center), BA 1999Image:Granholm speaking to troops, Lansing, 1 Dec, 2005.jpg|First female Governor of Michigan Jennifer Granholm, BA 1984Image:Stevewozniak.jpg|Steve Wozniak, BS 1986, co-founder of Apple ComputermarkerImage:Gordon Moore.jpg|Gordon Moore, BS 1950, co-founder of semiconductor company IntelmarkerImage:Thomas Schelling.jpg|Thomas Schelling, BA 1944, Nobel laureateImage:Hamilton Smith.jpg|Hamilton O. Smith, BA 1952, Nobel laureateImage:Robert_Laughlin,_Stanford_University.jpg|Robert Laughlin, BA 1972, Nobel laureateImage:Andrew_Fire,_Stanford_University.jpg|Andrew Fire, BA 1978, Nobel laureateImage:Scott Dana small.jpg|Dana Scott, BS 1954, recipient of the Turing Award (the "Nobel Prize of computer science")Image:Ken n dennis.jpg|Turing Award laureate Ken Thompson (left), BS 1965, MS 1966, with fellow laureate and colleague Dennis Ritchie (right); together, they created UnixImage:3-Tastenmaus Microsoft.jpg|The computer mouse was invented by Turing Award laureate Doug Engelbart, B. Eng. 1952, Ph.D. 1955Image:JayMiner1990.jpg|Jay Miner, BS 1959, "father of the Amiga computer"Image:Gregory Peck in Roman Holiday trailer cropped.jpg|Academy Award winning actor Gregory Peck, BA 1939Image:Frieda Lee Mock.jpg|Academy Award winning documentary director Freida Lee Mock, BA 1961Image:KathyBaker.jpg|Emmy- and Golden Globe Award- award winning actress Kathy Baker, BA 1977Image:Scott Adams.jpg|Scott Adams, MBA 1986, creator of the comic strip DilbertImage:StephanJenkins-May06.jpg|Singer Stephan Jenkins, BA 1987, of Third Eye BlindImage:Jadepuget.jpg|Guitarist Jade Puget, BA 1996, of AFIImage:Natalie_Coughlin.png|Natalie Coughlin, BA 2005, Olympic gold medalistImage:Mosley.2005.jpg|Jonny Moseley, BA 2007, Olympic gold medalistImage:Tom_Anderson.jpg|Tom Anderson, BA 1998, Co-founder and president of MySpaceImage:Glen edwards.jpg|Captain Glen Edwards, BS 1941, namesake of Edwards Air Force Basemarker (where the space shuttle has landed 53 times )Image:Vanhoften-jda.jpg|Astronaut James van Hoften, BS 1966Image:MRSeddon.jpg|Astronaut Margaret Rhea Seddon, BS 1970Image:Leroy Chiao Astronaut.jpg|First Chinese-American astronaut Leroy Chiao, BS 1983Image:Rex Walheim.jpg|Astronaut Rex Walheim, BS 1984Image:Charles simonyi.jpg|First repeat space tourist and Microsoft billionaire Charles Simonyi, BS 1972Image:Roxann Dawson.JPG|Roxann Dawson, BA 1980, actress (B'Elanna Torres on the television series Star Trek: Voyager), director, author, and playwrightImage:Chris Pine at WonderCon 2009.JPG|Chris Pine, BA 2002, actor (Captain James T. Kirk in the 2009 movie Star Trek)Image:John Cho 2008.jpg|John Cho, BA 1996, actor (Hikaru Sulu in the 2009 movie Star Trek)Image:Alice Waters at Viader Vinyards, Napa.jpg|Celebrity chef Alice Waters, BA 1967, founder of Chez Panissemarker and the originator of California cuisine; food activist in the slow food movementImage:Gilbreth 01.jpg|Lillian Moller Gilbreth, BA 1900, MA 1902, industrial/organizational psychologist and subject of the book (and film) Cheaper by the Dozen

26 alumni and 25 past and present full-time faculty are counted among the 65 Nobel laureates associated with the university. The Turing Award, the "Nobel Prize of computer science" has been awarded to eight alumni. Undergraduate alumni have founded or co-founded such companies as Intelmarker, LSI Logic, Apple Computermarker, The Gap, Berkeley Systems, Bolt, Beranek and Newman (which created a number of underlying technologies that govern the Internet), Chez Panissemarker, GrandCentral (known now as Google Voice), Advent Software, HTC Corporation, VIA Technologies, Marvell Technology Group, MoveOn.org, MySpace, PowerBar, Opsware, RedOctane, SanDisk, Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker, VMWare, and Zilog, while graduate school alumni have co-founded companies such as DHL, KeyHole Inc (known now as Google Earth), Sun Microsystems, and The Learning Company.

