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Vijayawada ( ) ( ) earlier known as Bezawada, is the third largest city in Andhra Pradeshmarker, Indiamarker, located on the banks of the Krishna River and bounded by the Indrakiladri Hills on the West and the Budameru River on the North. Vijayawada literally translates to "The Place of Victory". Its prominence as a major trading and business center has earned it the title of the "Business Capital of Andhra Pradesh”. Situated along the Chennai-Howrah and Chennai-Delhi Railway route, this is the 3rd largest railway junction in the world. The city is located in the Krishna Districtmarker, about from the state capital Hyderabadmarker. Lying in the rich coastal delta of the state, the cuisine of Vijayawada is spicy and deliciously varied.

History

The discovery of Stone Age Artifacts remains along the banks of the river from Machilipatnammarker to Nagarjuna Sagar indicates that this area was inhabited at that time.

Vijayawada is also a centre of Andhra Politics, and is a business center. The Chalukyas of Kalyan once conquered this place, and the famous Chinese Xuanzang (Hsuan-tsang) had visited this place in 639 AD when Buddhism was at its zenith in the region. Kings Choda Gangadeva and Ananga Bhimadeva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty in the 12th century whose capital was in modern Bhubaneswarmarker and who built the Lingaraj temple had re-annexed considerable part of modern Andhra region and marched up to Godavari but could not cross the wide river bed. He established a town 'Vijaya Bahuda' which means 'return after winning' which became known as Vijayawada.

According to Vishnu Puranam, King Madhava Varma built the kingdom of Vijayawada and he was the ancestor of Poosapati Kings of Vizianagaram. He also built the Holy Temple of Kanaka Durga in INDRAKILADRI.

During the British Raj the city experienced significant growth. In particular, the completion of the Prakasam Barrage in 1959, and railway bridge on the Krishna River have helped the region expand its agriculture and commercial base. Vijayawada Railway station is one of the busiest railway junctions in India. The regions around the city have fertile soil and are irrigated by the river Krishna.

Etymology

  • A legend narrates that during Dwapara Yuga, Arjuna (the Pandava prince in the Hindu epic Mahabharata) performed penance for Lord Shiva's Darshan, to gain Pasupathashtra in this location. Lord Shiva, along with Parvathi, appeared in the form of a tribal couple and blessed Arjuna.


  • Another legend states that Durga (the Hindu Goddess) rested here after killing a Rakshasa (demon) and since she was victorious (Vijaya), the place got its name, Vijayawada.


  • Another legend states that this place was known as Vijaya-vatica, which translates to "Land of Victory" but this became "Vijayawada" over the ages.


  • Another legend states that "Krishnaveni" (River Krishna) requested Arjuna to make a passage to the Bay of Bengal. Arjuna made a hole (Bezzam) through the mountains. Hence the name Bejjamwada came into existence. Bejjamwada became Bezawada over a period of time. In the 19th century, Bezawada was renamed as Vijayawada.


Geography

Vijayawada is bounded by the Indrakiladri Hills on the west and the Budameru River on the north. The Northern, North-Western, and South-Western parts of the city are covered by a low range of hills, while the Central, South-Western and North-Western parts are covered by rich and fertile agriculture lands with three major irrigation canals. The topography of Vijayawada is flat, with a few small to medium sized hills. The Krishna River runs through the city. These hills are part of the Eastern Ghats cut through by the Krishna river. They have very low elevation compared to the average elevation of the ghats. Three canals originating from the north side of the Prakasham barrage reservoir, Eluru, Bandar and Ryves, run through the city. Vijayawada is the only city in the world with two rivers, Krishna, Budameru, and three canals. Buckingham Canalmarker originates from the south side of the reservoir. Due to the presence of the Krishna river the soil around here is very fertile and cultivated intensively.

The climate is tropical, with hot summers and moderate winters. The peak temperature reaches in May-June, while the winter temperature is 20-27 C. The average humidity is 78% and the average annual rainfall is 103 cm. Vijayawada gets its rainfall from both the south-west monsoon and north-east monsoon. It's nicknamed "Blazewada" for its scorching summer heat by the Britishers.

