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Video poker is a casino game based on five-card draw poker. It is played on a computerized console similar in size to a slot machine.

Video Poker

History

Video poker first became commercially viable when it became economical to combine a television-like monitor with a solid state central processing unit. The earliest models appeared at the same time as the first personal computers were produced, in the mid-1970s, although they were primitive by today's standards.

Video poker became more firmly established when SIRCOMA, which stood for Si Redd's Coin Machines, and which evolved over time to become International Game Technologymarker, introduced Draw Poker in 1979. Throughout the 1980s, video poker became increasingly popular in casinos, as people found the devices less intimidating than playing table games. Today video poker enjoys a prominent place on the gaming floors of many casinos. The game is especially popular with Las Vegas locals, who tend to patronize locals casinos off the Las Vegas Stripmarker. These local casinos often offer lower denomination machines or better odds, although this was more common in the 1990s as casinos across the country have recently been cutting their paytables and/or only offering 25 cent machines or higher.

The Game

Game play begins by placing a bet of one or more credits, by inserting money (or in newer machines, a barcoded paper ticket with credit) into the machine, and then pressing a "Deal" button to draw cards. The player is then given an opportunity to keep or discard one or more of the cards in exchange for a new card drawn from the same virtual deck. After the draw, the machine evaluates the hand and offers a payout if the hand matches one of the winning hands in the posted pay schedule.

On a typical video poker machine, payouts start with a minimum hand of a pair of jacks. Pay tables allocate the payout for hands based partially upon how rare they are, and also based upon the total theoretical return the game operator chooses to offer.

Some machines offer progressive jackpots for the royal flush, (and sometimes for other rare hands as well), thereby spurring players to both play more coins and to play more frequently.

Regulation

Video poker machines operated in state-regulated jurisdictions are programmed to deal random card sequences. A series of cards is generated for each play; five dealt straight to the hand, the other five dealt in order if requested by player. This is based upon a Nevadamarker regulation, adopted by most other states with a gaming authority, which requires dice and cards used in an electronic game to be as random as the real thing, within computational limits set by the gaming authority. Video poker machines are tested to ensure compliance with this requirement before they may be offered to the public. Video poker games in Nevada are required to simulate a 52 card deck (or a 53 card deck if using a joker).

It is unclear whether all video poker machines at Indian gaming establishments are subject to the same Nevada-style regulations, as Indian casinos are located on reservations that are sovereign to the tribe which holds the gaming license.

Newer versions of the software no longer deal out all 10 cards at once. They now deal out the first five cards, and then when the draw button is pressed, they generate a second set of cards based on the remaining 47 cards in the deck. This was done after players found a way to reverse engineer a random number generator's cycle from sample hands and were able to predict the hidden cards in advance.

Kinds of video poker

Newer video poker machines may employ variants of the basic five-card draw. Typical variations include Deuces Wild, where a two serves as a wild card and a jackpot is paid for four deuces or a natural royal; pay schedule modification, where four aces with a five or smaller kicker pays an enhanced amount (these games usually have some adjective in the title such as "bonus", "double", or "triple"); and multi-play poker, where the player starts with a base hand of five cards, and each additional played hand draws from a different set of cards with the base hand removed. (Multi-play games are offered in "Triple Play", "Five Play", "Ten Play", "Fifty Play" and even "One Hundred Play" versions.)

In the non-wild games (games which do not have a wild card) a player who plays five or six hundred hands per hour, on average, may receive the rare four-of-a-kind approximately once per hour, while a player may play for many days or weeks before receiving an extremely rare royal flush.

Full pay games

Full pay video poker machines are games which offer the typical maximum payback percentage for that game type. Payback percentage expresses the long-term expected value of the player's wager as a percentage. A payback percentage of 99 percent, for instance, indicates that for each $100 wagered, in the long run, the player would expect to lose $1. Payback percentages on full-pay games are often close to or even in excess of 100 percent, assuming error-free perfect play.

Full-pay Jacks or Better, for example, offers a payback percentage of 99.54 percent when played with perfect strategy. It must be remembered that winning the jackpot (royal flush) is also part of the "long run" in every variant. One should not play a "full pay" video poker game expecting not to lose, because even over many thousands of hands played, you are playing a game that pays back less than 100%.

Casinos often place full pay machines alongside other machines with pay schedules that offer less attractive payback percentages, leaving it up to the player to identify which video poker machines offer full pay schedules.

Most full pay machines are configured with a pay schedule that is only full pay when the maximum number of credits is bet. (See the pay schedule tables later in this article for details.)

