is the second most populous state
. Geographically smallest mainland state,
Victoria is bordered by New South Wales to the north, South Australia to the west, and Tasmania to the
south, across the Bass
Strait. Victoria is the most densely populated state,
with over 70% of Victorians living in Melbourne, the state capital and largest city.
Approximately 30,000 Indigenous
are estimated to have lived in the area, before
European settlement in Victoria began in the 1830s. The discovery of gold
in 1851 at Ballarat and Warrandyte transformed it into a leading industrial and
like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, the monarch
at the time.
After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, the
continent was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales,
and a western half named New
, under the administration
of the colonial
government in Sydney. The first European settlement in Victoria
which was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor
David Collins at Sullivan Bay, Victoria on Port Phillip
It consisted of 308 convicts, 51 marines,
17 free settlers, 12 civil officers, a missionary and his wife.
They had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta
under the command
of Captain Daniel Woodriff
principally out of fear that the French, who had been exploring the
area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge
British rights to the continent.
next settlement was at Portland, on the west coast of what is now Victoria.
Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John
From settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port
Phillip District, and this gained some administrative status prior
to separation from New South Wales and declaration as the Colony of
Victoria in 1851.
gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo.
Later discoveries occurred at many sites
across Victoria. This triggered one of the largest gold rushes
the world has ever
seen. The colony grew rapidly in both population and economic
power. In ten years the population of Victoria increased sevenfold
from 76,000 to 540,000. All sorts of gold records were produced
including the "richest shallow alluvial goldfield in the world" and
the largest gold
Victoria produced in the decade 1851–1860
20 million ounces of gold, one third of the world's output .
Immigrants arrived from all over the world to search for gold,
especially from Ireland and China. Many Chinese miners worked in
Victoria, and their legacy is particularly strong in Bendigo and
its environs. Although there was some racism directed at them,
there was not the level of anti-Chinese violence that was seen at
the Lambing Flat riots
South Wales. However, there was a riot at Buckland Valley
near Bright in
Conditions on the gold fields were cramped and
unsanitary; an outbreak of typhoid at Buckland Valley in 1854
killed over 1,000 miners.
In 1854 there was an armed rebellion against the government of
Victoria by miners protesting against mining taxes
(the "Eureka Stockade
"). This was crushed by
British troops, but some of the leaders of the rebellion
subsequently became members of the Victorian Parliament.
The first foreign military action by the colony of Victoria was to
send troops and a warship to New Zealand as part of the Maori Wars
. Troops from New South Wales had
previously participated in the Crimean
In 1901 Victoria became a state in the Commonwealth of Australia
. As a
result of the gold rush, Melbourne had by then become the financial
centre of Australia and New Zealand. Between 1901 and 1927,
Melbourne was the capital of Australia while Canberra was under
construction. It was also the largest city in Australia at the time
and the second largest city in terms of population of the British Empire
(after London). Whilst
Melbourne remains an important and influential financial centre,
home to many national and international companies, it was slowly
overtaken by Sydney in business importance around the 1970s and
On Saturday 7 February 2009 ("Black Saturday"), the state was
affected by the 2009 Victorian
, resulting in 173 deaths.
|Composition of the
Parliament of Victoria
|Source: Victorian Electoral Commission
Victoria has a parliamentary form of government based on the
power resides in the Parliament consisting of the Governor (the
representative of the Queen), the executive (the Government), and
two legislative chambers. The Parliament of Victoria consists of the lower house Legislative Assembly, the
upper house Legislative
Council and the Queen of
Eighty-eight members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to
four-year terms from single-member electorates.
In November 2006, the Victorian Legislative Council elections were
held under a new multi-proportional representation system. The
State of Victoria was divided into eight electorates with each
electorate represented by five representatives elected by Single Transferable Vote proportional representation
total number of upper house members was reduced from 44 to 40 and
their term of office is now the same as the lower house members —
four years. Elections for the Victorian Parliament are now fixed
and occur in November every four years.Prior to the 2006 Election
the Legislative Council consisted of 44 members elected to
eight-year terms from 22 two-member electorates.
