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Vienna ( ; , Austro-Bavarian: Wean) is the capital of the Republic of Austriamarker and also one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.7 million (2.3 million within the urban area, which means more than 25% of Austria's population), and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 10th largest city by population in the European Union. Vienna is host to many major international organizations such as the United Nations and OPEC.Vienna lies in the east of Austria and is close to the Czech Republicmarker, Slovakiamarker and Hungarymarker. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCOmarker World Heritage Site and in 2005 an Economist Intelligence Unit study of 127 world cities ranked it first equal with Vancouvermarker for the quality of life. This assessment was mirrored by the Mercer Survey in 2009.

Name

The English name of Vienna, the official German name Wien, and the names of the city in most languages, are thought to be derived from the Celtic name of a settlement, but opinions vary on the precise origin. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently became Venia, Wienne and Wien. Others claim that the name comes from the name of the Roman settlement Vindobonamarker, probably meaning "white base/bottom", which became Vindovina, Viden and Wien.

The name of the city in Hungarian (Bécs), Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian (Beč) and Ottoman Turkish (Beç) appears to have a different, Slavonic, origin.

History



Founded around 500 BC, Vienna was originally a Celt settlement. In 15 BC, Vienna became a Roman frontier city (Vindobonamarker) guarding the Roman Empire against Germanic tribes to the north.

In the 13th century, Vienna came under threat from the Mongolian Empire, which stretched over much of present-day Russia and China. However, due to the death of its leader, Ogedei Khan, the Mongolian armies receded from the European frontier and did not return.

During the Middle Ages, Vienna was home to the Babenberg Dynasty, and in 1440 , it became the resident city of the Habsburg Dynasties, then it eventually grew to become the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and a cultural centre for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman armies were stopped twice outside Vienna (see Siege of Vienna, 1529 and Battle of Vienna, 1683).
Vienna map, 1773-81
In 1804, Vienna became the capital of the Austrian Empiremarker and continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the 1814 Congress of Vienna. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Vienna remained the capital of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the latter half of the 19th century, the city developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraßemarker, a major prestige project. Former suburbs were incorporated, and the city of Vienna grew dramatically.

In 1918, after World War I, Vienna became capital of the First Austrian Republic. During the 1920s and 1930s, it was a bastion of socialism in Austria, and was known as the "Red Vienna." The city was a stage to the Austrian Civil War of 1934, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sent the Austrian Army to shell civilian housing occupied by the socialist militia. In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, Adolf Hitler famously spoke to the Austrian people from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburgmarker at the Heldenplatzmarker. Between 1938 (see Anschluss) and the end of the Second World War, Vienna lost its status as a capital to Berlinmarker.

In 1945, the Soviets successfully launched the Vienna Offensive against the Germans who were holding Vienna. The city was besieged for about two weeks before it fell to the Soviets. After 1945, Vienna again became the capital of Austria, was initially divided into zones by the four powers (or the four prevailing nations), and was governed by the Allied Commission for Austria. The four-power occupation of Vienna differed in some respects from the four-power occupation of Berlin: the central area of Vienna had an international zone in which the four powers alternated on a monthly basis. When the Berlin blockade occurred in 1948, Vienna was even more vulnerable because there was no airport in the western sectors. However, despite fears, the Soviets did not blockade Vienna. Some have argued that this was because the Potsdam Agreement gave written rights of land access to the western sectors, whereas no such written guarantees had been given regarding Berlin. The true reason will, however, always remain a matter of speculation. During the 10 years of foreign occupation, Vienna became a hot-bed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs. The atmosphere of four-power Vienna is captured in the Graham Greene novel The Third Man and by the movie which followed.

