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The Vickers Vimy was a Britishmarker heavy bomber aircraft of the First World War and post-First World War era. It achieved success as both a military and civil aircraft, setting several notable records in long-distance flights in the interwar period, the most celebrated of which was the first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic Oceanmarker by Alcock and Brown in June 1919.

Design and development

Reginald Kirshaw "Rex" Pierson, chief designer of Vickers Limited in Leighton Buzzardmarker, designed a twin-engine biplane bomber, the Vickers F.B.27 to meet a requirement for a night bomber capable of attacking targets in Germanymarker, a contract being placed for three prototypes on 14 August 1917. Design and production of the prototypes was extremely rapid, with the first flying on 30 November 1917, powered by two 200 hp (150 kW) Hispano Suiza engines. It was named after the Battle of Vimy Ridgemarker.

Owing to engine supply difficulties, the prototype Vimys were tested with a number of different engine types, including Sunbeam Maoris, Salmson 9Zm water cooled radials, and Fiat A.12bis engines, before production orders were placed for aircraft powered by the 230 hp (170 kW) BHP Puma, 400 hp (300 kW) Fiat, 400 hp (300 kW) Liberty L-12 and the 360 hp (270 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII engines, with a total of 776 ordered before the end of the First World War. Of these, only aircraft powered by the Eagle engine, known as the Vimy IV, were delivered to the RAF.

Operational history

RAF service

By October 1918, only three aircraft had been delivered to the Royal Air Force, one of which had been deployed to France for use by the Independent Air Force. The war ended, however, before it could be used on operations. The Vimy only reached full service status in July 1919 when it entered service with 58 Squadron in Egypt. The aircraft formed the main heavy bomber force of the RAF for much of the 1920s. The Vimy served as a front line bomber in the Middle East and in the United Kingdom from 1919 until 1925, when it was replaced by the Vickers Virginia, but continued to equip a Special Reserve bomber squadron, 502 Squadron at Aldergrove in Northern Irelandmarker until 1929. The Vimy continued in use as a training aircraft, many being re-engined with Bristol Jupiter or Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar radial engines. The final Vimys, used as Target aircraft for searchlight crews remained in use until 1938.

Long distance flights

The Vimy was used in many pioneering flights.

  • The most significant was the first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic Oceanmarker by Alcock and Brown in June 1919 (their aircraft is preserved in the London Science Museummarker);
  • In 1919, the Australian government offered £10,000 for the first All-Australian crew to fly an aeroplane from England to Australia. Keith Macpherson Smith, Ross Macpherson Smith and two other men completed the journey in Darwinmarker on 10 December 1919 (their aircraft G-EAOU is preserved in a museum in Smith's hometown Adelaidemarker, Australia) ;
  • In 1920, Lieutenant Colonel Pierre van Ryneveld and Major Quintin Brand attempted to make the first England to South Africa flight. They left Brooklandsmarker on 4 February 1920 in the Vimy G-UABA named Silver Queen. They landed safely at Heliopolismarker, but as they continued the flight to Wadi Halfamarker they were forced to land due to engine overheating with 80 mi (130 km) still to go. A second Vimy was loaned to the pair by the RAF at Heliopolis (and named Silver Queen II). This second aircraft continued to Bulawayomarker in Southern Rhodesiamarker where it was badly damaged when it failed to take off. Rynevald and Brand then borrowed a Airco DH.9 to continue the journey to Cape Town. They were disqualified as winners but nevertheless the South African government awarded them £5,000 each.


Vimy Commercial

The Vimy Commercial was a civilian version with a larger diameter fuselage (largely of spruce plywood), which was developed at and first flew from the Joyce Green airfield in Kentmarker on 13 April 1919. Initially, it bore the interim civil registration K-107, later being re-registered as G-EAAV.

The prototype entered the 1920 race to Cape Town; it left Brooklandsmarker on 24 January 1920 but crashed at Taboramarker, Tanganyika on 27 February.