Premier and cabinet
The Premier of Victoria
leader of the political party or coalition with the most seats in
the Legislative Assembly. The Premier is the public face of
government and, with cabinet
sets the legislative and political agenda. Cabinet consists of
representatives elected to either house of parliament. It is
responsible for managing areas of government that are not
exclusively the Commonwealth's, by the Australian Constitution
, such as
education, health and law enforcement. The current premier of
Victoria is Mr John Brumby.
Executive authority is vested in the Governor of Victoria
who represents and
is appointed by Queen Elizabeth
. The post is usually filled by a retired prominent
Victorian. The governor acts on the advice of the premier and
Victoria has a written constitution
. Enacted in 1975, but
based on the 1855 colonial constitution
establishes the parliament as the state's law-making body for
matters coming under state responsibility. The Victorian
Constitution can be amended by the parliament of Victoria. Under
new provisions to be enacted, changes to the Victorian Constitution
will be subjected to a plebiscite of votes, voting in a
The centre-left Australian Labor Party
centre-right Liberal Party of Australia
the rural-based National
Party of Australia
are Victoria's major political parties.
Traditionally, Labor is strongest in Melbourne's inner, working
class and western and northern suburbs, Morwell, Ballarat, Bendigo
and Geelong. The Liberals' main support lies in Melbourne's more
affluent eastern and outer suburbs, and some rural and regional
centres. The Nationals are strongest in Victoria's North Western
and Eastern rural regional areas. The ALP government of former
Premier Steve Bracks
has been in office
in Victoria since 1999 and was re-elected in 2002 and on 25
November 2006. See Victorian state election,
, and 2006
Victorian election campaign
Following the 2006 Victorian election, the balance of power in the
Legislative Council is now held by the Australian Greens
. This means that by
combining with the Liberal and National Party members, the Greens
can defeat proposed Government legislation.
On 27 July 2007, Premier Steve Bracks announced his resignation
from politics, saying that he needed to spend more time with his
family. The deputy premier, John Thwaites
announced later that day that he too would resign. Former Treasurer
was elected unopposed by the
Labor caucus as the new leader and became the 45th Premier of
Victoria on Monday 30 July 2007.
Victorian voters elect 49 representatives to the Parliament of Australia
37 members of the House of Representatives
and 12 members of the Senate
Since 2007, the ALP has held 21 Victorian house seats, the Liberals
14 and the Nationals two. As of 1 July 2008, the Liberals will hold
six senate seats, the ALP five and the Family First Party
Victoria is incorporated into 79 municipalities
for the purposes of local
government, including 39 shires, 32 cities, seven rural cities and
one borough. Shire and city councils are responsible for functions
delegated by the Victorian parliament, such as city planning, road
infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly
from property taxes and government grants.
Source: Victorian Parliamentary Library,
Department of Victorian Communities, Australian Electoral
estimates for Victoria
|Source: Dept of Planning and
See also: Demographics of
Melbourne, the state capital, is home
to more than seven in ten Victorians.
The 2006 Australian census reported that Victoria had 4,932,422
people resident at the time of the census, an increase of 6.2% on
the 1996 figure. The Australian Bureau of
estimates that by June 2007 the state's population
reached 5,205,200, and may well reach 7.2 million by 2050.
Victoria's founding Anglo-Celtic
population has been supplemented by successive waves of migrants
from southern and eastern
Europe, Southeast Asia and, most recently, the Horn of Africa
and the Middle East.
Victoria's population is ageing in proportion with the average of
the remainder of the Australian population.
About 72% of Victorians are Australian-born. This figure falls to
around 66% in Melbourne but rises to higher than 95% in some rural
areas in the north west of the state. Around two-thirds of
Victorians claim Australian, English or Irish ancestry. Less than
1% of Victorians identify themselves as Aboriginal
. The largest groups of
people born outside Australia came from the British Isles, China,
and New Zealand.
70% of Victorians live in Melbourne, located in the state's south.