In the 1970s, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky inaugurated the Vienna International Centremarker, a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna has regained a part of its former international relevance by hosting international organizations, such as the United Nations (UNIDO, UNOVmarker, CTBTO and UNODCmarker), the International Atomic Energy Agencymarker, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Historical population

Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005
Due to the industrialization and immigration from other parts of the Empire, the population of Vienna increased sharply during its time as the capital of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). In 1910, Vienna had more than 2 million inhabitants, and was one of the six largest cities in the world. At the turn of the century, Vienna was the city with the second largest Czech population in the world (after Praguemarker). However, after World War I, many Czechs and Hungarians returned to their ancestral countries, resulting in a decline in the Viennese population. At the height of the migration, about one-third of the Viennese population were of Slavic or Hungarian origin. By 2001, 16% of people under the census living in Austria had nationalities other than Austrian, nearly half of whom were from former Yugoslavia, primarily Serbs; the next most numerous nationalities in Vienna were Turkishmarker (39,000 or 2.5%), Polishmarker (13,600 or 0.9%) and Germanmarker (12,700 or 0.8%).

However, the real numbers of people of different nationalities living today in Vienna is probably higher due to individuals not being counted in the census who either do not possess Austrian citizenship or who live illegally in Austria.

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"


Geography and climate

Vienna is located in north-eastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alpsin the Vienna Basin. The earliest settlement, at the location of today's inner city, was south of the meandering Danube while the city now spans both sides of the river. Elevation ranges from .

Vienna has a humid continental climateaccording to the Köppen classification. The city has warm summers with average high temperatures of 22 - 26°C (72 - 79°F), with maxima exceeding 30°C (86°F) and lows of around 15°C (59°F). Winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and snowfall occurring mainly from December through March. Spring and autumn are cool to mild. Precipitation is generally moderate throughout the year, averaging 620 mm (24.4 inches) annually.

Districts

Map of the districts of Vienna with numbers
Satellite view of Vienna
Vienna is composed of 23 districts(Bezirke). Legally, they are not districts in the sense of administrative bodies with explicit powers (such as the districts in the other Austrian states), but mere subdivisions of the city administration. Elections at the district level give the representatives of the districts some political powerin fields such as planning and traffic.

The 23 districts are numbered for convenience, in a roughly clockwise fashion, starting in the city centre:
Year
1754 1800 1850 1900 1910 1923 1939
Total

population
175,460 271,800 551,300 1,769,137 2,083,630 1,918,720 1,770,938
Year
1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2008
Total

population
1,616,125 1,627,566 1,619,885 1,531,346 1,539,848 1,550,123 1,678,435
  1. Innere Stadtmarker
  2. Leopoldstadtmarker
  3. Landstraßemarker
  4. Wiedenmarker
  5. Margaretenmarker
  6. Mariahilfmarker
  7. Neubaumarker
  8. Josefstadtmarker
  9. Alsergrundmarker
  10. Favoritenmarker
  11. Simmeringmarker
  12. Meidlingmarker
  1. Hietzingmarker
  2. Penzingmarker
  3. Rudolfsheim-Fünfhausmarker
  4. Ottakringmarker
  5. Hernalsmarker
  6. Währingmarker
  7. Döblingmarker
  8. Brigittenaumarker
  9. Floridsdorfmarker
  10. Donaustadtmarker
  11. Liesingmarker


The heart and historical city of Vienna, the Innere Stadtmarker, was once surrounded by walls and open fields in order to defend itself from potential attackers. The walls were razed in 1857, making it possible for the city to expand and eventually merge with the surrounding villages. In their place, a broad boulevard called the Ringstraßemarker was built, along which imposing public and private buildings, monuments, and parks now lie. These buildings include the Rathausmarker (town hall), the Burgtheatermarker, the Universitymarker, the Parliament, the twin museums of natural historymarker and fine artmarker, and the Staatsopermarker. It is also the location of the Hofburgmarker, the former imperial palace. The mainly Gothic Stephansdommarker is located at the centre of the city, on Stephansplatzmarker. Beyond the Ringstraße, there was another wall called the Linienwall, which was torn down in the latter half of the 19th century to make room for expanding suburbs. It is now a ring road called Gürtelmarker.

Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts. The Innere Stadtmarker is situated away from the main flow of the Danube, but is bounded by the Donaukanalmarker ("Danube canal"). Vienna's second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal and the Danube River. Across the Danube are the newest districts, where the Vienna International Centremarker is located.

