The State of Vermont ( ) is
a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
The state ranks 43rd by land area, , and
45th by total area. It has a population of 621,270, making it the
second least-populated state (with only Wyoming having fewer
residents). The only New England state with no coastline
along the Atlantic
Ocean, Vermont is notable for Lake Champlain (which makes up 50% of Vermont's western border)
and the Green Mountains, which run
north to south. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west,
and the Canadian province of Quebec to the
inhabited by Native American tribes
(Abenaki and Iroquois), much of the territory that is now
Vermont was claimed by France but became a
British possession after France's defeat in the French and Indian War.
years, the surrounding colonies
disputed control of the area (referred to at the time as the
New Hampshire Grants
especially New Hampshire and New York. Settlers who held land
titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which
eventually prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic, founded during the
Revolutionary War and
lasting for fourteen years; Vermont is thus one of five U.S. states
(along with Texas, Hawaii, New Hampshire, and the brief California Republic) to have, at one point, existed as its own
In 1791, Vermont joined the United
States as the fourteenth state, and the first outside the original
It is the leading producer of maple
in the United States. The state capital is Montpelier, and the largest city and metropolitan area is
No other state has a largest city as small
as Burlington, or a capital city as small as Montpelier.
Vermont is located in the New England region in the eastern United
States and comprises , making it the 45th-largest state. Of this,
land makes up and water comprises , making it the 43rd-largest in
land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is
larger than El
Salvador and smaller
Map of Vermont, showing cities, roads,
The west bank of the Connecticut
marks the eastern (New Hampshire) border of the state
(the river itself is part of New Hampshire). Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest
body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from
New York in the northwest portion of the state.
to south, Vermont is long. Its greatest width, from east to west,
is at the Canadian border; the narrowest width is at the
Massachusetts line. The state's geographic center is Washington, three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury.
The origin of the name Green Mountains ( ) is uncertain. Some
authorities say that they are so named because they have much more
than the higher White
Mountains of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York; others say
that the predominance of mica
, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, is the
reason. The Green Mountain range forms a north-south spine running
most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center.
southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the
In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the
fertile Champlain Valley
south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen.
Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine
ecosystems. These include Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington
Peak, the second-highest; Camel's
Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount
Abraham, the fifth-highest peak.
About 77% of the
state is covered by forest; the rest is covered in meadow, uplands,
lakes, ponds, and swampy wetlands.
Vermont administered by the National Park Service include the
National Historical Park (in Woodstock) and the Appalachian National Scenic
Although these towns
enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as
Largest towns (2003 estimated population):
- Essex —
- Colchester — 17,175
- Bennington — 15,637
- Brattleboro — 11,996
- Hartford — 10,625
- Milton —
- Springfield — 9,078
- Middlebury — 8,183
- Williston — 7,650
- St. Johnsbury — 7,571
- Northfield — 4,124
Vermont has a humid
, with warm, humid summers and cold winters
that are colder at higher elevations. It has a Köppen climate
of Dfb, similar to Minsk, Stockholm, and Fargo.
Vermont is known for its mud season
spring, followed by a generally mild early summer, hot Augusts, a
colorful autumn, and, in particular—its cold winters. The northern
part of the state, including the rural northeastern section (dubbed
the "Northeast Kingdom
"), is known
for exceptionally cold winters, often averaging 10°F (5.56°C)
colder than the southern areas of the state. The annual snowfall
averages between to depending on elevation,
resulting in a number of cross-country and downhill ski
. The annual mean temperature for the state is .
In the autumn, Vermont's hills display red, orange, and gold
foliage displayed on the sugar maple
cold weather approaches. This display of color is not due so much
to the presence of a particular variant of the sugar maple; rather,
it is caused by a number of soil and climate conditions unique to
highest recorded temperature was , at Vernon, on July 4,
1911; the lowest recorded temperature was , at Bloomfield, on December 30, 1933.
This is the lowest
temperature recorded in New England. The agricultural growing
season ranges from 120–180 days.
Monthly normal and record high and low
|Rec High °F(°C)
|Norm High °F(°C)
|Norm Low °F(°C)
|Rec Low °F(°C)
There are five distinct physiographic regions of Vermont.
Categorized by geological and physical
attributes, they are the Northeastern Highlands, the Green
Mountains, the Taconic
Mountains, the Champlain Lowlands, and the Vermont
The state contains 41 species of reptiles and amphibians, 89
species of fish, 193 species of breeding birds, 58 species of
mammals, more than 15,000 insect species, and 2,000 higher plant
species, plus fungi, algae, and 75 different types of natural
contains one poisonous snake, the Eastern timber rattlesnake, which is
confined to a few acres in western Rutland
By the mid-19th century, wild turkeys were exterminated in the
state through overhunting and destruction of habitat. Sixteen were
re-introduced in 1969 and had grown to an estimated flock of 45,000
Between 8500 to 7000 BC, at the time of the Champlain Sea
, Native Americans
inhabited and hunted in Vermont. During the Archaic period
, from the 8th
millennium BC to 1000 BC, Native Americans migrated year-round.
During the Woodland period
1000 BC to AD 1600, villages and trade networks were established,
and ceramic and bow and arrow
technology was developed. In pre-Columbian
Vermont, the western part of the
state was originally home to a small population of Algonquian
-speaking tribes, including the
peoples. Sometime between 1500 and 1600, the Iroquois
drove many of the smaller native tribes
out of Vermont, later using the area as a hunting
ground and warring with the remaining
Abenaki. The population in 1500 was estimated to be around 10,000
The first European
to see Vermont is thought
to have been Jacques Cartier
1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain
claimed Vermont as
part of New France
, and erected a fort
which was the first European settlement in Vermont.
a group of Dutch-British
settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at
Point west of present-day Addison).
permanent British settlement was established in 1724, with the
construction of Fort
Dummer protecting the nearby settlements of Dummerston and Brattleboro.
