Hugo ( ) (26 February 1802 â€“ 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human
rights activist and exponent of the
Romantic movement in
In France, Hugo's literary fame comes first from his poetry but
also rests upon his novels and his dramatic achievements. Among
many volumes of poetry, Les
and La LĂ©gende des siĂ¨cles
stand particularly high in critical esteem, and Hugo is sometimes
identified as the greatest French poet. Outside France, his
best-known works are the novels Les MisĂ©rables
and Notre-Dame de Paris
(known in English also as The Hunchback of Notre
Though a committed conservative royalist when he was young, Hugo
grew more liberal as the decades passed; he became a passionate
supporter of republicanism
, and his
work touches upon most of the political and social issues and
artistic trends of his time. He is buried in the PanthĂ©on.
The birthplace of Victor Hugo in BesanĂ§on]]Victor Hugo was the
third and last son of Joseph LĂ©opold Sigisbert
(1773â€“1828) and Sophie TrĂ©buchet (1772-1821); his brothers
were Abel Joseph Hugo (1798â€“1855) and EugĂ¨ne Hugo (1800â€“1837).
born in 1802 in BesanĂ§on (in the
region of Franche-ComtĂ©) and lived in France for the
majority of his life. However, he was forced into exile during the
reign of Napoleon III â€” he
lived briefly in Brussels during 1851;
in Jersey from 1852 to
1855; and in Guernsey from 1855 to
1870 and again in 1872-1873.
There was a general amnesty in
1859; after that, his exile was by choice.
Hugo's early childhood was marked by great events. The decades
prior to his birth saw the overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty
in the French Revolution
, the rise and fall of
the First Republic
, and the
rise of the First French Empire
and dictatorship under NapolĂ©on Bonaparte
. NapolĂ©on was
proclaimed Emperor two years after Hugo's birth, and the Bourbon
Monarchy was restored before his eighteenth birthday. The opposing
political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the
forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his
life: Hugo's father was an officer who ranked very high in
Napoleon's army. He was an atheist republican
who considered NapolĂ©on a hero; his
mother was an extreme Catholic
who is believed to have
taken as her lover General Victor
, who was executed in 1812 for plotting against
NapolĂ©on. Since Hugo's father, Joseph, was an officer, they moved
frequently and Hugo learned much from these travels. On his family's
journey to Naples, he saw the
vast Alpine passes and the snowy peaks, the
magnificently blue Mediterranean, and Rome during its
Though he was only nearly six at the time, he
remembered the half-year-long trip vividly. They stayed in Naples
for a few months and then headed back to Paris.
followed her husband to posts in Italy (where
LĂ©opold served as a governor of a province near Naples) and
Spain (where he took charge of three Spanish
Weary of the constant moving required by
military life, and at odds with her unfaithful husband, Sophie
separated temporarily from LĂ©opold in 1803 and settled in Paris.
Thereafter she dominated Hugo's education and upbringing. As a
result, Hugo's early work in poetry and fiction reflect a
passionate devotion to both King
. It was only later,
during the events leading up to France's 1848 Revolution
, that he
would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and
instead champion Republicanism and Freethought
Like many young writers of his generation, Hugo was profoundly
influenced by FranĂ§ois-RenĂ© de
, the famous figure in the literary movement of
and Franceâ€™s preĂ«minent
literary figure during the early 1800s. In his youth, Hugo resolved
to be â€śChateaubriand or nothing,â€ť and his life would come to
parallel that of his predecessor in many ways. Like Chateaubriand,
Hugo would further the cause of Romanticism, become involved in
politics as a champion of Republicanism
, and be forced into exile due to
his political stances. The precocious passion and eloquence of
Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age. His
first collection of poetry (Odes et poĂ©sies diverses
was published in 1822, when Hugo was only twenty years old, and
earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII
. Though the poems were
admired for their spontaneous fervor and fluency, it was the
collection that followed four years later in 1826 (Odes et Ballades
) that revealed Hugo
to be a great poet, a natural master of lyric and creative
Young Victor fell in love and against his mother's wishes, became
secretly engaged to his childhood friend AdĂ¨le Foucher
(1803-1868).Unusually close to his mother, it was only after her
death in 1821 that he felt free to marry AdĂ¨le (in 1822). They had
their first child LĂ©opold in 1823, but the boy died in infancy.