Jacks or Better

"Jacks or Better" is the most common variation of video poker available. Payoffs begin at a pair of jacks or better. Full pay Jacks or Better is also known as 9/6 Jacks or Better; the 9 refers to the payoff for a full house and the 6 refers to the payoff for a flush. Full pay Jacks or Better has a theoretical return of 99.5 percent when played with perfect strategy.
Hand 1 credit 2 credits 3 credits 4 credits 5 credits
Royal Flush 250 500 750 1000 4000*
Straight Flush 50 100 150 200 250
Four of a kind 25 50 75 100 125
Full House 9 18 27 36 45
Flush 6 12 18 24 30
Straight 4 8 12 16 20
Three of a kind 3 6 9 12 15
Two Pair 2 4 6 8 10
Jacks or Better 1 2 3 4 5
Theoretical Return 98.4% 98.4% 98.4% 98.4% 99.5%*
* Notice the gap between the payoff for a Royal Flush played with four credits versus one with five credits. A royal flush on a 9/6 machine comes along at a rate of one per 40,400 hands.(1) The payoff schedule for most video poker machines has a gap like this, such that players who do not play with the maximum number of credits at a time are playing with a smaller theoretical return.

All American

All American is based on Jacks or Better with an increased payout for flushes, straights and straight flushes, but reduced payout for full houses and two pairs.

Tens or Better

"Tens or Better" is a variation of 6/5 Jacks or Better. The minimum paying hand is a pair of tens, rather than a pair of Jacks. Strategy is similar between the two games, in spite of the very different full house and flush payouts.

Deuces Wild

"Deuces Wild" is a variation of video poker in which all twos are wild. (Wild cards substitute for any other card in the deck in order to make a better poker hand). In Deuces Wild, the payout for a four of a kind makes up approximately ⅓ of the payback percentage of the game, and a four of a kind occurs on average approximately every fifteen hands. Deuces Wild can be found with pay schedules that offer a theoretical return as high as 100.8 percent, when played with perfect strategy:this full-pay version is found only in Nevada.(2) It is also available with other pay schedules that have lesser theoretical returns:

Hand 1 credit 2 credits 3 credits 4 credits 5 credits
Natural Royal Flush 300 600 900 1200 4000*
Four Deuces 200 400 600 800 1000
Wild Royal Flush 25 50 75 100 125
Five of a Kind 15 30 45 60 75
Straight Flush 9 18 27 36 45
Four of a Kind 5 10 15 20 25
Full House 3 6 9 12 15
Flush 2 4 6 8 10
Straight 2 4 6 8 10
Three of a Kind 1 2 3 4 5
Theoretical Return 99.7% 99.7% 99.7% 99.7% 100.8%*


  • *Notice the gap between the payoff for a Natural Royal Flush played with four credits versus one with five credits. The payoff schedule for most video poker machines has a gap like this, such that players who do not play with the maximum number of credits at a time are playing with a negative theoretical return.


Bonus Poker

"Bonus Poker" is a video poker game based on Jacks or Better, but Bonus Poker offers a higher payout percentage for four of a kind. The full-pay version of this game returns 99.2%. (3)The game has multiple versions featuring different bonus payouts based on the ranking of the four of a kind.

Double Bonus

"Double Bonus" video poker is a variation of Jacks or Better with a bonus payout for four aces. This variation offers up to a theoretical return of 100.2 percent, when played with perfect strategy - however, it must be noted that this % is only on a "10/7" version video poker game (10/7 being the payouts for a full house and a flush). There are many other video poker varieties of 10/6, 9/6, etc that have slightly lower than the most generous 10/7 version payout. Although the full-pay version has a theoretically-positive return, few play well enough to capitalize on it. Double Bonus is a complex game.(4)

It is also available with other pay schedules that have lesser theoretical returns:

Hand 1 credit 2 credits 3 credits 4 credits 5 credits
Royal Flush 250 500 750 1000 4000*
Straight Flush 50 100 150 200 250
Four Aces 160 320 480 640 800
Four 2, 3, or 4 80 160 240 320 400
Four 5-K 50 100 150 200 250
Full House 10 20 30 40 50
Flush 7 14 21 28 35
Straight 5 10 15 20 25
Three of a Kind 3 6 9 12 15
Two Pair 1 2 3 4 5
Jacks or Better 1 2 3 4 5
Theoretical Return 99.1% 99.1% 99.1% 99.1% 100.2%*


  • *Notice the gap between the payoff for a Royal Flush played with four credits versus one with five credits. Players who do not play with the maximum number of credits at a time are playing with a negative theoretical return.