Berkeley alumni nurtured a number of key technologies associated with the personal computer and the development of the Internet. Unix was created by alumnus Ken Thompson (BS 1965, MS 1966) along with colleague Dennis Ritchie. Alumni such as L. Peter Deutsch (PhD 1973), Butler Lampson (PhD 1967), and Charles P. Thacker (BS 1967) worked with Ken Thompson on Project Genie and then formed the ill-fated US Department of Defensemarker-funded Berkeley Computer Corporation (BCC), which was scattered throughout the Berkeley campus in non-descript offices to avoid anti-war protestors. After BCC failed, Deutsch, Lampson, and Thacker joined Xerox PARCmarker, where they developed a number of pioneering computer technologies culminating in the Xerox Alto that inspired the Apple Macintosh; in particular, the Alto used a computer mouse, which had been invented by Doug Engelbart (B.Eng 1952, Ph.D. 1955). Thompson, Lampson, and Engelbart would all later receive a Turing Award. Also at Xerox PARC was Ronald V. Schmidt (BS 1966, MS 1968, PhD 1971), who became known as "the man who brought Ethernet to the masses". Another Xerox PARC researcher, Charles Simonyi (BS 1972), pioneered the first WYSIWIG word processor program and was recruited personally by Bill Gates to join the fledgling company known as Microsoft to create Microsoft Word. Simonyi later became the first repeat space tourist, blasting off on Russian Soyuz rockets to work at the International Space Station orbiting the earth.

In 1977, a graduate student in the computer science department named Bill Joy (MS 1982) assembled the original Berkeley Software Distribution, commonly known as BSD Unix. Joy, who went on to co-found Sun Microsystems, also developed the original version of the terminal console editor vi, while Ken Arnold (BA 1985) created Curses, a terminal control library for Unix-like systems that enables the construction of text user interface applications. Working alongside Joy at Berkeley were undergraduates William Jolitz (BS 1997) and his future wife Lynne Jolitz (BA 1989), who together created 386BSD, which is a flavor of BSD Unix that could run on Intelmarker CPUs and which later evolved into the Darwin operating system for the Apple Macintosh's Mac OS X. Eric Allman (BS 1977, MS 1980) created SendMail, a Unix mail transfer agent which delivers 70% of the email in the world.

The XCF, an undergraduate research group located in Soda Hall, has been responsible for a number of notable software projects, including GTK+ (created by Peter Mattis, BS 1997), The GIMP (Spencer Kimball, BS 1996), and the initial diagnosis of the Morris worm. In 1992 Pei-Yuan Wei, an undergraduate at the XCF, created ViolaWWW, one of the first graphical web browsers. ViolaWWW was the first browser to have embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables. In the spirit of Open Source, he donated the code to Sun Microsystems, inspiring Java applets( Kim Polese (BS 1984) was the original product manager for Java at Sun Microsystems.) ViolaWWW also inspired researchers at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications to create the Mosaic web browser, a pioneering web browser which became Microsoft Internet Explorer.

Alumni have participated in various aspects of the film and television industry, such as producing, directing, screen-writing, costume design, and acting. Jeffrey Berg (BA 1969) is the president of International Creative Management, a talent agency that has represented clients such as Julia Roberts, Cameron Diaz, Denzel Washington, Mel Gibson, Michelle Pfeiffer, and Richard Gere.

Collectively, alumni have won at least eleven Academy Awards. Gregory Peck (BA 1939), nominated for four Oscar during his career, won an Oscar for acting in To Kill a Mockingbird. Walter Plunkett (BA 1923 ) won an Oscar for costume design and Freida Lee Mock (BA 1961) won an Oscar for documentary filmmaking. Edith Head (BA 1918), who was nominated for 34 Oscars during her career, won eight Oscars for costume design.