Hugo's other children were LĂ©opoldine
(28 August 1824), Charles
(4 November 1826), FranĂ§ois-Victor
(28 October 1828)
(24 August 1830). Hugo
published his first novel the following year (Han d'Islande
, 1823), and his second
three years later (Bug-Jargal
1826). Between 1829 and 1840 he would publish five more volumes of
poetry (Les Orientales
1829; Les Feuilles d'automne
, 1831; Les Chants du
, 1835; Les Voix intĂ©rieures
, 1837; and
Les Rayons et les ombres
, 1840), cementing his reputation
as one of the greatest elegiac and lyric poets of his time.
Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction appeared in 1829, and
reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later
work. Le Dernier jour d'un condamnĂ©
(The Last Day of a Condemned
) would have a profound influence on later writers such
as Albert Camus
, Charles Dickens
, and Fyodor Dostoevsky
. Claude Gueux
, a documentary short story
about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France,
appeared in 1834, and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a
precursor to his great work on social injustice, Les MisĂ©rables
. But Hugoâ€™s first
full-length novel would be the enormously successful Notre-Dame
Hunchback of Notre Dame
), which was published in 1831 and
quickly translated into other languages across Europe. One of the effects of
the novel was to shame the City of Paris into restoring the
much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame, which was attracting thousands of tourists who had
read the popular novel.
The book also inspired a renewed
appreciation for pre-renaissance buildings, which thereafter began
to be actively preserved.
Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice
as early as the 1830s, but it would take a full 17 years for
, to be
realized and finally published in 1862. The author was acutely
aware of the quality of the novel and publication of the work went
to the highest bidder. The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and
Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time,
issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the
launch. It also initially published only the first part of the
novel (â€śFantineâ€ť), which was launched simultaneously in major
cities. Installments of the book sold out within hours, and had
enormous impact on French society. The critical establishment was
generally hostile to the novel; Taine
insincere, Barbey d'Aurevilly
complained of its vulgarity, Flaubert
within it "neither truth nor greatness," the Goncourts
lambasted its artificiality, and
- despite giving favorable
reviews in newspapers - castigated it in private as "tasteless and
inept." Nonetheless, Les MisĂ©rables
proved popular enough
with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the
agenda of the French National
. Today the novel remains his most enduringly popular
work. It is popular worldwide, has been adapted for cinema,
television and stage shows.
The shortest correspondence in history is between Hugo and his
publisher Hurst & Blackett in 1862. It is said Hugo was on
vacation when Les MisĂ©rables (which is over 1200 pages) was
published. He telegraphed the single-character message '?' to his
publisher, who replied with a single '!'.
Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel,
Les Travailleurs de la Mer
(Toilers of the Sea
), published in
1866. Nonetheless, the book was well received, perhaps due to the
previous success of Les MisĂ©rables
. Dedicated to the
channel island of Guernsey where he
spent 15 years of exile, Hugoâ€™s depiction of Manâ€™s battle with the
sea and the horrible creatures lurking beneath its depths spawned
an unusual fad in Paris: Squids.
squid dishes and exhibitions, to squid hats and parties, Parisians
became fascinated by these unusual sea creatures, which at the time
were still considered by many to be mythical. The word used in
Guernsey to refer to squid (pieuvre
, also sometimes
applied to octopus) was to enter the French language as a result of
its use in the book. Hugo returned to political and social issues
in his next novel, L'Homme Qui Rit
(The Man Who Laughs
), which was
published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the
aristocracy. However, the novel was not as successful as his
previous efforts, and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing
distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as
and Ă‰mile Zola
, whose realist
novels were now exceeding
the popularity of his own work. His last novel,
), published in 1874, dealt
with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror
during the French Revolution
. Though Hugoâ€™s
popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many
now consider Ninety-Three
to be a work on par with Hugoâ€™s
Political life and exile
After three unsuccessful attempts, Hugo was finally elected to the
1841, solidifying his position in the world of French arts and
letters. A group of French academiciens, particularly Etienne de Jouy
was fighting against the
"romantic evolution" and had managed to delay Victor Hugo's
election . Thereafter he became increasingly involved in French
politics. He was elevated to the peerage by King
Louis-Philippe in 1841 and entered
the Higher Chamber as a pair de
France, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice, and in
favour of freedom of the press
and self-government for Poland.