Vienna's postal codes can be determined by the district where a given address is located; postal codes are of the format 1XXA, where 1 denotes Vienna, XX the district number (if it is a single digit then with a leading zero), and A is the number of the post office (irrelevant in this case, usually zero). Example: 1070 for Neubau. Exceptions include 1300 for the Vienna International Airportmarker located in Lower Austriamarker near Schwechatmarker, 1400 for the UN Complex, 1450 for the Austria Center, and 1500 for the Austrian UN forces.

Politics

Until 1918, Viennese politics were shaped by the Christian Social Party, in particular long-term mayor Karl Lueger. Vienna is today considered the centre of the Social Democratic Party of Austria. During the period of the First Republic (1918-1934), the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many overdue social reforms. At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as "Red Vienna" (Rotes Wien).

For most of the time since the First World War, the city has been governed by the Social Democratic Party with absolute majorities in the city parliament. Only between 1934 and 1945, when the Social Democratic Party was illegal, mayors were appointed by the austro-fascist and later by the Nazi authorities. The current mayor of Vienna is Michael Häupl. The Social Democrats currently hold 55% of the seats with a 49% share of the vote. Many Austrian political experts believe that if not for the Social Democrats' nearly unbreakable hold on Vienna, the rival Austrian People's Party would dominate Austrian politics.

An example of the city’s many social democratic policies is its low-cost residential estates called Gemeindebauten.

Ever since Vienna obtained federal state (Bundesland) status of its own in 1921, the mayor has also had the role of the state governor (Landeshauptmann). The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor and the state government (Landesregierung). The city is administered by a multitude of departments (Magistratsabteilungen).

In the 1996 City Council election, the SPÖ lost its overall majority in the 100-seat chamber, winning 43 seats and 39.15% of the vote. 1996 also saw the FPÖ, which won 29 seats (up from 21 in 1991), beat the ÖVP into third place for the second time running. From 1996-2001, the SPÖ governed Vienna in a coalition with the ÖVP.In 2001 the SPÖ regained the overall majority with 52 seats and 46.91% of the vote; in October 2005 this majority was increased further to 55 seats (49.09%).

Religions

Vienna is the seat of the Viennese Roman Catholic archdiocese, and its current Archbishop is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn. The religions of the Viennese resident population is divided according to the 2001 census as follows :

Many Roman Catholic churchesin central Vienna also feature performances of religious or other music, including masses sung with classical music and organ. Some of Vienna's most significant historical buildings are Roman Catholic churches, including the Stephansdom marker, the Karlskirche marker and the Votivkirchemarker.

Culture

Music, theatre and opera

State Opera (Staatsoper), venue of the annual ball
Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresa-Square


Art and culture have a long tradition in Vienna, including theater, opera, classical musicand fine arts. The Burgtheatermarker is considered one of the best theaters in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater.The Volkstheater Wienmarker and the Theater in der Josefstadtmarker also enjoy good reputations.There is also a multitude of smaller theaters, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret.

Vienna is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wienmarker, the Staatsopermarker and the Volksopermarker, the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta.Classical concerts are performed at well known venues such as the Wiener Musikvereinmarker, home of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Wiener Konzerthausmarker.Many concert venues offer concerts aimed at tourists, featuring popular highlights of Viennese music (particularly the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozartand Johann Strauss).

In recent years, the Theater an der Wienmarker has become widely known for hosting premieres of musicals, although it has recently devoted itself to the opera again.The most successful musical by far was "Elisabeth", which was later translated into several other languages and performed all over the world. The Haus der Musik("house of music") opened in 2000.

Museums

The Hofburgmarker is the location of the Schatzkammer (treasury), holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty.The Sisi Museum (a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie of Austria) allows visitors to view the Imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet. Directly opposite the Hofburg are the Kunsthistorisches Museummarker and the Naturhistorisches Museummarker, which houses many paintings by old masters, ancient and classical artifacts.