From 1731-4, the French constructed a fort which gave the French
control of the New France/Vermont border region in the Lake
The British failed to take the Fort St. Frédéric four times between
1755 and 1758. In 1759, a combined force of 12,000 British regular
and provincial troops under Sir Jeffrey Amherst
the fort. The French were driven out of the area.
Following France's loss in the French and Indian War
, the 1763 Treaty of Paris
gave control of
the land to the British.
The end of the war brought new settlers to Vermont. Ultimately,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York all contended for this
20, 1764, King George
III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New
York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of 45
Degrees north latitude. When New York refused to recognize land titles through the New
Hampshire Grants (towns created earlier by New Hampshire in present Vermont), dissatisfied colonists
organized in opposition, which led to the creation of independent
Vermont on January 18, 1777.
In 1770, Ethan Allen
, his brothers
and Levi, and Seth Warner recruited an
informal militia, the Green Mountain
, to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire
settlers against the new migrants from New York.
Independence and statehood
On January 18, 1777, representatives of the New Hampshire Grants
declared the independence of Vermont
. For the first six months of the
state's existence, the state was called New Connecticut
On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met to adopt
the name "Vermont." This was on the advice of a friendly
Pennsylvanian who wrote them on how to achieve admission into the
newly independent United States as the 14th state. On July 4, the
was drafted at the Windsor Tavern
adopted by the
delegates on July 8. This was among the first written constitutions
in North America
and was indisputably
the first to abolish the institution of slavery in its
constitution, provide for universal male suffrage and require
support of public schools. Slavery was banned by statute on
November 25, 1858.
The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal
event in the history of the state of Vermont.
combined American force, under General Stark's command, attacked
the British column at Hoosick, New York, just across the border from Bennington and killed
or captured virtually the entire British detachment.
Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered
the remainder of his 6,000-man force at Saratoga,
New York, on October 17.
Battles of Bennington and Saratoga are recognized as the turning point in the
Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of a
The anniversary of the battle is still
celebrated in Vermont as a legal holiday.
The Battle of Hubardton
1777) was the only battle fought in the territory and though the
Continental forces were technically defeated, the British forces
were damaged to the point that they did not pursue the Americans
(retreating from Fort Ticonderoga) any further.
Statehood and the ante-bellum era
Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in
the eastern town of Windsor for fourteen years. The independent
state of Vermont issued its own coinage from 1785-1788 and operated
a statewide postal service. Thomas
was the Governor in 1778-1789 and in 1790-1791. The
state exchanged ambassadors with France, the Netherlands, and the
American government then at Philadelphia. In 1791, Vermont joined
the Federal union as the fourteenth state, and the first to enter
the Union after the original thirteen colonies.
Vermont had a unicameral
The mid-1850s onwards saw a transition from Vermonters mostly
favoring slavery's containment, to a far more serious opposition to
the institution, producing the Radical Republican
and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens
. While the Whig Party
shriveled, and the Republican Party
Vermont strongly trended in support of its candidates. In 1860, it
voted for President Abraham Lincoln
giving him the largest margin of victory of any state.
The Civil War
During the American Civil War
Vermont sent more than 34,000 men into United States service.
Almost 5,200 Vermonters, 15%, were killed or mortally wounded in
action or died of disease, a higher percentage than any other
The northernmost land action of the war, the St. Albans Raid
, took place in
Postbellum era and beyond
The first election in which women were allowed to vote was on
December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage
and were first allowed to vote in town
elections, and then in state legislative races.
occurred in early
November 1927. During this incident, 84 people died including the
state's lieutenant-governor. Another flood occurred in 1973, when
the flood caused the death of two people and millions of dollars in
the US Supreme
Court forced “one-man, one-vote” redistricting on
Vermont, giving cities an equitable share of votes in both houses
for the entire country.
Until that time, counties had often
been represented by area in state senates and were often
unsympathetic to urban problems requiring increased taxes.
center of population of Vermont
is located in Washington County, in the town of Warren.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau
, as of 2005, Vermont has an
estimated population of 623,050, which is an increase of 1,817, or
0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 14,223, or 2.3%, since
the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last
census of 7,148 people (33,606 births minus 26,458 deaths) and an
increase due to net migration of 7,889 people into the state.
Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net
increase of 4,359 people, and migration within the country produced
a net increase of 3,530 people. In 2004, more than half of
Vermont's population was born outside the state.
It is the least populous state in New England. In 2006, it has the
second lowest birthrate in the nation, 42/1000 women. The median
age of the work force was 42.3, the highest in the nation.
In 2009, 12.6% of people over 15 are divorced. This is the fifth
highest percentage in the nation.
Race and gender
Vermont Population Density Map
Vermont's population is:
50 states and the District of Columbia, Vermont ranks:
Ethnicity and language
The largest ancestry groups are:
Residents of British ancestry (especially English) live throughout
most of Vermont. The northern part of the state maintains a
significant percentage of people of French-Canadian ancestry. Some
vestiges of a Vermont accent
but the population has become more homogenized around American
standard English in recent years.
According to the 2000 U.S. Census
, 2.54% of the population aged five
and older speak French
while 1.00% speak Spanish
In colonial times, like many of its neighboring states, Vermont's
largest religious affiliation was Congregationalism
. In 1776, 63% of
affiliated church members in Vermont were Congregationalists. At
that time, however, only 9% of people belonged to a specific church
due to the remoteness of population centers. The Congregational
United Church of Christ
remains the largest Protestant denomination and Vermont has the
largest percentage of this denomination of any state.