A Chinese order for 100 is particularly noteworthy, although a failure to pay interest from April 1922 probably led to the order not being completed. Forty of the 43 built were delivered to China but most remained in their crates unused, with only seven of these being put into civilian use.

Fifty-five military transport versions of the Vimy Commercial were built for the RAF as the Vickers Vernon.

Role in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War

After the First Zhili-Fengtian War, 20 aircraft were secretly converted into bombers under the order of the Zhili clique warlord Cao Kun, and later participated in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War.

During the Second Zhili-Fengtian War, these bomber versions of the Vimy Commercial initially were highly successful due to the low level bombing tactics used, with the air force chief-of-staff of the Zhili clique, General Zhao Buli (趙步壢) personally flying many of the missions. However, on 17 September, returning from a successful bombing mission outside Shanhai Passmarker, General Zhao's converted Vickers Vimy bomber was hit by the ground fire of the Fengtian clique in the region of Nine Gates (Jiumenkou, 九門口) and had to make a forced landing. Although General Zhao was able to make a successful escape back to his base, the bombers subsequently flew at much higher altitude to avoid ground fire, which greatly reduced their bombing accuracy and effectiveness.

After numerous battles between Chinese warlords, all of the Vickers Vimy eventually fell into the hands of the Fengtian clique, forming its First Heavy Bomber Group. These bombers were in the process of being phased out at the time of the Mukden Incident and therefore were subsequently captured by the Japanese, who soon disposed of them.

Vimy replicas

Vickers Vimy Replica, 2005


In 1969, a Vimy replica was built by the Vintage Aircraft Flying Association at Brooklands (this aircraft is now displayed at the RAF Museummarker, Hendon, London). A second flyable Vimy replica was built in 1994 by an Australian/American team led by Lang Kidby and Peter McMillan and this aircraft successfully recreated the three great pioneering Vimy flights: England to Australia flown by Lang Kidby and Peter McMillan (in 1994), England to South Africa flown by Mark Rebholz and John LaNoue (2000) and in 2005, Alcock and Brown's 1919 Atlantic crossing was recreated, flown by Steve Fossettmarker and Mark Rebholz. The aircraft was donated to Brooklands Museummarker in 2006 where is maintained in flyable condition, after its final ever flight into the museum on 15 November 2009.

Variants

  • F.B.27 Vimy: Prototypes; four built.
  • F.B.27A Vimy II: Twin-engine heavy bomber aircraft for the RAF.
  • Vimy Ambulance: Air ambulance version for the RAF.
  • Vimy Commercial: Civilian transport version. Powered by two Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII piston engines.


Operators

Military Operators



Civil Operators

  • The Government of Chinamarker (Vimy Commercial).
  • The Government of Spainmarker (Vimy).


Specifications (Vimy)

See also

References

Notes

  1. Jarrett 1992, p. 9.
  2. Mason 1994, p. 95.
  3. Mason 1994, p. 96.
  4. Thetford 1992, p. 32.
  5. Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 90.
  6. Mason 1994, p. 98.
  7. Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 93.
  8. Jackson 1988, p. 201.
  9. Jackson 1988, p. 202.
  10. Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 95.
  11. 我國最早航運機隊主力 -商用維美運輸機(Vickers Vimy Commercial in Chinese language) Retrieved: 15 March 2008.
  12. Jackson 1988, p. 203.


Bibliography

  • Andrews, C.F. and Eric B. Morgan. Vickers Aircraft since 1908, Second edition. London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-815-1.
  • Jackson, A.J. British Civil Aircraft 1919-1972: Volume III. London: Putnam, revised second edition, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-818-6.
  • Jarrett, Philip. "By Day and By Night: Part Six." Aeroplane Monthly Volume 20, No. 11, November 1992. London: IPC. p. 8–14.
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber Since 1914. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  • Thetford, Owen. "By Day and By Night: Part Seven." Aeroplane Monthly Volume 20, No. 12, December 1992. London: IPC. p. 30–38.
  • Winchester, Jim, ed. "Vickers Vimy." Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.


External links




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