Melbourne metropolitan area is home to an estimated 3.9 million
people. Leading urban centres include Geelong, Ballarat, Bendigo, Shepparton, Mildura, Warrnambool and the Latrobe
Victoria is Australia's most urbanised state: nearly 90% of
residents living in cities and towns. Since 1871, more than half of
all Victorians have lived in urban areas. Today, just over 12% of
Victorians live in rural areas. The drift of people into Melbourne
continues despite government efforts to encourage Victorians to
settle in regional areas.
Age structure and fertility
See also: Birth rate and
fertility rate in Australia
The government predicts that nearly a quarter of Victorians will be
aged over 60 by 2021. The 2006 census reveals that Australian
has crept upward from 35 to
37 since 2001, which reflects the population growth
peak of 1969–72.In 2007,
Victoria recorded a TFR
1.87, the highest after 1978. 
About 60.5% of Victorians describe themselves as Christian. Roman
Catholics form the single largest religious group in the state with
27.5% of Victorian population, followed by Anglicans and members of
the Uniting Church. Catholics and Protestants (including Anglicans)
in Victoria each form around 30% of the population. Buddhism, the
state's largest non-Christian religion, is also the fastest growing
with 132,634. Victoria is also home of 109,370 Muslims
and 41,105 Jews
. Around 20% of Victorians claim no
religion, and even amongst those who declare a religious
affiliation, church attendance is low.
In 2008, the levels of couples choosing to marry in a church had
dropped to 36 percent; the other 64 percent chose to register their
marriage with a civil celebrant.
Primary and secondary
system dates back to 1872, when the colonial government
legislated to make schooling both free and compulsory. The state's
public secondary school system began in 1910. Before then, only
private secondary schooling was available. Today, a Victorian
school education consists of seven years of primary schooling
(including one preparatory year) and six years of secondary
The final years of secondary school are optional for children aged
over 16. Victorian children generally begin school at age five. On
completing secondary school, students earn the Victorian
Certificate of Education. Students who successfully complete their
secondary education also receive a tertiary entrance ranking, or
ENTER score, to determine university admittance.
Victorian schools are either publicly or privately funded. Public
schools, also known as state or government schools, are funded and
run directly by the Victoria
Department of Education 
Students do not pay tuition fees, but some extra costs are levied.
Private fee-paying schools include parish schools run by the Roman
Catholic Church and independent schools similar to English public
schools. Independent schools
usually affiliated with Protestant churches. Victoria also has
several private Jewish and Islamic primary and secondary schools.
Private schools also receive some public funding. All schools must
comply with government-set curriculum standards. In addition, Victoria
features two selective schools,
High School for boys, MacRobertson
Girls' High School for girls.
Students at these schools are
exclusively admitted on the basis of a selective entry test. These
schools consistently achieve the highest results in the state in
As of August 2005, Victoria had 1,613 public schools, 484 Catholic
schools and 208 independent schools. Just under 537,000 students
were enrolled in public schools, and 289,000 in private schools.
Nearly two-thirds of private students attend Catholic schools. More
than 455,000 students were enrolled in primary schools and more
than 371,000 in secondary schools. Retention rates for the final
two years of secondary school were 77% for public school students
and 90% for private school students. Victoria has about 60,200
The University of Melbourne is
Victoria's oldest university.
Victoria has nine
. The first to offer degrees, the University
of Melbourne, enrolled its first student in 1855.
largest, Monash University
, has an
enrolment of nearly 56,000 students—more than any other Australian
university. Both the University of Melbourne and Monash University
are purportedly ranked highly among the world's best universities
requiring a fairly high entry score, passing of mature age entrance
exams or direct payment for student admission into their
The number of students enrolled in Victorian universities was
241,755 at 2004, an increase of 2% on the previous year.
International students made up 30% of enrolments and account for
the highest percentage of pre-paid university tuition fees. The
largest number of enrolments were recorded in the fields of
business, administration and economics, with nearly a third of all
students, followed by arts, humanities, and social science, with
20% of enrolments.