Double Double Bonus

"Double Double Bonus" video poker is a variation of Jacks or Better which offers bonus payoffs for different four of a kinds, as seen in the payout table below. Full pay Double Double Bonus can be found with pay schedules that offer up to a theoretical return of 100.1 percent, when played with perfect strategy. It is also available with other pay schedules that have lesser theoretical returns:

Hand 1 credit 2 credits 3 credits 4 credits 5 credits
Royal Flush 250 500 750 1000 4000*
Straight Flush 50 100 150 200 250
Four Aces w/2, 3, or 4 400 800 1200 1600 2000
Four 2, 3, or 4 w/A-4 160 320 480 640 800
Four Aces 160 320 480 640 800
Four 2, 3, or 4 80 160 240 320 400
Four 5-K 50 100 150 200 250
Full House 10 20 30 40 50
Flush 6 12 18 24 30
Straight 4 8 12 16 20
Three of a Kind 3 6 9 12 15
Two Pair 1 2 3 4 5
Jacks or Better 1 2 3 4 5
Theoretical Return 98.9% 98.9% 98.9% 98.9% 100.1%*


  • *Notice the gap between the payoff for a Royal Flush played with four credits versus one with five credits. Players who do not play with the maximum number of credits at a time are playing with a negative theoretical return.


Low Pay Video Poker Games

Low pay games constitute any video poker machine that does not use a full pay table. Often times casinos choose to use modified pay tables which reduce the maximum payout percentage on the machine. This increases the house edge, and thus brings in more revenue for the casino. Low pay games are usually offered at strip casinos in Las Vegas and online casinos.

Jacks or Better Low Pay Games

Jacks or Better often uses a variety of low pay return tables depending on the casino.

9/5 Jacks or Better

9/5 Jacks or Better is the most common low pay version of the game. The payout for making a Flush is cut from 6x your bet to 5x your bet, but all other payouts remain the same. This reduces the maximum payout percentage to 98.45% for players betting five coins per hand to receive the Royal Flush bonus.

8/6 Jacks or Better

8/6 Jacks or Better is another often used pay table for Jacks or Better games. The payout for making a Full House is cut from 9x your bet to 8x your bet, while all other payouts remain the same as in a full pay game. This reduces the maximum payout percentage to 98.39% for players betting five coins per hand to receive the Royal Flush bonus.

8/5 Jacks or Better

8/5 Jacks or Better cuts the Full House payout from 9x your bet to 8x your bet, and also cuts the Flush payout from 6x your bet to 5x your bet. All other payouts remain the same as in a full pay game. This reduces the maximum payout percentage to 97.30% for players betting five coins per hand to receive the Royal Flush bonus.

7/5 Jacks or Better

7/5 Jacks or Better cuts the Full House payout from 9x your bet to 7x your bet, and also cuts the Flush payout from 6x your bet to 5x your bet. All other payouts remain the same as in a full pay game. This reduces the maximum payout percentage to 96.15% for players betting five coins per hand to receive the Royal Flush bonus.

6/5 Jacks or Better

6/5 Jacks or Better cuts the Full House payout from 9x your bet to 6x your bet, and also cuts the Flush payout from 6x your bet to 5x your bet. All other payouts remain the same as in a full pay game. This reduces the maximum payout percentage to 95.00% for players betting five coins per hand to receive the Royal Flush bonus.

Progressive jackpot games

Other kinds of video poker only have positive theoretical returns when the progressive jackpot is high enough. Many establishments advertise with a billboard when the progressive jackpot is high enough. Otherwise sub-optimal games like 8/5 jacks or better can become positive expectation when the jackpot is large enough.

Players' clubs

Many casinos offer free memberships in "player's clubs" or "slot clubs", which return a small percentage of the amount of money that is bet in the form of "comps" (complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise), or sometimes as cash back (sometimes with a restriction that the cash be redeemed at a later date). These clubs require that players use a card that is inserted into the video poker machine to allow the casino to track the player's "action" (how much the player bets and for how long), which is often used to establish a level of play that may make a player eligible for additional comps.

Comps or cash back from these clubs can make a significant difference in the theoretical return when playing video poker over a long period of time. In some rare cases, usage of a club card can even add enough value to the pay schedule of a video poker game with a negative theoretical return to make that same game have a positive theoretical return (see comp hustling).

See also



References

External links

Notes:1. American casino Guide(2009 ed.)p.53.2. Ibid.,p.58.3.Ibid.,p.57.4.Ibid.,p.57.

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