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Upminster is a suburban town in northeast Londonmarker, England and part of the London Borough of Haveringmarker. It is located east northeast of Charing Crossmarker and is one of the locally important district centres identified in the London Plan. It comprises a number of shopping streets and a large residential area. It was historically a rural village in the county of Essex and formed an ancient parish, that was abolished for civil purposes in 1934. Although peripheral to London, the town has good transport links; it was first connected to central London by rail in 1885 and has a station on the London Underground network. The economic history of Upminster is characterised by a shift from agriculture to garden suburb. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Upminster significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming part of Hornchurch Urban Districtmarker in 1934 and has formed part of Greater Londonmarker since 1965.

History

Toponymy

Upminster (parish) population
1881 1,202
1891 1,409
1901 1,477
1911 2,468
1921 3,559
1931 5,732
1941 war #
1951 13,038
# no census was held due to war
source: UK census
The placename Upminster is first recorded in 1062 as Upmynstre and is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Upmunstra. It is formed from Old English upp and mynster, meaning the large church on high ground. The high ground of the parish church being in relation to the valley of the River Ingrebournemarker and the Upminster Bridgemarker over the river shares the name.

Early history

There was an ancient farmstead from the 1st century to the 3rd century in the Upminster area. The parish has three early centres of activity; the village around the church and the settlements of Hacton and Corbets Tey.

Local government

Upminster formed an ancient parish of in the Chaffordmarker hundred of Essex. The parish vestry had meetings in the church until 1798, when they moved to the Bell Inn. The parish was divided into North and South wards by the Hornchurch to Cranham road. In 1836 the vestry lost control of poor relief and Upminster became part of the Romford Poor Law Union. In 1875 the parish became part of Romford rural sanitary district. Following the Local Government Act 1894, the sanitary district became Romford Rural Districtmarker and a parish council was formed of nine members. The parish formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933. In 1934 the parish council was abolished and Upminster formed part of Hornchurch Urban Districtmarker. In 1965 the urban district was abolished and its former area was combined with that of Municipal Borough of Romfordmarker; and since then has formed the northern part of the London Borough of Haveringmarker in Greater Londonmarker.

Urban development

The estates of Gaynes, New Place and Upminster Hall were purchased during the 17th century by merchants in the City of Londonmarker. This caused a significant number of buildings in the town to be constructed or improved. Upkeep of the three bridges crossing the Ingrebourne were the responsibility of Upminster, as the adjacent Hornchurch parish was in the Havering liberty and was able to exempt itself of responsibility because of its charter. The railway station in Upminster was opened in 1855 by the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway and following the building of the Whitechapel and Bow Railway, the services of the Metropolitan District Railway started operating to Upminster in 1902. Although the opening of the station was key to the development of the suburb, land was not purchased for development until were secured in 1901. The line to London was doubled by the addition of two new electrified tracks during in the 1930s and a new station was opened at Upminster Bridge.

The electricity supply was introduced in Upminster in 1926. Gas main supply came from Romfordmarker in 1872 and from 1905 there was gas street lighting. The area was served by good spring water, with mains supply provided by the South Essex Waterworks Company from 1836. Works on the sewerage system began in 1899 in Upminster village and Corbets Tey. In 1922 sewage works for Upminster and Cranham were opened in Great Warleymarker. Land for Upminster Park was purchased by the parish council in 1929.

Governance

Upminster constituency in Greater London
The town forms part of the Upminster UK Parliament constituencymarker, and is covered by the Havering wards of Upminster and Cranham. Each ward elects three councillors to Havering London Borough Council. All six councillors elected in 2006 for the two wards were the Upminster and Cranham Residents' Association candidates. From 1945 to 1974 Upminster formed part of the Hornchurch constituencymarker and from the next UK general election it will again join with Hornchurch as part of Hornchurch and Upminstermarker. Upminster is within the Havering and Redbridge London Assembly constituency and the London European Parliament constituency.