Victoria has 18 government-run institutions of “technical and
further education” (TAFE
). The first
vocational institution in the state was the Melbourne Mechanics
Institute (established in 1839), which is now the Melbourne Athenaeum
. More than 1,000
adult education organisations are registered to provide recognised
TAFE programs. In 2004, there were about 480,700 students enrolled
in vocational education programs in the state.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics,
Department of Education and Training (Victoria), Department of
Education, Science and Training (Commonwealth), National Centre for
Vocational Education Research
The State Library of Victoria
Library of Victoria is the State's research and reference
It is responsible for collecting and preserving
Victoria's documentary heritage and making it available through a
range of services and programs. Material in the collection includes
books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps,
pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases.
In addition, local
maintain local lending libraries, typically with
multiple branches in their respective municipal areas.
workers by economic activities
and personal services
|Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Figures are for
The state of Victoria has the largest economy in Australia after
New South Wales, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product
. The total
gross state product
current prices for Victoria was at just over A$222 billion, with a
GSP per capita of A$44,443. The economy grew by 3.4% in 2004, less
than the Australian average of 5.2%.
Finance, insurance and property services form Victoria's largest
income producing sector, while the community, social and personal
services sector is the state's biggest employer. Despite the shift
towards service industries, the troubled manufacturing sector
remains Victoria's single largest employer and income producer. As
a result of job losses in declining sectors such as manufacturing,
Victoria has the highest unemployment rate in Australia as of
1990s economic slump
Victoria experienced an economic slump from 1989 to 1992 during the
term of John Cain
. This was largely
attributable to lagging property markets, reduced protection of
manufacturing sectors as well as a financial crash involving
industry giants such as the Pyramid Building Society
collapse of The State Bank of
, in particular its merchant banking arm
Tricontinental. The result was a loss of employment and a drain of
population to New South Wales and Queensland.
In the mid to late 1990s, the Victorian state government of Premier
(Liberal Party of Australia
sought to reverse this trend with massive cuts to state
expenditure, shrinking of the state public sector and the
aggressive development of new public works, mainly centred around
the state capital of Melbourne. These included the Melbourne Museum, Federation
Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention
Centre (nicknamed "Jeff's Shed"), Crown Casino, capital works such as the CityLink tollway, the sale of state assets
(including the State Electricity
Commission and some state schools), the pruning of state
services and a public relations campaign promoting Melbourne's
merits, aimed at Melbourne residents and visitors
Under the government of former Premier Steve Bracks
(Australian Labor Party
), there was
less emphasis on capital works and more on expansion of public
services. Population increase now outstrips the national
During 2003–04, the gross value of Victorian agricultural
production increased by 17% to $8.7 billion. This represented 24%
of national agricultural production total gross value. As of 2004,
an estimated 32,463 farms occupied around 136,000 square kilometres
(52,500 sq mi) of Victorian land. This comprises more
than 60% of the state's total land surface. Victorian farms range
from small horticultural outfits to large-scale livestock and grain
productions. A quarter of farmland is used to grow consumable
More than 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi) of
Victorian farmland are sown for grain, mostly in the state's west.
More than 50% of this area is sown for wheat, 33% for barley and 7%
for oats. A further 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi)
is sown for hay. In 2003–04, Victorian farmers produced more than 3
million tonnes of wheat and 2 million tonnes of barley. The state
also grows about half of Australia's tobacco. Victorian farms
produce nearly 90% of Australian pears and third of apples. It is
also a leader in stone fruit production. The main vegetable crops
include asparagus, broccoli, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes. Last
year, 121,200 tonnes of pears and 270,000 tonnes of tomatoes were
More than 14 million sheep and 5 million lambs graze over 10% of
Victorian farms, mostly in the state's north and west. In 2004,
nearly 10 million lambs and sheep were slaughtered for local
consumption and export. Victoria also exports live sheep to the
Middle East for meat and to the rest of the world for breeding.
More than 108,000 tonnes of wool clip was also produced—one-fifth
of the Australian total.