Alumni have collectively won over twenty-one Emmy Awards: Jon Else (BA 1968) for cinematography; Andrew Schneider (BA 1973) for screenwriting; Linda Schacht (BA 1966, MA 1981), two for broadcast journalism; Kathy Baker (BA 1977), three for acting; Ken Milnes (BS 1977), four for broadcasting technology; and Leroy Sievers (BA), twelve for production.

Alumni have acted in classic television series that are still broadcast on TV today. Karen Grassle (BA 1965) played the mother Caroline Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie, a television series about the pioneer days of America's frontier past. Jerry Mathers (BA 1974) starred in Leave it to Beaver as the title character set in 1950's suburbia. Roxann Dawson (BA 1980) portrayed B'Elanna Torres on Star Trek: Voyager , a television series about the distant future in outer space (the "final frontier").

Alumni have written novels and screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber talent. Irving Stone (BA 1923) wrote the novel Lust for Life which was later made into an Academy Award-winning film of the same name starring Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh. Stone also wrote The Agony and the Ecstasy , which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar winner Charleton Heston as Michelangelo. Mona Simpson (BA 1979) wrote the novel Anywhere But Here, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-winning actress Susan Sarandon. Terry McMillan (BA 1986) wrote How Stella Got Her Groove Back, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-nominated actress Angela Bassett. Randi Mayem Singer (BA 1979) wrote the screenplay for Mrs. Doubtfire, which starred Oscar winning actor Robin Williams and Oscar winning actress Sally Field. Audrey Wells (BA 1981) wrote the screenplay The Truth About Cats & Dogs, which starred Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman. James Schamus (BA 1982, MA 1987, PhD 2003) has collaborated on screenplays with Oscar winning director Ang Lee on the Academy Award winning movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Brokeback Mountain.

Former undergraduates have participated in the contemporary music industry, such as Grateful Dead bass guitarist Phil Lesh, The Police drummer Stewart Copeland, Rolling Stone Magazine founder Jann Wenner, The Bangles lead singer Susanna Hoffs (BA 1980), Counting Crows lead singer Adam Duritz, MTV correspondent Suchin Pak (BA 1997), AFI musicians Davey Havok and Jade Puget (BA 1996), and solo artist Marié Digby (Say It Again). People Magazine included Third Eye Blind lead singer and songwriter Stephan Jenkins (BA 1987) in the magazine's list of "50 Most Beautiful People".

Alumni have also participated in the world of sports. Tennis athlete Helen Wills Moody (BA 1925) won 31 Grand Slam titles, including eight singles titles at Wimbledonmarker. Tarik Glenn (BA 1999) is a Super Bowl XLI champion. Michele Tafoya (BA 1988) is a sports television reporter for ABC Sports and ESPN. Sports agent Leigh Steinberg ( BA 1970, JD 1973) has represented professional athletes such as Steve Young, Troy Aikman, and Oscar de la Hoya; Steinberg has been called the real-life inspiration for the title character in the Oscar-winning film Jerry Maguire (portrayed by Tom Cruise). Matt Biondi (BA 1988) won eight Olympic gold medals during his swimming career, in which he participated in three different Olympics. At the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Natalie Coughlin (BA 2005) became the first American female athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympics. (A panel of Sports Illustrated's swimsuit models voted Coughlin as one of the Top 20 Best-Looking Female Athletes.)

Alumni have also participated in scientific research. Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules. Nobel laureate William F. Giauque (BS 1920, PhD 1922) investigated chemical thermodynamics, Nobel laureate Willard Libby (BS 1931, PhD 1933) pioneered radiocarbon dating, Nobel laureate Willis Lamb (BS 1934, PhD 1938) examined the hydrogen spectrum, Nobel laureate Hamilton O. Smith (BA 1952) applied restriction enzymes to molecular genetics, Nobel laureate Robert Laughlin (BA math 1972) explored the fractional quantum Hall effect, and Nobel laureate Andrew Fire (BA math 1978) helped to discover RNA interference-gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg (PhD 1937) collaborated with Albert Ghiorso (BS 1913) to discover 12 chemical elements, such as Americium, Berkelium, and Californium. Carol Greider (PhD 1987), professor of molecular biology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer.