Geography

Map of Upminster and environs
Upminister rises to about above sea level to the north and is about above sea level to the south. It rests on a layer of loam, above sand and gravel in the south and London Clay to the north. It is bounded in the west by the River Ingrebournemarker and there is a stream running east-west, just north of Corbets Tey that has been dammed to form a lake. It has formed part of the continuously built-up area of London since the 1930s and is contiguous with Cranhammarker to the east and Hornchurchmarker to the west. To the north and south there is open land that forms part of the metropolitan green belt and there are open spaces formed by Upminster Golf Club and Upminster Hall Playing Field to the north, Upminster Park and Clock House Gardens to the south, and the Ingrebourne Valley linear park to the south west. The town is effectively divided into north and south parts by the railway line. The north is predominantly residential, with the southern part containing the main shopping area. Further south it becomes predominantly residential again. Upminster is a post town in the RM postcode areamarker; it forms a long protrusion over the M25 motorwaymarker and additionally includes North Ockendonmarker, also in Havering, and Bulphanmarker in Thurrock. Climate data for Upminster is taken from the nearest weather station at Greenwichmarker, around south west of the church:

Demography

Upminster compared (2001 Census)
Statistic Upminster Cranham Havering London England
Ethnic group
White 12,354 11,930 213,421 5,103,203 44,679,361
Asian 133 120 4,088 866,693 2,248,289
Black 59 64 3,139 782,849 1,132,508
Mixed 87 78 2,298 226,111 643,373
Chinese/Other 41 19 827 70,928 231,424
Population
Total 12,674 12,242 224,248 7,172,091 49,138,831
Density(/hectare) 5.62 18.67 19.97 45.62 3.77
Households 4,946 5,111 91,722 3,015,997 20,451,427
The Havering committee area for Upminster is defined as the wards of Upminster and Cranham. Demographic data is produced by the Office for National Statistics for these wards. All of Upminster is contained within these wards, however they also cover the connected settlement of Cranhammarker and the rural outlier of North Ockendonmarker. In 2001 the population of Upminster ward was 12,674 and Cranham ward was 12,242, giving a total population of 25,098. 80.95% in Upminster and 81.73% in Cranham report their religion as Christian, compared to 76.13% for Havering, 58.23% in London and 71.74% in England. 10.08% in Upminster and 10.46% in Cranham report having no religion, compared to 13.18% in Havering, 15.76% in London and 14.59% in England.

Transport

Upminster station north entrance, there is another above the platforms to the west
The town is served by Upminster stationmarker on the London-Tilbury-Southend Line and the London Underground, in Travelcard Zone 6. The western part of the town is also served by Upminster Bridge tube stationmarker. Upminster and Upminster Bridge are on the District line of the London Underground, with services to Richmondmarker, Ealing Broadway and Wimbledonmarker via central London. The station at Upminster is served by National Rail operators c2c and National Express East Anglia, with services to Fenchurch Streetmarker via West Ham; Shoeburynessmarker via Basildon; Southend via Chafford Hundred; and Romford via Emerson Parkmarker. There are Transport for London bus services to Hornchurch, Romford, North Ockendonmarker, Lakeside Shopping Centremarker and Cranham. To the south of Upminster is Damyns Hall Aerodromemarker. The A127 road to the north is the main radial artery to central London, with the A124 road terminating in the town. The M25 motorwaymarker is located about to the east of the town centre.

Culture

Upminster Windmill is located in a small open space called Windmill Field
Upminster is the location of Upminster Windmill, one of the few remaining mills in Greater London and Grade II* listed. There is also the Tithe Barn Museummarker, containing artifacts of domestic and agricultural use. In the west of Upminster is Hornchurch Stadiummarker, which is the home ground of A.F.C. Hornchurch. Upminster is often associated with Ian Dury and his 1981 album Lord Upminster is named after the town.

See also



References

External links




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