Victoria is the centre of dairy farming in Australia. It is home to
60% of Australia's 3 million dairy cattle and produces nearly
two-thirds of the nation's milk, almost 6.4 million litres. The
state also has 2.4 million beef cattle, with more than 2.2 million
cattle and calves slaughtered each year. In 2003–04, Victorian
commercial fishing crews and aquaculture industry produced 11,634
tonnes of seafood valued at nearly $A109 million. Blacklipped
is the mainstay of the catch,
bringing in $A46 million, followed by southern rock lobster worth
$A13.7 million. Most abalone and rock lobster is exported to
Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the state's most valuable
activity, followed by food and beverage manufacturing and
petroleum, coal and chemical manufacturing. More than 15% Victorian
workers are employed in manufacturing industries. Victoria has
318,000 manufacturing workers. The state is marginally behind New
South Wales in the value of manufacturing output.
industrial plants belong to the car manufacturers Ford, Toyota and Holden;
Alcoa's Portland and Point Henry aluminium smelters; oil refineries at Geelong and Altona; and a major petrochemical facility at Laverton.
Victoria also plays an important role in providing goods for the
is the centre of manufacturing in Victoria, followed by Geelong.
Energy production has aided industrial
growth in the Latrobe Valley
in Victoria contributes around A$3
billion to the gross state product but employs less than 1% of
workers. The Victorian mining industry is concentrated on energy
producing minerals, with brown coal
petroleum and gas
accounting for nearly
90% of local production. The oil and gas industries are centred off
the coast of Gippsland
in the state's
east, while brown coal mining and power generation is based in the
In the 2005/2006 fiscal year, the average gas production was over
per day (M cuft/d) and represented 18% of the total national gas
sales, with demand growing at 2% per year.
In 1985, oil production from the offshore Gippsland Basin peaked to
an annual average of 450,000 barrels per
. In 2005–2006, the average daily oil production declined to
83,000 bbls/d, but despite the decline Victoria still produces
almost 19.5% of crude oil in Australia.
is Victoria's leading mineral,
with 66 million tonnes mined each year for electricity generation
in the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. The region is home to the world's
largest known reserves of brown coal.
Despite being the historic centre of Australia's gold rush,
Victoria today contributes a mere 1% of national gold production.
Victoria also produces limited amounts of gypsum
The service industries sector is the fastest growing component of
the Victorian economy. It includes the wide range of activities
generally classified as community, social and personal services;
finances, insurance and property services, government services,
transportation and communication, and wholesale and retail trade.
Most service industries are located in Melbourne and the state's
larger regional centres.
As of 2004–05, service industries employed nearly three-quarters of
Victorian workers and generated three-quarters of the state's GSP.
Finance, insurance and property services, as a group, provide a
larger share of GSP than any other economic activity in Victoria.
More than a quarter of Victorian workers are employed by the
community, social and personal services sector.
Geology and geography
Victoria's northern border is the southern
bank of the Murray
River. It also rests at the southern end of the
Dividing Range, which stretches along the east coast and
terminates west of Ballarat. It is bordered by South Australia to the west and shares Australian's shortest land
border with Tasmania. The official border between Victoria and
Tasmania is at 39°12' S, which passes through Boundary
Islet in the Bass Strait for 85 metres. Victoria contains
many topographically, geologically and climatically diverse areas,
ranging from the wet, temperate climate of
Gippsland in the southeast to the
alpine areas which rise
to almost 2,000 metres (6,500 ft), with Mount Bogong the highest peak at 1,986 m;
Satellite image of Victoria
There are extensive semi-arid plains to the
west and northwest.
There is an extensive series of river systems in Victoria.
notable is the Murray
River system. Other rivers include: Ovens River, Goulburn River, King River, Campaspe River,
Loddon River, Wimmera River, Elgin
River, Barwon River, Thomson
River, Latrobe River,
River, Maribyrnong River, Mitta
River, Hopkins River, Merri River and Kiewa River.
The state symbols include the Pink Heath
(state flower), Leadbeater's
(state animal) and the Helmeted Honeyeater
The state's capital, Melbourne, contains approximately 70% of the
state's population and dominates its economy, media, and culture.
For other cities and towns, see List of localities
Areas of Victoria
has the highest population density in any state in Australia, with
population centres spread out over most of the state, with only the
far northwest and the Victorian Alps lacking permanent settlement.