However, he was also becoming more supportive of the Republican
form of government and, following the 1848 Revolution
and the formation of the
, was elected
to the Constitutional Assembly and the Legislative Assembly.
When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) seized complete power in 1851,
establishing an anti-parliamentary
, Hugo openly declared him
a traitor to France. He relocated to Brussels, then Jersey, and finally
settled with his family on the channel
island of Guernsey at Hauteville
House, where he would live in exile until 1870.
While in exile, Hugo published his famous political pamphlets
against Napoleon III, NapolĂ©on le Petit
Histoire d'un crime
The pamphlets were banned in France, but nonetheless had a strong
impact there. He also composed or published some of his
best work during his period in Guernsey, including Les
MisĂ©rables, and three widely praised collections of poetry
(Les ChĂ˘timents, 1853;
1856; and La
LĂ©gende des siĂ¨cles, 1859).
convinced the government of Queen
Victoria to spare the lives of six Irish people convicted of
terrorist activities and his influence was credited in the removal
of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva, Portugal and Colombia.
He had also pleaded for Benito Juarez
to spare the recently captured
emperor Maximilian I of
but to no avail.
Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in
1859, Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his
criticisms of the government. It was only after Napoleon III fell
from power and the Third
was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his
homeland in 1870, where he was promptly elected to the National
Assembly and the Senate.
He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian army in 1870,
famously eating animals given to him by the Paris zoo. As the siege
continued, and food became ever more scarce, he wrote in his diary
that he was reduced to "eating the unknown."
Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright
, he was a founding member of the
Association LittĂ©raire et Artistique Internationale
, which led
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic
Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his
life. In his youth, he identified himself as a Catholic
and professed respect for Church hierarchy
and authority. From there he became a non-practicing Catholic, and
increasingly expressed anti-catholic and anti-clerical
views. He dabbled in Spiritualism
exile (where he participated also in seances
), and in later years settled into a Rationalist Deism
to that espoused by Voltaire
census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic, and he
replied, "No. A Freethinker
Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Roman Catholic Church
, due largely to
what he saw as the Church's indifference to the plight of the
working class under the oppression of the monarchy; and perhaps
also due to the frequency with which Hugo's work appeared on the
Pope's list of "proscribed
" (Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les MisĂ©rables
the Catholic press). On the deaths of his sons Charles and
FranĂ§ois-Victor, he insisted that they be buried without crucifix
or priest, and in his will made the same stipulation about his own
death and funeral. However, although Hugo believed Catholic
to be outdated and dying, he never
directly attacked the institution itself. He also remained a deeply
religious man who strongly believed in the power and necessity of
can be found in poems
such as Torquemada
(1869, about religious fanaticism
Religions and Religion
(1880, denying the usefulness of
churches) and, published posthumously, The End of Satan
(1886 and 1891 respectively, in which he
as a griffin
as an angel). "Religions
pass away, but God remains", Hugo declared. Christianity would
eventually disappear, he predicted, but people would still believe
in "God, Soul, and the Power."
Victor Hugo and music
Although Hugo's many talents did not include exceptional musical
ability, he nevertheless had a great impact on the music world
through the endless inspiration that his works provided for
composers of the 19th and 20th century. Hugo himself particularly
enjoyed the music of Gluck
and greatly admired Beethoven
, and rather unusually for his time, he
also appreciated works by composers from earlier centuries such as
. Two famous musicians of the
19th century were friends of Hugo: Berlioz
. The latter played Beethoven in
Hugoâ€™s home, and Hugo joked in a letter to a friend that thanks to
Lisztâ€™s piano lessons, he learned how to play a favourite song on
the piano â€“ even though only with one finger! Hugo also worked with
composer Louise Bertin
, writing the
libretto for her 1836 opera La Esmeralda which was based on the
character in The Hunchback of Notre Dame
. Although for
various reasons the opera closed soon after its fifth performance
and is little known today, it has been recently enjoying a revival,
both in a piano/song concert version by Liszt at the Festival
international Victor Hugo et Ă‰gaux 2007 and in a full orchestral
version to be presented in July 2008 at Le Festival de Radio France
et Montpellier Languedoc-Roussillon.