In 2008, over half of Vermont residents identify themselves as
. The largest single
religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church
. According to
Catholic Church had 147,918 members in 2000.
Twenty-four percent of Vermonters attend church regularly. This low
is matched nationally only by New Hampshire.
In 2008 thirty-four percent of Vermonters claimed no religion; this
is the highest percentage in the nation. A survey suggested that
people in Vermont and New Hampshire which were polled jointly, are
less likely to attend weekly services and are less likely to
believe in God (54%) than people in the rest of the nation (71%).
The two states were at the lowest levels among states in religious
commitment. About 23% percent of the respondents attended religious
service at least once a week (39% nationally). Thirty-six percent
said religion is very important to them (56% nationally).
Almost one-third of Vermonters were self-identified Protestants
. The largest Protestant
denomination in the state was the United Church of Christ
and the second largest is the United Methodist Church
members; followed by Episcopalians
"other" Christians, and Baptists
Joseph Smith, Jr.
and Brigham Young
—the first two leaders of
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
—were both born in
Vermont. A memorial to Joseph Smith, at his birthplace in Sharon
, is maintained by the LDS.
The state had 5,000 people of Jewish
3,000 in Burlington and 500 each in Montpelier-Barre and
Rutland—and four Reform
There are also two Chabad Houses in Burlington of the Orthodox
Lubavitch movement http://www.chabadvt.com/
Vermont may have the highest concentration of western-convert
in the country. It is home to
several Buddhist retreat centers.
The state is estimated to be home to 2,000 people of Islamic faith,
belonging to a wide variety of traditions.
In 2007, Vermont was ranked 32nd among states in which to do
business. It was 30th the previous year.
In 2008, an economist said that the state had "a really stagnant
economy, which is what we are forecasting for Vermont for the next
According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report,
Vermont’s gross state product
(GSP) was $23 billion. This places the state 50th among the 50
states. It stood 38th in per capita GSP. The per capita personal
income was $32,770 in 2004.
Components of GSP were:
- Government - $3,083 million (13.4%)
- Real Estate, Rental and Leasing - $2,667 million (11.6%)
- Durable goods manufacturing - $2,210 million (9.6%)
- Health Care and Social Assistance - $2,170 million (9.4%)
- Retail trade - $1,934 million (8.4%)
- Finance and Insurance - $1,369 million (5.9%)
- Construction - $1,258 million (5.5%)
- Professional and technical services - $1,276 million
- Wholesale trade - $1,175 million (5.1%)
- Accommodations and Food Services - $1,035 million (4.5%)
- Information - $958 million (4.2%)
- Non-durable goods manufacturing - $711 million (3.1%)
- Other Services - $563 million (2.4%)
- Utilities - $553 million (2.4%)
- Educational Services - $478 million (2.1%)
- Transportation and Warehousing - $484 million (2.1%)
- Administrative and Waste Services - $436 million (1.9%)
- Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting - $375 million
- Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation - $194 million (.8%)
- Mining - $100 million (.4%)
- Management of Companies - $35 million (.2%)
Canada was Vermont's number one external trading partner in 2007,
followed by Taiwan. The state had $4 billion worth of commerce with
One measure of economic activity is retail sales. The state had
$5.2 billion in 2007.
In 2008, 8,631 new businesses were registered in Vermont, a decline
of 500 from 2007.
The median household income from 2002-2004 was $45,692. This was
15th nationally. The median wage in the state in 2008 was $15.31
hourly or $31,845 annually.
About 80% of the 68,000 Vermonters who qualify for food stamps,
actually received them in 2007. 40% of seniors 75 years or older
live on annual incomes of $21,660 or less.
In the quarter ending September 2008, the state had the lowest
credit card delinquency rate in the country, 0.70%.
While the number of houses sold in the state has dropped from 8,318
in 2004, to 8,120 (2005), 6,919 (2006) and 5,820 (2007), the
average price has continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000
In the quarter ending September 2008, the state had the fourth
lowest mortgage payment delinquency rate in the country,
contributes $2.6 billion, about 12%, directly and indirectly to the
Over the past two centuries, logging has fallen off as over-cutting
and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's forest less
attractive. Loss of farms has had the beneficial effect of allowing
Vermont's land and forest to recover. The accompanying lack of
industry has allowed Vermont to avoid many of the ill-effects of
20th century industrial busts, effects that still plague
neighboring states. Today, most of Vermont's forests consist of
Of the remaining industries, dairy
is the primary source of agricultural income.
In the last half of the twentieth century, developers had plans to
and houses on
what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont's government
responded with a series of laws controlling development and with
some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy
In 1947 there were 11,206 dairy farms in the state. In 2003 there
were fewer than 1,500, a decline of more than 85%. The number of
cattle had declined by 40%. However, milk production had doubled in
the same period due to tripling the production per cow. In 2007,
there were 1,087 farms left, down from 1,138 in 2006. The number
has been diminishing by 10% annually. While milk production rose,
Vermont's market share declined. Within a group of states supplying
the Boston-NYC market, Vermont was third with a 10.6% share of the
market. In 2007, dairy farmers received a record $23.60 for of
milk. This dropped in 2008 to $17. The average dairy farm produced
1.3 million pounds of milk annually in 2008.
In 2009, there were 543 organic
. Twenty percent of the dairy farms were organic.
Twenty-three percent (128) vegetable farms were organic. Organic
farming incresed in 2006-7, but leveled off in 2008-9. Nor are any
expected for 2010.
A significant amount of milk is shipped into the Boston market.