Other alumni have turned their gaze to the galactic universe. John N. Bahcall (BS 1956) worked on the Standard Solar Model and the Hubble Space Telescope, resulting in a National Medal of Science. Peter Smith (BS 1969) was the principal investigator and project leader for the $420 million NASAmarker robotic explorer Phoenix, which physically confirmed the presence of water on the planet Mars for the first time. Astronauts James van Hoften (BS 1966), Margaret Rhea Seddon (BA 1970), Leroy Chiao (BS 1983), and Rex Walheim (BS 1984) have physically reached out to the stars, orbiting the earth in NASAmarker's fleet of space shuttles.

Although Apple Computermarker co-founder Steve Wozniak (BS 1986) has not (yet) blasted off to the stars, over 22 million Americanmarker television viewers tuned in to watch "The Woz" perform the cha-cha-cha on Dancing with the Stars.

See also



Notes

  1. Online Exhibit on the Hearst Architectural Competition
  2. UC Berkeley Strawberry Creek
  3. http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/08/29_stadium.shtml "Campus provides updates on Memorial Stadium Project and Student-Athlete High Performance Center"
  4. 01.11.2005 - New residence halls, new students arrive for spring semester
  5. housing.berkeley.edu
  6. Jackson House
  7. The Daily Californian
  8. contracostatimes.com: Haas eyes residence hall to house program
  9. BERKELEY / UC backs down on plan to convert dorm
  10. Affordable Student Family Housing - UC Berkeley
  11. U.S. News & World Report, 2009 Public University Rankings Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  12. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14321230/site/newsweek
  13. http://www.greenreportcard.org/report-card-2009/schools/university-of-california-berkeley
  14. See Demographics of California and Demographics of the United States for references.
  15. 06.20.2002 - UC Berkeley library is top-ranked among North American public university research libraries
  16. What's New in the Library
  17. 06.12.97 - New addition to UC Berkeley Main Library dedicated to former UC President David Gardner
  18. About UC Berkeley: Honors and Awards
  19. California Golden Bears - Traditions
  20. University of California Marching Band ~ About Us
  21. UC Rally Committee | Home
  22. Days of Cal | Bear Traditions
  23. California Golden Bears - Traditions
  24. California Golden Bears - Traditions
  25. 08.15.2002 - The quintessential campus cop
  26. USATODAY.com - Former Berkeley student known as 'Naked Guy' dies in jail
  27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Martinez
  28. Berkeley
  29. Student Action Webpage
  30. CalSERVE Webpage
  31. http://www.decal.org/courses/index.php
  32. http://grfx.cstv.com/photos/schools/nacda/sports/directorscup/auto_pdf/Jan.pdf
  33. http://grfx.cstv.com/photos/schools/nacda/sports/directorscup/auto_pdf/finald1standings.pdf
  34. http://graphics.fansonly.com/photos/schools/nacda/sports/directorscup/auto_pdf/0506D1June22Stand.pdf
  35. "Berkeley Unix worked so well that DARPA chose it to be the preferred 'universal computing environment' linking together Arpanet research nodes, thus setting in place an essential piece of infrastructure for the later growth of the Internet. An entire generation of computer scientists cut their teeth on Berkeley Unix. Without it, the Net might well have evolved into a shape similar to what it is today, but with it, the Net exploded."
  36. Deutsch was awarded a 1992 citation by the Association for Computing Machinery for his work on Interlisp( )
  37. L. Peter Deutsch is profiled on pages 30, 31, 43, 53, 54, 66 (which mentions Deutsch beginning his freshman year at Berkeley), and page 87 in the following book:
  38. L. Peter Deutsch is profiled in pages 69, 70-72, 118, 146, 227, 230, 280, 399 of the following book:
  39. Pei-Yuan Wei's contributions are profiled on pages 56, 64, 68, and 83, in the World Wide Web creator's autobiography ( )
  40. Jerry Maguire was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, and won for Best Supporting Actor (Cuba Gooding, Jr.).
  41. "The six medals she won are the most by an American woman in any sport, breaking the record she tied four years ago. Her career total matches the third-most by any U.S. athlete."
  42. Natalie Coughlin's Sports Illustrated photo is at
  43. For the week of March 9-15, 2009, Dancing with the Stars ranked third in viewership, with 22.83 million viewers. Two episodes of American Idol ranked first and second.


References



Further reading



External links




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