The Victorian road
services the population centres, with highways
generally radiating from Melbourne and other major cities and rural
centres with secondary roads interconnecting the highways to each
other. Many of the highways are built to freeway standard ("M"
freeways), while most are generally sealed and of reasonable
Rail transport in
is provided by several private and public railway
operators who operate over government-owned lines. Major operators
include: Connex Melbourne
runs an extensive, electrified, passenger system throughout
Melbourne and suburbs; V/Line
which is now
owned by the Victorian Government, operates a concentrated service
to major regional centres, as well as long distance services on
other lines; Pacific National
, El Zorro
operate freight services; Great
which operates The
Melbourne-Adelaide; and CountryLink
which operates XPTs
There are also several smaller freight operators and numerous
tourist railways operating over lines which were once parts of a
state-owned system. Victorian lines mainly use the broad gauge
. However, the interstate
trunk routes, as well as a number of branch lines in the west of
the state have been converted to standard
. Two tourist railways operate over narrow gauge
lines, which are the remnants of five formerly government-owned
lines which were built in mountainous areas.
Melbourne has the world's largest tram network
, currently operated by
. As well as being a popular
form of public transport, over the last few decades trams have
become one of Melbourne's major tourist attractions. There are also
tourist trams operating over portions of the former Ballarat and
Bendigo systems. There are also tramway museums at Bylands
Airport is the major domestic and international gateway for
the state. Avalon Airport is the state's second busiest airport, which is
complements Essendon and Moorabbin Airports to see the remainder of Melbourne's air
traffic. Hamilton Airport, Mildura
Hotham and Portland Airport are the remaining airports with scheduled domestic
There are no fewer than 27 other airports
in the state
with no scheduled flights.
Port of Melbourne is the largest
port for containerised and general cargo in Australia, and is
located in Melbourne on the mouth of the Yarra River, which is at the head of Port Phillip
Bay. Additional seaports are at Westernport
Bay, Geelong, and
temperature in Victoria
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology
Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges
from semi-arid and hot in the north-west, to temperate and cool
along the coast. Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing
Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the
Victoria's southernmost position on the Australian mainland means
it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories.
The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's
mildest climate. Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of
Melbourne and other large cities are located in this
and upper Wimmera
are Victoria's warmest regions with hot
winds blowing from nearby deserts. Average temperatures top
30 °C (86 °F) during summer and 15 °C (59 °F) in winter.
Victoria's highest maximum temperature of
48.8 °C (119.9 °F) was recorded in Hopetoun on 7 February 2009, during the 2009 southeastern
Australia heat wave.
The Victorian Alps in the northeast are the coldest part of
Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain
system extending east-west through the centre of Victoria. Average
temperatures are less than 9 °C (48 °F) in winter and below 0 °C
(32 °F) in the highest parts of the ranges. The state's lowest
minimum temperature of –11.7 °C (10.9 °F) was recorded at Omeo on 13 June
1965, and again at Falls Creek on 3 July 1970.
is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania.
Rainfall in Victoria increases from north
to south, with higher averages in areas of high altitude. Median
annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 millimetres (71 in) in some
parts of the northeast but is less than 250 millimetres
(10 in) in the Mallee.
heaviest in the Otway
Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the
Snow generally falls only in the
mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most
frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall
is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District
, making them both leading
farming areas. Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was 375
millimetres (14.7 in) at Tanybryn in the Otway Ranges on 22
Image:Victoria_summer.jpg|Average January temperatures:
Victoria's north is always hotter than coastal and mountainous
areas.Image:Victoria_winter.jpg|Average July temperatures:
Victoria's hills and ranges are coolest during winter. Snow also
falls there.Image:Victoria_rainfall.jpg|Average yearly
Victoria's rainfall is concentrated in the mountainous north-east
Source: Bureau of Meteorology, Department of
Primary Industries, Australian Natural Resources Atlas
Some major tourist destinations in Victoria are:
metropolis of Melbourne, particular its inner city suburbs (known
also for shopping tourism) and the attractions of the city
centre such as Crown Casino, Melbourne
Zoo, Melbourne Museum,
Aquarium,Science Works, Healsville Sanctuary, Werribee open
range zoo, tourism precincts such as Melbourne Docklands, Southbank and St Kilda as well as cultural and sporting tourist icons such
as The Arts
Centre, National Gallery of Victoria, the Melbourne Cricket Ground, also known as the MCG, and the
Tower, tallest building in the Southern Hemisphere, with
its Skydeck 88.
former Goldfields region featuring the historic cities of Ballarat,
Beechworth, Bendigo, Castlemaine, Maldon and Daylesford.