Therefore the Commonwealth of Massachusetts certifies that Vermont
farms meet Massachusetts sanitary standards. Without this
certification, a farmer may not sell milk for distribution into the
An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the
manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty
items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand" which the
manages and defends. Examples of these specialty exports include
Cabot Cheese, the Vermont
Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of
Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries, ginseng growers,
Burton Snowboards, Lake Champlain Chocolates,
King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream.
In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple
syrup, about one-quarter of U.S. production. For 2005 that number
was accounting for 37% of national production. This rose to in
In 2000, only 3% of the state's working population was still
engaged in agriculture.
Wine industry started in Vermont in 1985. There are 14 wineries
Farms in the state were estimated to have hired 2,000 illegal
immigrants as of 2005. Local authorities have ignored the problem,
sympathizing with the employers about being able to efficiently run
, in Essex Junction, is Vermont's largest
for-profit employer. It provides 25% of all manufacturing jobs in
Vermont. In 2007 it employed 6,800 workers. It is responsible for
$1 billion of the state's annual economy.
An increasingly aging population is expected to improve this
industry's position in the state economy. In 2008, Fletcher Allen Health Care
the second highest employer of people in the state.
In 2007 Vermont was the 17th highest state in the nation for
mortgage affordability. However, in 41 other states, inhabitants
contributed within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household
income to a mortgage.
Housing prices did not rise that much during the early 2000s. As a
result, the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous
either. While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state
stood 50th (last, and best) in ratio of foreclosure filings to
households. While housing sales dropped annually from 2004 to 2008,
prices continued to rise.
In 2007, Vermont was best in the country for construction of new
energy efficient homes as evaluated by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency
under the Energy Star
program. However, about 60% of
Vermont homes heated with oil in 2008. In August 2008, the cost in
Vermont of various heating sources per 1 million BTU ranged from
$14.39 for cord wood to $43.50 for kerosene.
As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. 11% of these are
unionized.A 2007 survey claimed that Vermonters were the least
satisfied with their job in the nation and were the most likely to
be making plans to leave.
A modern high unemployment rate of 9% was reached in June 1976. A
modern low of 2.2% was measured in March 2002.
increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of
alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations
form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks,
thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining
a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered.
There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the
formation and operation of captive insurance companies.
to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2004 was the
world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies,
following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.
In 2008, there were 550 such
Tourism is a large industry in the state. In winter, the ski
resorts Burke Mountain, Stowe, Smugglers'
Notch, Killington Ski Resort, Mad River
Glen, Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay
Peak, Okemo, Suicide Six, Mount
Snow and Bromley host skiers from around the globe, although their
largest markets are the Boston, Montreal and New York metropolitan
areas. In the summer, resort towns like Stowe, Manchester, Quechee, Wilmington and Woodstock host visitors.
Resorts, hotels, restaurants,
and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round.
Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy. Trout
fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing
draw outdoor enthusiasts to the
state, as does the hiking on the Long
. In winter, nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel
the length of the state on the Catamount
. Several horse shows
events. Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf
courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract
According to the 2000 Census, almost 15% of all housing units in
Vermont were vacant and classified "for seasonal, recreational, or
occasional use". This was the second highest percentage nationwide,
after Maine. In some Vermont cities, vacation homes owned by
wealthy residents of New England and New York City constitute the
bulk of all housing stock. According to one estimate, as of 2009,
84% of all houses in Ludlow, Vermont
were owned by out-of-state residents. Other notable vacation-home
resorts include Manchester and Stowe.
In 2005, visitors made an estimated 13,4 million trips to the
state, spending $1.57 billion.
In 2008, there were 35,000 members of 138 snowmobiling clubs in
Vermont. The combined association of clubs maintains 6,000 miles of
trail often over private lands. The industry is said to generate
"hundreds of millions of dollars worth of business."
Hunting is controlled for black bear
. deer. and moose.
of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite
quarrying and carving in the U.S.
For many years Vermont was
also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the
Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. The first marble
quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset.Up
the western side of the state runs the "Marble Valley" joining up
with the "Slate Valley" that runs from just inside New York across
from Chimney Point until it meets the "Granite Valley" that runs
west past Barre, home of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest
granite quarry in America.Vermont is the largest producer of slate
in the country.Production of dimension stone is the greatest
producer of revenues by quarrying.
There were 2,682 non-profit organizations in Vermont in 2008, with
$2.8 billion in revenue.
The state ranked ninth in the country for volunteerism for the
period 2005-8. 35.6% of the population volunteered during this
period. The national average was 26.4%.
Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. Individual
communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of
coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines
services a number of small
towns. Two Amtrak
trains serve Vermont.
The state has of highways under its control.
For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont
89 - Runs northwestward from White River Junction to serve both
Montpelier and Burlington en route to the Canadian border.
- Interstate 91 - Runs northward from the
Massachusetts border to the Canadian border, connecting Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and
93 - Has its northern terminus at I-91 in St. Johnsbury and
connects the northern part of the state with New Hampshire and
Route 5 - Travels south to north along
the eastern border of the state, parallel to I-91 for its entire
length in the state.
Route 7 - Travels south to north along
the western border of the state. U.S. 7 parallels I-89 from
Burlington northward to the Canadian border.
Route 100 - Runs south to north almost directly through the
center of the state, providing a route along the full length of the
Route 2 - Crosses northern Vermont from
west to east and connects the population centers of Burlington,
Montpelier, and St. Johnsbury.
Route 4 - Crosses south-central Vermont
from west to east and connects the city of Rutland with Killington
and White River Junction.
Route 302 - Travels eastward from
Montpelier and Barre, into New Hampshire and Maine.