Well over one thousand musical compositions have been inspired by
Hugoâ€™s works from the 1800s until the present day. In particular,
Hugoâ€™s plays, in which he rejected the rules of classical theatre
in favour of romantic drama, attracted the interest of many
composers who adapted them into operas. More than one hundred
operas are based on Hugoâ€™s works and among them are Donizetti
â€™s Lucrezia Borgia (1833), Verdi
â€™s Rigoletto (1851) and Ernani (1844), and
â€™s La Gioconda (1876).
novels as well as his plays have been a great source of inspiration
for musicians, stirring them to create not only opera and ballet
but musical theatre such as Notre-Dame de Paris and the
MisĂ©rables, London West
Endâ€™s longest running musical.
Hugoâ€™s beautiful poems have attracted an exceptional amount of
interest from musicians, and numerous melodies have been based on
his poetry by composers such as Berlioz, Bizet
, Liszt, Massenet
Today, Hugoâ€™s work continues to stimulate musicians to create new
compositions. For example, Hugoâ€™s novel against capital punishment,
The Last Day of a Condemned Man, has recently been adapted into an
opera by David Alagna (libretto by FrĂ©dĂ©rico Alagna). Their
brother, tenor Roberto Alagna
performed in the operaâ€™s premiere in Paris in the summer of 2007
and again in February 2008 in Valencia with Erwin Schrott as part
of the Festival international Victor Hugo et Ă‰gaux 2008. In
Guernsey, every two years the Victor Hugo International Music Festival
attracts a wide range of musicians and the premiere of songs
specially commissioned from Guillaume Connesson
and based on Hugoâ€™s
Declining years and death
returned to Paris in 1870, the
country hailed him as a national hero.
popularity Hugo lost his bid for reelection to the National
Assembly in 1872. Within a brief period, he suffered a mild
, his daughter AdĂ¨leâ€™s internment in an
insane asylum, and the death of his two sons. (His other daughter,
LĂ©opoldine, had drowned in a boating accident in 1843, and his wife
AdĂ¨le had died in 1868. His faithful mistress, Juliette Drouet
, died in 1883, only two
years before his own death.) Despite his personal loss, Hugo
remained committed to the cause of political change. On 30 January
1876 Hugo was elected to the newly created Senate. His last phase
in his political career is considered a failure. Hugo took on a
stubborn role and got little done in the Senate.
In February 1881 Hugo celebrated his 79th birthday. To honor the
fact that he was entering his eightieth year, one of the greatest
tributes to a living writer was held. The celebrations began on the
25th when Hugo was presented with a SĂ¨vres vase, the traditional
gift for sovereigns. On the 27th one of the largest parades in
French history was held. Marchers stretched from Avenue d'Eylau, down
the Champs-Ă‰lysĂ©es, and all the way to the center of Paris.
paraders marched for six hours to pass Hugo as he sat in the window
at his house. Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo; the
official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Cosette's
song in Les MisĂ©rables.
Victor Hugo's death on 22 May 1885, at the age of 83, generated
intense national mourning. He was not only revered as a towering
figure in literature, he was a statesman who shaped the French
Third Republic Third Republic
in France. More than two million
people joined his funeral procession in Paris from the
Triomphe to the
PanthĂ©on, where he was buried.
He shares a crypt
within the PanthĂ©on with Alexandre
and Ă‰mile Zola.
Many are not aware that Hugo was almost as prolific in the visual
arts as he was in literature, producing more than 4,000 drawings in
his lifetime. Originally pursued as a casual hobby, drawing became
more important to Hugo shortly before his exile, when he made the
decision to stop writing in order to devote himself to politics.
Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet during the period
Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark
brown or black pen-and-ink
sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with color. The
surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in
their style and execution, foreshadowing the experimental
techniques of Surrealism
and Abstract Expressionism
He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils, ink blots,
puddles and stains, lace impressions, "pliage" or folding (i.e.
Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, often using the charcoal
from match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. Sometimes
he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted.
It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without
looking at the page, or during Spiritualist sĂ©ances
, in order to access his unconscious mind
, a concept only later
popularized by Sigmund Freud
Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye, fearing it would
overshadow his literary work. However, he enjoyed sharing his
drawings with his family and friends, often in the form of ornately
handmade calling cards, many of which were given as gifts to
visitors when he was in political exile. Some of his work was shown
to, and appreciated by, contemporary artists such as Van Gogh
; the latter expressed the opinion that
if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer, he
would have outshone the artists of their century.
