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The Vietnamese Martyrs, also known as the Martyrs of Tonkin, Martyrs of Annam (Vietnamese: Các Thánh Tử đạo Việt Nam), Andrew Dung-Lac and Companions (Anrê Dũng-Lạc và Các bạn tử đạo), or Martyrs of Indochina, are saints on the Roman Catholic calendar of saints canonized by Pope John Paul II. Their memorial is 24 November (although several of these saints have another memorial, as they were beatified and on the calendar prior to the canonization of the group).

History

The earliest martyrs mentioned in written sources are the Spanish Dominicans Francisco Gil de Federich and Matthew Alonzo Lenziana, who arrived in the country about 1580. In 1773 two more Dominicans were beheaded: Hyacinth Casteneda, a Spaniard who had evangelised in the Philippines and China for several years before being deported to Vietnam, where he was imprisoned for three years, and Vincent Liêm, the first Indo-Chinese Dominican to be martyred, who had ministered to his countrymen for fourteen years before being beheaded. The first Vietnamese diocesan priests, John Dat and Emmanuel Triêu, also suffered martyrdom in 1798.

It is not known precisely how many Catholics died for their faith between 1516 (when the first Portuguese missionaries arrived in what is now Vietnam) and the twentieth century; the Vatican estimates that between 130,000 and 300,000 were killed. John Paul II decided to canonize those whose names are known and unknown, giving them a single feast day.

The Vietnamese Martyrs fall into several groupings, those of the Portuguese missionary era (16th century), those of the Dominican and Jesuit missionary era of the (17th century), those killed in the politically inspired persecutions of the 19th century, and those martyred during the Communist purges of the 20th century. A representative sample of only 117 martyrs — including 96 Vietnamese, 11 Spanish Dominicans, and 10 French members of the Paris Foreign Missions Society (Missions Etrangères de Paris) (MEP) — were beatified on four separate occasions: 64 by Pope Leo XIII on May 27, 1900, eight by Pope Pius X on May 20, 1906, 20 by Pope Pius X on May 2, 1909, 25 by Pope Pius XII on April 29, 1951. All these 117 Vietnamese Martyrs were canonized on June 19, 1988. A young Vietnamese Martyr, Andrew Phú Yên, was beatified in March, 2000 by Pope John Paul II.

Vietnamese martyrs Paul Mi, Pierre Duong, Pierre Truat, martyred on 18 December 1838.
The tortures these individuals underwent are considered by the Vatican to be among the worst in the history of Christian martyrdom. The torturers hacked off limbs joint by joint, tore flesh with red hot tongs, and used drugs to enslave the minds of the victims. Christians at the time were branded on the face with the words "ta dao" ( , lit. "Perverse religion") and families and villages which subscribed to Christianity were obliterated.

The letters and example of Théophane Venard inspired the young St. Theresa of Lisieux to volunteer for the Carmelite nunnery at Hanoi, though she ultimately contracted tuberculosis and could not go. In 1865 Vénard's body was transferred to his Congregation's church in Paris, but his head remains in Vietnam.

There are several Catholic parishes in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere dedicated to the Martyrs of Vietnam (Holy Martyrs of Vietnam Parishes), one of which located just outside of Washington, DC. Others can be found in Arlington, TXmarker , Austin, Texasmarker, Denvermarker, San Antoniomarker, Texas and Richmond, Virginia. There are also churches named after individual saints, such as St. Philippe Minh Church in Saint Boniface, Manitobamarker.