A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartiermarker (museum quarter), the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the 1990s.It houses the Museum of Modern Art,commonly known as the MUMOK (Ludwig Foundation), the Leopold Museummarker (focusing on works of - Egon Schiele (the largest collection of paintings in the world by Egon Schiele) - the Viennese Secessionmarker, Viennese Modernism and Austrian Expressionism), the AzW(museum of architecture), additional halls with feature exhibitions and the Tanzquartier.The Liechtenstein Palacecontains one of the world's largest private art collections of the baroque. The Castle Belvedere, built under Prinz Eugenmarker, contains paintings of Gustav Klimt (The Kiss), Egon Schiele, and other painters of the early 20th century, also sculptures of Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, and has changing exhibitions too.

There are a multitude of other museums in Vienna, including the Military History Museum, the Technical Museummarker, the Vienna Clock Museum and the Burial Museum.The museums dedicated to Vienna's districts provide a retrospective of the respective districts.

Architecture

Hundertwasserhaus
A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque Ruprechtskirchemarker and the Baroque Karlskirchemarker.Styles range from classicistbuildings to modern architecture. Art Nouveauleft many architectural traces in Vienna. The Secessionmarker, Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Stationmarker, and the Kirche am Steinhofmarker by Otto Wagner rank among the best known examples of Art Nouveau in the world.

The Hundertwasserhausby Friedensreich Hundertwasser, designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirchemarker by sculptor Fritz Wotruba.In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt (north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna). The 202 m-high Millennium Towermarker located at Handelskai is the highest building in Vienna.In recent years, Vienna has seen numerous architecture projects completed which combine modern architectural elements with old buildings, such as the remodelling and revitalisation of the old Gasometermarker in 2001.

Most buildings in Vienna are relatively low; in early 2006 there were around 100 buildings higher than 40 m. The number of high-risebuildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas and districts designated as world cultural heritage. Strong rules apply to the planning, authorisation and construction of high-rise buildings. Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone.

Vienna balls

Vienna is the last great capital of the nineteenth century ball. There are over 200 significant balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras. Balls are held in the many beautiful palaces in Vienna, with the principal venue being the Hofburg Palace at Heldenplatzmarker.While the Opera Ballis the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, other ballssuch as the Kaffeesiederball (Cafe Owners Ball), the Jägerball (Hunter's Ball) and the Rudolfina Redoute are almost as well known within Austria and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere. Viennese of at least middle classmay visit a number of balls in their lifetime. For many, the ball season lasts three months and can include up to ten or fifteen separate appearances.

Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna Staatsoper often perform at the openings of the larger balls.

A Vienna ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Major Viennese balls generally begin at 9pm and last until 5am, although many guests carry on the celebrations into the next day.

Education

Vienna is also Austria's main centre of education and home to many universities, professional collegesand gymnasiums.

University of Vienna
Academy of Fine Arts


Universities

The Diplomatic Academy is housed in the Neue Favorita Palace






International schools



Transportation

Vienna has an extensive transportation network. Public transport is provided by buses, trams, and 5 subway lines (U-Bahn). Trains are operated by the ÖBB. Vienna has multiple road connections, including motorways.

Leisure activities

Viennese parks and gardens

Vienna possesses many park facilities, including the Stadtparkmarker, the Burggarten, the Volksgarten (part of the Hofburg), the Schloßpark at Schloss Belvedere (home to the Vienna Botanic Gardensmarker), the Donaupark, the Schönbrunner Schlosspark, the Pratermarker, the Augarten, the Rathauspark, the Lainzer Tiergartenmarker, the Dehnepark, the Resselpark, the Votivpark, the Kurpark Oberlaa, the Auer-Welsbach-Park and the Türkenschanzpark.Green areas include Laaer-Berg (including the Bohemian Prater) and the foothills of the Wienerwaldmarker, which reaches into the outer areas of the city.Small parks, known by the Viennese as Beserlparks, are everywhere in the inner city areas.Many of Vienna's famous parks include monuments, such as the Stadtparkmarker with its statue of Johann Strauss II, and the gardens of the baroque palacemarker, where the State Treaty was signed.Vienna's principal park is the Pratermarker which is home to the Riesenradmarker, a Ferris wheel.The imperial Schönbrunnmarker's grounds contain an 18th century park which includes the world's oldest zoomarker, founded in 1752.The Donauinselmarker, part of Vienna's flood defences, is a 21.1 km long artificial island between the Danube and Neue Donau dedicated to leisure activities.