1853-1855.Image:Victor_Hugo-Bridge.jpg|Ville avec le pont de
avec les initales V.H.
, ("Octopus with the initials V.H."),
1866.Image:Hugo lerocherdelermitage.jpg|Le Rocher de l'Ermitage
dans un paysage imaginaire
("Hermitage Rock in an Imaginary
people of Guernsey erected a statue in Candie Gardens (St. Peter
Port) to commemorate his stay in the islands.
City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville House, Guernsey and 6, Place des
Vosges, Paris as
museums. The house where he stayed in Vianden, Luxembourg, in 1871 has also become a
venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao
Avenue Victor-Hugo in the
arrondissement of Paris
bears Hugo's name, and links the Place de l'Ă‰toile to the vicinity
of the Bois de
Boulogne by way of the Place
Victor-Hugo. This square is served by a Paris MĂ©tro stop also named in his honor.
Victor Hugo cabinet card by London
A number of streets
and avenues throughout France are likewise named after him.
school LycĂ©e Victor Hugo in his town of birth, BesanĂ§on in France. Avenue Victor-Hugo, located in Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada, was named
to honor him.
city of Avellino, Italy, Victor Hugo
lived briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale,
when reuniting with his father, Leopold Sigisbert Hugo, in
Victor would later write about his brief stay here
quoting "Câ€™Ă©tait un palais de marbre...". In the city of
Edinburgh, Scotland there is a delicatessen named Victor Hugo
Delicatessen, it was originally run by a French couple but was
purchased in 2005. The shop is on Melville Terrace, over
looking the meadows and next to University of Edinburgh halls of
Published during Hugo's lifetime
Poems of Victor
- ThĂ©Ă˘tre en libertĂ© (1886)
- La fin de Satan
- Choses vues (1887)
- Toute la lyre (1888)
- Amy Robsart (1889)
- Les Jumeaux (1889)
- Actes et Paroles Depuis l'exil, 1876-1885
- Alpes et PyrĂ©nĂ©es (1890)
- Dieu (1891)
- France et Belgique (1892)
- Toute la lyre - derniĂ¨re sĂ©rie (1893)
- Les fromages (1895)
- Correspondences - Tome I (1896)
- Correspondences - Tome II (1898)
- Les annĂ©es funestes (1898)
- Choses vues - nouvelle sĂ©rie (1900)
- Post-scriptum de ma vie (1901)
- DerniĂ¨re Gerbe (1902)
- Mille francs de rĂ©compense (1934)
- OcĂ©an. Tas de pierres (1942)
- L'Intervention (1951)
- Conversations with
- On the role of E. de Jouy against V.Hugo, see Les aventures
militaires, littĂ©raires et autres de Etienne de Jouy de l'AcadĂ©mie
franĂ§aise by Michel Faul (Editions Seguier, France, 2009 ISBN
- Victor Hugo, l'homme ocĂ©an
- â€śHugo Ă l'OpĂ©raâ€ť, ed. Arnaud Laster, L'Avant-ScĂ¨ne OpĂ©ra, no.
- Cette page utilise des cadres
- 23 juillet - Festival Radio France et Montpellier
Languedoc Roussillon - classique - concert - opĂ©ra La Esmeralda
Louise Bertin - direction Lawrence Foster - Orchestre
- â€śHugo et la musiqueâ€ť in Pleins feux sur Victor Hugo, Arnaud
Laster, ComĂ©die-FranĂ§aise (1981)
- Festival Victor Hugo & Egaux 2008
- Afran, Charles (1997). â€śVictor Hugo: French Dramatistâ€ť. Website:
Discover France. (Originally published in Grolier Multimedia
Encyclopedia, 1997, v.9.0.1.) Retrieved November 2005.
- Bates, Alfred (1906). â€śVictor Hugoâ€ť. Website: Theatre History. (Originally
published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence
on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical
Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 11â€“13.) Retrieved November
- Bates, Alfred (1906). â€śHernaniâ€ť. Website: Theatre History. (Originally
published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence
on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical
Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 20â€“23.) Retrieved November
- Bates, Alfred (1906). â€śHugoâ€™s Cromwellâ€ť. Website: Theatre History.
(Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and
Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London:
Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 18â€“19.) Retrieved
- Bittleston, Misha (uncited date). "Drawings of Victor Hugo". Website: Misha Bittleston.
Retrieved November 2005.
- Burnham, I.G. (1896). â€śAmy Robsartâ€ť. Website: Theatre History. (Originally
published in Victor Hugo: Dramas. Philadelphia: The
Rittenhouse Press, 1896. pp. 203â€“6, 401-2.) Retrieved November
- Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2001-05). â€śHugo, Victor Marie, Vicomteâ€ť. Website: Bartleby,
Great Books Online. Retrieved November 2005. Retrieved November
- Haine, W. Scott (1997). â€śVictor Hugoâ€ť. Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions.
Website: Ohio University. Retrieved November 2005.
- Illi, Peter (2001-2004). â€śVictor
Hugo: Playsâ€ť. Website: The Victor Hugo Website. Retrieved
- Karlins, N.F. (1998). "Octopus With the Initials V.H." Website:
ArtNet. Retrieved November 2005.
- Liukkonen, Petri (2000). â€śVictor Hugo
(1802-1885)â€ť. Books and Writers. Website: Pegasos: A Literature
Related Resource Site. Retrieved November 2005.
- Meyer, Ronald Bruce (2004). â€śVictor Hugoâ€ť. Website: Ronald Bruce Meyer. Retrieved
- Robb, Graham (1997). â€śA Sabre in the Nightâ€ť. Website: New York Times
(Books). (Excerpt from Graham, Robb (1997). Victor Hugo: A
Biography. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.) Retrieved
- Roche, Isabel (2005). â€śVictor Hugo: Biographyâ€ť. Meet the Writers.
Website: Barnes & Noble.
(From the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of The Hunchback
of Notre Dame, 2005.) Retrieved November 2005.
- Uncited Author. â€śVictor Hugoâ€ť. Website: Spartacus Educational.
Retrieved November 2005.
- Uncited Author. â€śTimeline of Victor Hugoâ€ť. Website: BBC.
Retrieved November 2005.
- Uncited Author. (2000-2005). â€śVictor Hugoâ€ť. Website: The Literature Network.
Retrieved November 2005.
- Uncited Author. "Hugo Caricature". Website: PrĂ©sence de la
LittĂ©rature a lâ€™Ă©cole. Retrieved November 2005.
- Barbou, Alfred (1882). Victor Hugo and His Times.
University Press of the Pacific: 2001 paper back edition. 
- Barnett, Marva A., ed. (2009). Victor Hugo on Things That
Matter: A Reader. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Brombert, Victor H. (1984). Victor Hugo and the Visionary
Novel. Boston: Harvard University Press. 
- Davidson, A.F. (1912). Victor Hugo: His Life and Work.
University Press of the Pacific: 2003 paperback edition. 
- Dow, Leslie Smith (1993). Adele Hugo: La Miserable.
Fredericton: Goose Lane Editions. 
- Falkayn, David (2001). Guide to the Life, Times, and Works
of Victor Hugo. University Press of the Pacific. 
- Feller, Martin, Der Dichter
in der Politik. Victor Hugo und der deutsch-franzĂ¶sische
Krieg von 1870/71. Untersuchungen zum franzĂ¶sischen
Deutschlandbild und zu Hugos Rezeption in Deutschland.
Doctoral Dissertation, Marburg 1988.
- Frey, John Andrew (1999). A Victor Hugo Encyclopedia.
Greenwood Press. 
- Grant, Elliot (1946). The Career of Victor Hugo.
Harvard University Press. Out of print.
- Halsall, A.W. et al. (1998). Victor Hugo and the Romantic
Drama. University of
- Hart, Simon Allen (2004). Lady in the Shadows : The Life
and Times of Julie Drouet, Mistress, Companion and Muse to Victor
Hugo. Publish American. 
- Houston, John Porter (1975). Victor Hugo. New York:
Twayne Publishers. 
- Hovasse, Jean-Marc (2001), Victor Hugo: Avant l'exil.
Paris: Fayard. 
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I. Paris: Fayard. 
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(anthologie) Paris, Editions ArlĂ©a ISBN 2869597959