List of names of the Vietnamese Martyrs

Those whose name is known are listed below:

Please keep in mind that these are the anglicized versions of their names
  • Agnes Le Thi Thanh, the mother of six
  • Andrew Dung-Lac An Tran
  • Andrew Thong Kim Nguyen
  • Andrew Trong Van Tram
  • Andrew Tuong
  • Anthony Dich Nguyen
  • Anthony Quynh Nam
  • Augustine Huy Viet Phan
  • Augustine Moi Van Nguyen
  • Augustin Schoeffer
  • Bernard Due Van Vo
  • Dominic Hanh Van Nguyen
  • Dominic Henares, a Dominican bishop from Spainmarker
  • Dominic Nicholas Dat Dinh
  • Dominic Trach Doai
  • Dominic Uy Van Bui
  • Dominic Xuyen Van Nguyen
  • Dominic Kham Viet Pham
  • Dominic Tran Duy Ninh
  • Dominic Cam
  • Dominic Huyen
  • Dominic Toai
  • Dominic Mau
  • Dominic Nhi
  • Dominic Nguyen
  • Dominic Mao
  • Emmanuel Trieu Van Nguyen
  • Francis Chieu Van Do
  • Francis Gil de Frederich
  • Francis Isidore Gagelin
  • Francis Jaccard
  • Francis Trung Von Tran
  • Francis Xavier Can Nguyen
  • Ignatius Delgado y Cebrián
  • Jacinto (Hyacinth) Casteñeda, a Dominican from Spainmarker
  • James Nam
  • Jerome Hermosilla
  • John Baptist Con
  • John Charles Cornay
  • John Dat
  • John Hoan Trinh Doan
  • John Louis Bonnard
  • John Thanh Van Dinh
  • José María Díaz Sanjurjo
  • Joseph Canh Luang Hoang
  • Joseph Fernandez
  • Joseph Hien Quang Do
  • Joseph Khang Duy Nguyen
  • Joseph Luu Van Nguyen
  • Joseph Marchand
  • Joseph Nghi Kim
  • Joseph Thi Dang Le
  • Joseph Uyen Dinh Nguyen
  • Joseph Vien Dinh Dang
  • Joseph Khang, a local doctor
  • Joseph Tuc
  • Joseph Tuan Van Tran
  • Lawrence Ngon
  • Lawrence Huong Van Nguyen
  • Luke Loan Ba Vu
  • Luke Thin Viet Pham
  • Martin Tho
  • Martin Tinh Duc Ta
  • Matthew Alonzo Leziniana
  • Matthew Dac Phuong Nguyen
  • Matthew Gam Van Le
  • Melchor Garcia Sampedro
  • Michael Dinh-Hy Ho
  • Michael My Huy Nguyen
  • Nicholas Thé Duc Bui
  • Paul Hanh
  • Paul Khoan Khan Pham
  • Paul Loc Van Le
  • Paul Tinh Bao Le
  • Paul Tong Buong
  • Paul Duong
  • Peter Tuan
  • Peter Dung Van Dinh
  • Peter Da
  • Peter Duong Van Troung
  • Peter Francis Néron
  • Peter Hieu Van Nguyen
  • Peter Quy Cong Doan
  • Peter Thi Van Truong Pham
  • Peter Tuan Ba Nguyen, a fisherman
  • Peter Tuy Le
  • Peter Van Van Doan
  • Philip Minh Van Doan
  • Pierre Borie, MEP, France
  • Simon Hoa Dac Phan
  • Stephen Theodore Cuenot, a bishop from Francemarker
  • Stephen Vinh
  • Théophane Vénard, from Francemarker
  • Thomas De Van Nguyen
  • Thomas Du Viet Dinh
  • Thomas Thien Tran
  • Thomas Toan
  • Thomas Khuong
  • Valentine Berriochoa
  • Vincent Liem the Nguyen
  • Vincent Duong
  • Vincent Tuong, a local judge
  • Vincent Yen Do


Notes

  1. St. Andrew Dung-Lac and his 116 companions
  2. Les Missions Etrangeres, p.291
  3. Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-140-51312-4.
  4. St. Andrew Dung-Lac and his 116 companions
  5. Holy Martyrs of Vietnam Parish Web Site
  6. Vietnamese Martyrs Catholic Church
  7. Holy Vietnamese Martyrs Catholic Church
  8. Queen of Vietnamese Martyrs Parish
  9. Vietnamese Martyrs Catholic Parish
  10. St. Philippe Minh Church, Winnipeg


References

  • Les Missions Etrangères. Trois siecles et demi d'histoire et d'aventure en Asie Editions Perrin, 2008, ISBN 9782262025717


See also



External links




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