- Vermont Route 9 - A route
across the southern part of the state that connects Bennington to
A 2005-6 study ranked Vermont 37th out of the states for
"cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of thirteen places
Federal data indicates that 16% of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been
rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006. In 2007 Vermont
had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient bridges in
The state is served by Amtrak
, the New England Central Railroad
and the Vermont Rail System
Ethan Allen Express serves
Rutland and Fair Haven, while the Vermonter serves Saint Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier, Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls and Brattleboro.
Local community public and private transportation
Greyhound Bus Lines
Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Burlington, Montpelier, and White River
- Addison County has the ACTR (Addison County Transit Resources)
out of Middlebury, also serving Bristol and Vergennes.
- Bennington County features the GME (American Red Cross Green
Mountain Express) out of Bennington and the YT (Yankee Trails)
running out of Rensselaer, New York.
- Brattleboro in Windham county is served by the BeeLine
(Brattleboro Town Bus). Windham is served, out of West Dover, by the MOOver
(Deerfield Valley Transit Association, DVTA).
- Burlington has CCTA (Chittenden County Transportation
Authority) and CATS (University of Vermont Campus Area
- Colchester in Chittenden County is serviced by the SSTA
(Special Services Transportation Agency).
- Rutland County has the Bus (Marble Valley Regional
Transit District, MVRTD) out of Rutland.
- Windsor County:
- Ludlow (in Windsor County) is served by the LMTS (Ludlow
Municipal Transit System).
- Windsor is also served by Advanced Transit (AT) out of
- The CRT (Connecticut River Transit) out of Springfield, serves
parts of Windham County.
parts of Windsor
County, (Norwich, Hartford), White River Junction and in parts of New Hampshire there is a free
public transportation service called th Advanced Transit.
routes and many different lines all throughout the Upper
- Stowe, in Lamoille county, is serviced by STS (Stowe Trolley
System, Village Mountain Shuttle, Morrisville Shuttle).
- STS (Stagecoach Transportation Services) out of Randolph in
Orange County also serves parts of Windsor County.
Washington the Green
Mountain Transit Authority runs out
of the capital city, Montpelier.
- The Network (Northwest Vermont Public Transit Network, NVPT)
running out of Saint Albans, services Franklin and Grand Isle
- The RCT (Rural
Community Transportation) runs out of Saint Johnsbury and
services Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille and Orleans Counties. There is
a shuttle bus linking the various local networks.
- There is ferry service to New York State from Burlington,
Charlotte, Grand Isle, and Shoreham. All but the Shoreham ferry are
operated by the Lake Champlain
Vermont is served by two commercial airports:
- Burlington International
Airport is the largest in the state, with regular flights
to Atlanta, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, New
York City, Orlando, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Washington, DC.
Southern Vermont Regional Airport has regular flights to Boston.
2008 peak demand in the state was 1,100 megawatts (MW).
In May 2009, Vermont created the first state-wide renewable energy
While Vermont paid the lowest rates in New England for power in
2007, it is still ranked among the highest eleven states in the
nation; that is, about 16% higher than the national average.
In 2009, the state had the highest energy rates for energy
(including heating) in the US and the worst affordability gap
the state got 1/3 or 400 MW of its power from Hydro-Québec and 1/3 from Vermont
In total, the state got half its power from
Canada and other states. It got 75% of the power it generated in
the state from Vermont Yankee.
The state's two largest electric utilities, Green Mountain Power
and Central Vermont
Public Service Corporation
, together serve 80% of Vermont
Vermont experts estimate that the state has the capacity to
ultimately generate from 134 to 175 megawatts of electricity from
In 2006, the total summer generating capacity of Vermont was 1,117
megawatts. In 2005, the inhabitants of the state used an average of
5,883 Kilowatt hours of electriciy per capita.
Vermont has the highest rate of nuclear generated power in the
nation, 73.7%. As one result, Vermont is one of only two states
with no coal-fired power plant
All Vermont utilities get their power from lines run by ISO New England
. Each utility pays a share
of transmitting power over these lines. Vermont's share is about
The state has 78 hydropower dams. They generate 143 megawatts,
about 12% of the state's total requirement.
- Broadband coverage as of 2006
- Total Coverage = 87%
- Cable = 68%
- DSL = 69%
- Wireless Internet Service Provider = 24%
(Above percentages are of population, not of land area.)
Generally, cell phone coverage in the state outside of the major
metropolitan areas is weak due to interference from mountains.
Attempts to serve a small rural population living in a large area
renders investment in improvements uneconomical. Unicel
, which focused on rural areas and covered much
of the state, is now owned by AT&T.
In May 2007, Vermont passed measures intended to make broadband (3
mbits minimum) together with cellular coverage universally
available to all citizens with the intention of having the first
e-state in the Union by 2010.
In 2008 Comcast
started to extend additional
cable access throughout the state. In 2007, 2/3 of all Vermonters
had access to cable. At the end of this 2008 initiative, 90% of
Vermonters will have access.
Law and government
Vermont is federally represented in the United States Congress
senators and one representative.
The state is governed by a constitution
which divides governmental
duties into legislative, executive and judicial branches: the
Vermont General Assembly
the Governor of Vermont
Vermont Supreme Court
governorship and the General Assembly serve two-year terms
including the governor and 30 senators. There are no term limits
for any office.
The state capital is in Montpelier.
There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont:
towns, cities, and villages. Like most of New England, there is
slight provision for autonomous county government. Counties and
county seats are merely convenient repositories for various
government services such as County and State Courts, with several
elected officers such as a State's Attorney and Sheriff. All county
services are directly funded by the State of Vermont. The next
effective governmental level below state government are
municipalities. Most of these are towns.
Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced
budget requirement and yet Vermont has had a balanced budget every
year since 1991. In 2007, Moody's Investors
Service gave its top rating of Aaa to the state.
The state uses enterprise funds for operations that are similar to
private business enterprises. The Vermont Lottery Commission, the
Liquor Control Fund, and the Unemployment Compensation Trust Fund,
are the largest of the State’s enterprise funds.
In 2007 Vermont stood 14th highest out of 50 states and the
District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per
capita load of $3,681. The national average was $3,447. However,
CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the
percentage of per capita income. The rankings showed Vermont had a
per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of
Vermonters have been known for their political independence.
Vermont is one of four states that were once independent
nations (the others being
Texas, California, and Hawaii). It has sometimes voted contrarian
in national elections. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have
voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party
, and Vermont was one
of only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in all four of his
presidential campaigns (the other was Maine).
Vermont's history of independent political thought has led to
movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic
plans advocating secession
Historically, Vermont was considered one of the most reliably
in the country in terms of national elections. Prior to the 1990s,
Vermont had voted Democratic
only once, in
's landslide victory of
1964 against Barry Goldwater
. In the
late 19th and early 20th Centuries, Republican presidential
candidates frequently won the state with over 70% of the vote.
Republicans also dominated local Vermont politics from the party's
founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Prior to the 1960s, rural
interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities,
particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were
neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer
In the meantime, many people had moved in from out of state. Much
of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political
influences of the urban areas of New York and New England in
Vermont. In addition, a series of one
man, one vote
decisions made by the United States Supreme Court
in the 1960s required states to redraw their legislative districts
to more fairly reflect population. As a result, urban areas in
Vermont began to regain some political power.
These developments as well as the movement of the national GOP more
towards the political right shifted Vermont in favor of the
Democratic Party. In 1992, it supported Democrat Bill Clinton
for president, the first time the
state had done so since 1964, and has voted Democratic in every
presidential election since. Vermont gave John Kerry his
fourth-largest margin of victory in 2004. He won the state's
popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George W. Bush
taking almost 59% of the vote. Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only
county to vote for Bush.
Vermont is the only state that did
not receive a visit from George W. Bush when he was President of
the United States. In the 2000 Presidential Elections, Bush was the
first Republican in American history to win the White House without
carrying Vermont. Vermont gave Barack Obama his third largest
winning margin (37 percentage points) winning there 68%-31%. On the
other hand, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but
Windham in the 2006 election.
Today, Vermont is one of only two states represented by a member of
the United States Congress who does not currently associate with a
political party: Senator
political views as democratic
, but is officially registered as an independent and
caucuses with the Democrats
in the selection
of the Senate leadership.
After the legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote
in the 1960s, it passed legislation to accommodate the new arrivals
to the state. This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law
) in 1970. The law,
which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine
District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens,
appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and
subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the
state's environment and many small communities. As a result of Act
250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are now
four in the state, as of December 2008, but only the Williston
store was new construction).
A recent controversy was over the adoption of civil unions
, an institution which grants
same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage
at the state, but not federal, level. In
Baker v. Vermont
(1999), the Vermont Supreme
Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont
, the state
must either allow same-sex
or provide a separate
status for them. The state legislature chose the
second option by creating the institution of civil union
; the bill was passed by the
legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean
. In April 2009 the state legislature
overrode the governor's veto to allow same-sex marriage. In
September 2009, Vermont will become one of six states in which
same-sex couples can marry
In 2007, when confronted with an allegedly liberal issue, assisted
suicide for the terminally ill, the Democratic-controlled House of
Representatives rejected the measure by a vote of 82-63.
Minor parties flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller parties from
the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a result,
voters often have extensive choices for general elections.
A political issue has been Act
, which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in
the town of Killington trying to
secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax
A movement favors separating Vermont from the U.S. or making it the
province of Canada. Some suggest the state should
join Canada due to its liberal policies as opposed to remaining
with the U.S.
The Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a
person to walk (fish and hunt) on any unposted, unfenced land. That
is, trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically
The state is an alcoholic beverage control
. In 2007, through the Vermont Department of Liquor
Control, it took in over $14 million from the sale and distribution
Public health and safety
In 2008 Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the
healthiest place to live for the seventh time in eight years.
Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage,
the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors. The
state scored well in cessation of smoking, obesity, fewer
occupational fatalities, prevalence of health insurance, and low
infant mortality. A problem area was a high prevalence of binge drinking
. While ranking sixth from best
for adults in obesity in 2009, the state still had 22.1% obese with
a rate of 26.7% for children 10-17. The ranking for children was
ninth best in the nation.
In 2009, Vermont was ranked second in the nation for safety. Crime
statistics on violence were used for the criteria. Vermont has some
of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. A permit
or license is not required for the purchase or concealed carry
firearm (including handguns) by any law-abiding person.
In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the
country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years
of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest
In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway
fatalities. In 2007, a third of fatal crashes involved a drunken
driver. In 2008, Vermont was the fifth best state for fewest
uninsured motorists - 6%.
Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster areas
on 28 occasions from 1963 to
In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and
Bennington as counties with 70 parts of smog per billion which is
In northern Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including
in urban areas. They constitute a traffic threat since they are
unaware of vehicles. There are several deaths each year from
automobiles striking moose.
about 100,000 Vermonters got their health care through the federal
Tri-Care and the Veteran's
An additional 10,000 work for employers who
provide insurance under federal law under ERISA
. About 20% of Vermonters
receive health care outside of Vermont. 20% of the care provided
within the state is to non-Vermonters. In 2008, the state had an
estimated 7.6% with no medical insurance, down from 9.8% in 2005.
