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The Viceroyalty of the Caucasus is a term used to denote the Imperial Russianmarker administrative and political authority in the Caucasus region exercised through the offices of glavnoupravlyayushchiy ( ) (1801-1844, 1882-1902) and namestnik (наместник) (1844-1882, 1904-1917). These two terms are commonly, but imprecisely, translated into English as viceroy which is frequently used interchangeably with Governor General. More accurately, glavnoupravlyayushchij is referred to as High Commissioner of the Caucasus, and namestnik as Viceroy.

The office was established after the Russian annexation of Georgiamarker in 1801. General Karl von Knorring was first to assume this position, being officially titled as the Commander-in-Chief in Georgia and Governor General of Tiflismarker. The Viceroyalty later expanded to encompass the territories acquired by Russia in a series of wars with the Ottoman Empire, Persia, and the local Caucasian peoples. Headquartered at Tiflis (Tbilisi, Georgiamarker), the viceroys acted as de facto ambassadors to neighboring countries, commanders in chief of the armed forces, and the supreme civil authority, mostly responsible only to the tsar. From February 3, 1845, to January 23, 1882, the viceregal authority was supervised by the Caucasus Committee, which consisted of representatives of the State Council and the ministries of Finances, State Domains, Justice, and Interior, as well as of members of special committees. After the 1917 February Revolution, which dispossessed Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian crown, the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus was abolished by the Russian Provisional Government on March 18, 1917, and all authority, except in the zone of the active army, was entrusted to the civil administrative body called the Special Transcaucasian Committee or Ozakom (short for Osobyi Zakavkazskii Komitet, Особый Закавказский Комитет).

High Commissioners and Viceroys of the Caucasus


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