Sport

Vienna hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna City Marathon, which attracts more than 10,000 participants every year and normally takes place in May. In 2005 the Ice Hockey World Championships took place in Austriamarker and the final was played in Vienna.Vienna's Ernst Happel Stadiummarker was the venue of four Champions League and European Champion Clubs' Cup finals (1964, 1987, 1990 and 1995) and on June 29 it hosted the final of Euro 2008 which saw a Spanish 1-0 victory over Germany.

Austria's capital is home to numerous teams. The best known are the local football clubs SK Rapid Wien (32 Austrian Bundesliga titles), FK Austria Wien (23 Austrian Bundesliga titles and 26-time cup winners) and the oldest team, First Vienna FCmarker.Other important sport clubsinclude the Dodge Vikings Vienna (American Football), who won the Eurobowltitle between 2004 and 2007 4 times in a row, the Aon hotVolleys Vienna, one of Europe's premier Volleyballorganisations, and the Vienna Capitals(Ice Hockey). Vienna was also where the European Handball Federation (EHF) was founded.

Culinary specialities

Food

Vienna is well known for Wiener Schnitzel, a cutlet of veal that is pounded flat, coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter. It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine. Other examples of Viennese cuisine include Tafelspitz(very lean boiled beef), which is traditionally served with Geröstete Erdäpfel(boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried) and horseradish sauce, Apfelkren(a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple) and Schnittlauchsauce(a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and old bread).

Vienna has a long tradition of producing the finest cakes and desserts. These include Apfelstrudel(hot apple strudel), Palatschinken(sweet pancakes), and Knödel(dumplings) often filled with fruit such as apricots(Marillenknödel). Sachertorte, a dry chocolate cake with apricot jam created by the Sacher Hotelmarker, is world famous.

In winter, small street stands sell traditional Maroni(hot chestnuts) and potato fritters.

Sausages are popular and available from street vendors (Würstelstand) throughout the day and into the night. The sausage known as Wiener(German for Viennese) in the USA and Germany is, however, called Frankfurter. Other popular sausages are Burenwurst(a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled), Käsekrainer(spicy pork with small chunks of cheese), and Bratwurst(a white pork sausage). Most can be ordered "mit Brot" (with bread) or as a "hot dog" (stuffed inside a long roll). Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: "süß" (sweet) or "scharf" (spicy).

Kebab and pizza are, increasingly, the snack foodmost widely available from small stands.

The Naschmarktmarker is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc. from around the world.The city centre has many delicatessen stores, such as the Julius Meinl am Grabenmarker.

Drink

Vienna, along with Parismarker, Praguemarker, Bratislavamarker and Londonmarker is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards.The wine is served in small Viennese pubs known as Heuriger, which are especially numerous in the wine growing areas of Döblingmarker (Grinzing, Neustift am Walde, Nußdorf, Salmannsdorf, Sievering) and Floridsdorfmarker (Stammersdorf, Strebersdorf).The wine is often drunk as a spritzer ("G'spritzter") with sparkling water. The Grüner Veltliner, a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria.

Beeris next in importance to wine. Vienna has a single large brewery, Ottakringermarker, and more than ten microbreweries.A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna has many.

Viennese cafés

Café Central
Viennese caféshave an extremely long and distinguished history that dates back centuries, and the caffeine addictions of some famous historical patrons of the oldest are something of a local legend. Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Viennese cafés claim to have invented the process of filtering coffeefrom bounty captured after the second Turkish siegein 1683. Viennese cafés claim that when the invading Turks left Vienna, they abandoned hundreds of sacks of coffee beans. The Emperor gave Franz George Kolschitzky(Polish - Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki) some of this coffee as a reward for providing information that allowed the Austrians to defeat the Turks. Kolschitzky then opened Vienna's first coffee shop. Julius Meinlset up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in 1891.