In 2008, the Vermont Health Access Program for low-income,
uninsured adults cost from $7 to $49 per month. A "Catamount
Health" premium assistance program was available for Vermonters who
don't qualify for other programs. Total monthly premiums ranged
from $60 to $393 for an individual. There was a $250 deductible.
Insured paid $10 toward each generic prescription. 16.9% of
residents 18 to 35 were uninsured, the highest group.
Health care spending increased from $2.3 billion in 2000 to $4.8
billion in 2009.
The state started air drops of rabies
in 1997. Known rabies
cases in raccoons peaked in 2007 at 165. The program is in
cooperation with neighboring states and Canada.
2008, The American State Litter Scorecard, presented at the
Society for Public Administration national conference, rated
Vermont along with Minnesota a topmost Best state for overall litter/debris
removals from public properties (roadways, streams, trails),
resulting in a high environmental quality status for
Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006. In
2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national
which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average.
This puts Vermont 11th best in the nation. Most states have a
higher bias. However, when allowance for race is considered, a 2007
US Government list of test scores shows Vermont white fourth
graders performed 25th in the nation for reading (229), 26th for
math (247). White eight graders scored 18th for math (292) and 12th
for reading (273). The first three scores were not considered
statistically different from average. White eighth graders scored
significantly above average in reading. Statistics for black
students were not reliable because of their small representation in
The average effective spending per pupil in Vermont was $11,548 in
Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh
, and later the
influence of Vermont born philosopher and educator John Dewey
brought about the concepts of
electives and learning by doing.
has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system,
of Vermont , fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges,
including Bennington College,
Burlington College, Champlain
College, Marlboro College, Middlebury College, a private, co-educational liberal arts college
founded in 1800, Saint Michael's
College, the Vermont Law School, and Norwich
University, the oldest private military college in the United
States and birthplace of ROTC, founded in
largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters, a single-A
minor league baseball
affiliate of the Washington
Nationals, based in Burlington.
They were named the Vermont Expos prior to
Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007
and 2008 American
Basketball Association national champions, are a franchise of
the Premier Basketball
League, and have been based in Barre and Burlington since the fall of 2006.
is home to a semi-professional football team, the Vermont Ice
Storm, based in South Hero.
It plays its home games at the Colchester
High School stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League
Vermont Voltage is a USL Premier Development
League soccer club that plays in St.
Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete
against New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State"
Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on
the Green, the Enosburg Falls Dairy Festival, the Apple Festival
(held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival
and the Vermont Mozart
. The Vermont
is supported by the state and performs
throughout the area. The Poetry Society of Vermont publishes a
literary magazine called The Green Mountain Troubadore
which encourages submissions from members of various ages. Every
year they hold various contests - one being for high school age
young people. The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual
summer Shakespeare festival.
Brattleboro also hosts the
summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates
Vermont's unique dairy culture. Montpelier is home to the annual
Green Mountain Film
In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre
weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.
Vermont's most recent best known musical talent was the group
, whose members met while attending
school in Vermont and spent much of their early years playing at
venues across the state.
The rate of volunteerism in Vermont was 8th in the nation with 37%
in 2007. The state stood first in New England.
State symbols include:
Vermont is distinct for being among only three U.S. states with
both a state seal
coat of arms.
Vermont is the
only U.S. state to have a heraldically correct blazon
describing its coat of arms.
Vermont is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge
and Chester A. Arthur
Notable fictional Vermonters
- National Geographic. Retrieved June 30,
- Google Books
- accessed September 15, 2007
- accessed September 15, 2007
- Vermont Online Encyclopedia retrieved May 28,
- Though this was tied by Black River, Maine in 2009
- National Gardening Association
- Burlington Weather|Burlington Weather
- Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department
William, Jr., Compiler. Vermont State Papers: Being a
Collection of Records and Documents Connected with the Assumption
and Establishment of Government by the People of Vermont, Together
with the Journal of the Council of Safety, the First Constitution,
the Early Journals of the General Assembly, and the Laws from the
Year 1779 to 1786, Inclusive.; Middlebury,
Vermont; 1823. Pps.13-19.
- Van Zandt, Franklin K.; Boundaries of the United States and
the Several States; Geological Survey Professional Paper 909.
Washington, D.C.; Government Printing
Office; 1976. The standard compilation for its subject.. P.63.
- Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints in
History Picton Press, 1977
- Barton Chronicle book review retrieved August
- Margaret Bucholt Manchester and the Mountains Chamber of Commerce
An Insider's Guide to Southern Vermont, Penguin, 1991
- National Weather Service - Burlington, VT - The
Flood of 1927
- 40.7 in 2005, US Census Community Survey
- undeclared ancestry. This was modified from "American" due to
contradiction. One who does not declare ancestry is not necessarily
American;one who does claim American ancestry is expressing
something distinct. "Undeclared Ancestry" appropriately accounts
for the one-to-many relationship of the statistic.
- accessed October 4, 2007
- Language Map Data Center
- The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps
-  . Retrieved July 29, 2008.
- 2001 Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia
- Buddhist retreat centers
- Vermont Edition: Vermont's Muslims
- Burlington Free Press . Retrieved June 30,
- List of U.S. states by GDP per capita (nominal) -
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Rankings tend to favor higher cost of living areas and downrate
lower cost of living areas
- Percentages may not add up to exactly 100% because of
- Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State
- Income 2004 - Three-Year-Average Median Household
Income by State: 2001-2004
- What Vermonters Earn . Retrieved August 23,
- Tied with North Dakota
- Craft Brewing Industry Statistics
- Figure includes the possible economic affect on all other areas
in addition to Agriculture. This explains the wide variance with
the figure in GSP above
- Dairy Farm Numbers - Vermont Dairy
- called "federal order one"
- New York has 44.9%, Pennsylvania has 32.9%
- LeClair vs Saunders. Retrieved April 21,
- Burlington Free Press,June 18, 2009, page 17B, "Bumper season
for sugar makers"
- Vermont dairy farms count on illegal
- America's Career Infonet. Retrieved February 3,
- The Burlington Free Press, February 28, 2007, page 8C,
"IBM:Enriching economy for 50 years."