- Natural attractions, such as The Twelve
Promontory, The Grampians, the Fairy
Penguins (particularly at Phillip Island and St Kilda), the Buchan Caves and the Gippsland Lakes.
Ranges (in particular the Puffing Billy
along the Murray River and Riverina including Echuca and Mildura including waterskiing.
- Geelong (particularly the city's waterfront) and the
Bellarine Peninsula which
features historic resort towns such as Queenscliff.
Surf Coast which features famous beaches such as Bells
Beach, Torquay and Lorne
Peninsula, particularly for its wineries and secluded beaches,
Seat and the coastal attractions of Portsea and Sorrento.
- Yarra Valley (in particular
Healesville Sanctuary and
- Great Ocean
Road, which features The Twelve Apostles, historic towns of
Fairy and Portland, cliffs and whale watching and resort towns such as
Victorian Alpine Region, part of the Australian Alps, particularly for skiing
- The Central Victorian Highlands, 'Highcountry' are very well
known for winter sports and bushwalking
Other popular tourism activities are gliding, hang-gliding, hot air
ballooning and scuba diving.
Major events also play a big part in tourism in Victoria,
particularly cultural tourism and sports tourism. Most of these events
are centred around Melbourne, but others occur in regional cities,
such as the V8 Supercars and Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix at
Phillip Island, the Grand Annual Steeplechase at Warrnambool and
International Airshow at Geelong and numerous local festivals
such as the popular Port Fairy Folk Festival, Queenscliff Music Festival, Bells
Beach SurfClassic and the Bright Autumn Festival.
is the home of Australian
rules football, with ten of the sixteen clubs of the Australian Football League based
in Victoria, and the traditional Grand
Final held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground usually on the last Saturday in
Victoria's cricket team, the Victorian Bushrangers
play in the
national Sheffield Shield
competition. Victoria is represented in the National Rugby League
by the Melbourne Storm
and is also represented in
(soccer) by Melbourne Victory
and Melbourne Heart
in the A-League
has held the 1956 Summer
Olympics, 2006 Commonwealth
Games, FINA World Swimming Championship, and is home to the
Open tennis tournament, and the Australian Formula One
is also home to Bells Beach, which is the home of the world's
longest-running surfing competition, the Bells Beach SurfClassic,
which is part of The ASP World Tour.
is a big part of sport in Victoria.
The Melbourne Vixens
Victoria in the ANZ Championship
Some of the worlds best netballers such as Sharelle McMahon
, Julie Corletto
and Bianca Chatfield
come from Victoria.
Victoria's most famous island, Phillip Island, is home of the Phillip
Island Grand Prix Circuit which hosts the Australian motorcycle Grand
Prix which features MotoGP (the world's premier
motorcycling class), as well as the Australian round of the
Championship and the domestic V8
Supercar racing, which also visits Sandown Raceway and the rural Winton Motor Raceway circuit.
Australia's most prestigious footrace, the Stawell Gift
, is an annual event.
Victoria is also home to the Aussie
poker tournament, the richest in the southern
The Melbourne Spring
is one of the biggest horse racing events in
the world and is one of the world's largest sporting events.
race is for the $6 million Melbourne Cup, and crowds for the carnival exceed
- Vic bushfires death toll - Vic Police
- title=Steve Brack Resigns
- 2006 Census Community Profile Series :
- Statistics report for 2008 from the Victorian
Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages
- Department of Primary Industries
- DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRIES: Oil and
- Australian Bureau of Statistics: Year Book
Australia, 2004 - Profile of major commodities
- Australian Bureau of
Statistics, Department of Primary Industries
- Boundary Islet on street-directory.com.au
- DoI (2008). . Retrieved 28 April 2008.