Tourist attractions

Hofburg Imperial Palace seen from Heroes' Square
Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburgmarker and Schönbrunnmarker (also home to the world's oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunnmarker) and the Riesenradmarker in the Prater.Cultural highlights include the Burgtheatermarker, the Wiener Staatsopermarker, the Lipizzaner horses at the spanische Hofreitschulemarker and the Vienna Boys' Choir, as well as excursions to Vienna's Heuriger districts.

There are also more than 100 art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year. The most popular ones are Albertinamarker, Belvederemarker, Leopold Museummarker in the Museumsquartiermarker, KunstHausWien, BA-CA Kunstforum, the twin Kunsthistorisches Museummarker and Naturhistorisches Museummarker, and the Technisches Museum Wienmarker, each of which receives over a quarter of a million visitors per year.

There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna including Beethoven's various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhofmarker (Central Cemetery) which is the largest cemetery in Vienna and the burial site of many famous people.Mozart has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Marx cemeterymarker (where his grave was lost).Vienna's many churches also draw large crowds, the most famous of which are St. Stephen's Cathedralmarker, the Deutschordenskirchemarker, the Jesuitenkirchemarker, the Karlskirchemarker, the Peterskirchemarker, Maria am Gestademarker, the Minoritenkirchemarker, the Ruprechtskirchemarker, the Schottenkirchemarker and the Votivkirchemarker.

Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus, the United Nations headquartersmarker and the view from the Donauturmmarker.File:Schloss Schoenbrunn August 2006 406.jpg|Schönbrunn PalacemarkerFile:Belvedere Vienna June 2006 010.jpg|Belvedere PalacemarkerFile:Albertina02.jpg|AlbertinamarkerFile:Naturhistorisches Museum Vienna June 2006 241.jpg|Naturhistorisches MuseummarkerFile:Austria_Parlament_Athena.jpg|The statue of Athena in front of the Austrian ParliamentFile:Secession Vienna June 2006 006.jpg|The Secessionmarker buildingFile:Wiener Riesenrad dsc02961.jpg|The Riesenradmarker in the Wiener PratermarkerFile:T-mobil center wien.jpg|Modern Vienna

International organizations in Vienna

Vienna is the seat of a number of United Nations offices and various international institutions and companies, including the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the International Atomic Energy Agencymarker (IAEA), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).Currently Vienna is the world's 4th "UN city" (after New Yorkmarker, Genevamarker and The Haguemarker).Additionally, Vienna is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law'ssecretariat (UNCITRAL). In conjunction, the University of Viennamarker annually hosts the prestigious Willem C.Vis Moot, an international commercial arbitration competition for students of law from around the world.

Various special diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in various documents bearing the name or Vienna Document. Among the more important documents negotiated in Vienna are the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, as well as the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe(CFE).

Charitable organizations in Vienna

Alongside the international and intergovernmental organisations, there are dozens of charitable organisations based in Vienna; these organisations provide reliefgoods and assistance to tens of thousands of disadvantaged children and needy people in developing countries.

One such organisation is the network of SOS Children's Villages, founded by Hermann Gmeinerin 1949. Today, SOS Children's Villages are active in 132 countries and territories worldwide. Others include HASCOand the Childrens Bridge of Hope.

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Vienna is twinnedwith the following cities:

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes:

In addition, individual Viennese districts are twinned with Japanesemarker cities/districts:



Further, the Viennese district Leopoldstadtmarker and the New York Citymarker borough Brooklynmarker entered into a partnership in 2007.

See also



References

  • Wien German language Wikipedia


External links

Official websites

Pictures and videos of Vienna

History of Vienna

nan:Wien

Roman Catholic
49.2%
No religion
25.7%
Muslim
7.8%
Orthodox
6.0%
Protestant (mostly Lutheran)
4.7%
Jewish
0.5%
Other or none indicated
6.3%

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