- Unions Shrink Even in NY, Data Show
- A separate study shows over 325,000 workers in 2000
- Salary.com Job salaries- Performance reviews-
- Where Most Needed: Vermont Nonprofit Association
- Microsoft Word - ps360final.doc
- page 1B
- Greyhound.com : Locations : Vermont
- Advance Transit Home
- Vermont first state to pass renewable energy
- State Electric Profiles
- Data - Swivel
- Burlington Free Press.com Top Stories
- Cell Service in Vermont: Can't hear the tourist for
the trees Vermont Business Magazine | Find Articles at
- AT&T Buys Unicel: iPhone Finally Confirmed
Heading to Vermont | MacBlogz - One Stop Apple News
- A Synopsis of the extent of the measure to extend
- Bnet Business Network. Retrieved February 21,
- town offices
- State Balanced Budget Requirements: Provisions and
- Burlington Free Press, February 6, 2007, Business, page 7A,
Moody's gives highest bond rating to Vermont.
- State Auditor: Lottery is a highly visible
government activity August 3, 2007 by Tom Salmon, CPA, Vermont
State Auditor. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
- DatabankUSA,AARP Bulletin, April 2007, compiled from
figures from the US Census
- Tax-Friendly Places 2007 8 | CNNMoney.com
- These relatively small political movements are similar in
nature to those found in California, Hawaii, Louisiana, and Texas; although the historical contexts are
- Activists in Vermont town want Bush, Cheney subject
to arrest - CNN.com
- Powell, Michael.
Exceedingly Social, But Doesn't Like Parties. The Washington
Post November 5, 2006.
- Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Life-
- The others are Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Maine and New
- It's sudden death in Vermont for assisted suicide
- Killington Secession Not Too Popular in VT New Hampshire
- CNN.com - Killington residents vote to secede from
Vermont - [[March 4, 2004]
- Vermont Canada retrieved on June 6, 2007
- retrieved on June 6, 2007
- Vermont Constitution retrieved May 29,
- 2007 Annual Report of the Department of Liquor
- Healthiest States 2007 - AOL Money &
- Morgan Quitno Press
- Selected Vermont laws governing the use and
possession of firearms
- Brady Campaign on Vermont gun laws
- South Lags In Report Card on Health Care - AOL
- Vermont information Times Daily, retrieved on
- Overberg, Paul,Hundreds of counties would fail smog
standards,USA Today, June 22, 2007
- Burlington Free Press . Retrieved June 30,
- Green Mountain Care Programs | Green Mountain
- S. Spacek, the American State Litter Scorecard, 2008.
- US Department of Education. Retrieved July 6,
- About Your 2008 School Taxes flyer sent with real
- Lake Monsters website
- Vermont Ice Storm Home Page
- The term "semi-pro" is somewhat misleading since League rules
prohibit paying team members. In fact, members pay to play.
- Middlebury Festival on the Green
- The Official Home of the Vermont Dairy Festival
- Book Review. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
- Albers, Jan Hands on the Land: A History of the Vermont
Landscape. MIT Press: 2000. ISBN 0-262-01175-1.
- Bryan, Frank, and John McClaughry. "The Vermont Papers:
Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale." Chelsea Green Publishing:
1989. ISBN 0-930031-19-9.
- Cohen, David Elliot, and Rick Smolan. Vermont 24/7. DK
Publishing: 2004. ISBN 0-7566-0086-3.
- Coffin, Howard. Full Duty: Vermonters in the Civil
War. The Countryman Press: 1995. ISBN 0-88150-349-5.
- Doyle, William T. "The Vermont Political Tradition and Those
Who Helped Make It." Doyle Publisher: 1987. ISBN
- Duffy, John J., et al. Vermont: An Illustrated
History. American Historical Press: 2000. ISBN
- Duffy, John J., et al. The Vermont Encyclopedia.
University Press of New England: 2003. ISBN 1-58465-086-9.
- Federal Writers'
Project of the Works
Progress Administration for the State of Vermont. Vermont:
A guide to the Green Mountain State. Houghton Mifflin:
- Grant, Kim, et al. Vermont: An Explorer's Guide. The
Countryman Press: 2002. ISBN 0-88150-519-6.
- Hunter, Preston. "Religion in Vermont". Adherents.com.
- Klyza, Christopher McGrory, and Stephen C. Trombulak. The
Story of Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History. University
Press of New England: 1999. ISBN 0-87451-936-5.
- Potash, P. Jeffrey, et al. Freedom and Unity: A History of
Vermont. Vermont Historical Society: 2004. ISBN
- Hall, Benjamin Homer, History of eastern Vermont 1858
- Meeks, Harold A. Vermont's Land and Resources, The New
England Press: 1968. ISBN 0-933050-40-2.
- Rodgers, Steve. Country Towns of Vermont. McGraw-Hill:
1998. ISBN 1-56626-195-3.
- Sherman, Joe. Fast Lane on a Dirt Road: A Contemporary
History of Vermont. Chelsea Green Publishing Company: 2000.
- Sletcher, Michael. New England. Westport, CT,
- Vermont Atlas & Gazetteer. DeLorme: 2000. ISBN
Maps and Demographics
Tourism & recreation
Culture & history