View from a hill


The Kondapalli Killa


Kondapalli Forest

About 11 km from the western outskirts of Vijayawada lies the Kondapalli reserve forest, spread over . The forest provides Vijayawada with a "green lung". This pristine forest is home to leopards, wild dogs, jackals, wild boar, wolves etc. hills produce a soft wood is used for preparing toys of Kondapalli. They are of varied designs such as dancing toys, playing toys and so on.

There are several processes involved in the making of Kondapalli Toys. In fact it is very interesting to watch these beautiful toys being made. The craftsmen first carve the Puniki wood to give it the shape of a toy. One is amazed to learn that this white colored wood is specially grown in and around the village of Kondapalli for producing the Kondapalli Toys. The wood is stuffed with sawdust and tamarind seed paste.

When the right shape has been given by chipping the surface, the toys are painted. The Kondapalli Toys which are made for the international markets are painted with the traditional vegetable dyes. If the Kondapalli Toys are made for the domestic market, oil paints are generally used and if they are being made for a special occasion then enamel paints are used. The colored toys look very beautiful and no one can resist the temptation to purchase one or two as ornamental pieces.

Demographics

Vijayawada is the third largest city in Andhra Pradesh after Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. In the year 2009 the estimated population of the agglomeration is approximately 1149738.Source World Gazetter

Civic Administration

The city of Vijayawada is run by the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation .The Municipality of Vijayawada (Bezawada) was constituted on 1st APR, 1888 and was upgraded as a selection grade municipality in the year 1960. The municipality was upgraded to a corporation in 1981. With the merger of Gunadala, Patamata and Bhavanipuram village panchayats and two villages payakapuram and Kundavari kandrika in the corporation in 1985. More than 200000 people in metro reside outside corporation limits. Many areas on outskirts or yet to be merged into corporation limits. The total area of the corporation is and the population of the whole city (along with Vijayawada Sub-Urban and Vijayawada Rural) is close to 25 lakhs.

The city is divided into 59 political wards. An elected body headed by the Mayor performs the Administration of the Corporation. The Commissioner acts as the executive head, and oversees the day to day functioning of the local body. The commissioner who is a (IAS) officer of Joint collector rank is appointed by the state government. It has a dedicated Sub-Collector's office for Administration of State and Central Government Programmes. The staff strength of the corporation is just over 5,000. The Vijayawada City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer of DIG rank.

Economy

The region around the city has fertile soil and irrigation is supported by the river Krishna and its canals. Major crops include sugarcane, Rice and Mango. Vijayawada is famous for automobile body building, garment, iron and hardware small scale industries. Small scale automotive industries 'Jawahar Autonagar', was the largest automobile township in Asia for sometime. The main markets are situated in the old city (popularly known as One Town) and near Besant Road. It is estimated that nearly INR 10 crores of garment business takes place in the Vastralatha building alone in One Town daily. Garments are mainly sold in Besant Road and Governor Pet, but now this activity is also happening in the malls that have come up in Labbipet and M.G. Road areas. The city has many wholesale businesses. They include garments, iron market, pulses, cereals, and other edible products, fancy markets, fertilizers, mango exports, pharmacy, metal and so on. The city is one of the busiest and crowded places due to its strong commercial hold in the entire state.Vijayawada is called the Commercial Capital of Andhra Pradesh state, for it provides the right environment for all the agricultural and industrial goods to be transported in/out and traded in one single place. With the upcoming SEZs in IT and textile, Vijayawada's economy will grow further in the near future.

Vijayawada is the busiest railway junction in South India, and is the second biggest junction in Indiamarker. The fact that Vijayawada is well connected through rail and road keeps it the main hub of commercial activities.

Information Technology

The city has a strong educational infrastructure and the IT industry continues to grow. There are about 32 IT firms in Vijayawada, which generated revenues of approximately Rs.56 crores (Rs 56,00,00,000) in 2007-2008 fiscal year. Some of the IT companies here are Efftronics, PB Systems, Gapvak technologies and The UX Group. The APIIC is setting up an IT park/SEZ at Gannavaram, 20 km from the city, next to the airport, to facilitate the growth of the IT industry in this region. The construction firm, L&T, was awarded the contract for developing this IT park with a budget of Rs 300 crores. The IT park can facilitate employment of up to 10,000 IT professionals. Another IT park with an area of is being set up by VGTM-UDA in Mangalagiri.

Transport

Vijayawada is an important link connecting the three regions of Andhra Pradesh and is a major transit point. Two National Highways, the NH-5 from Chennaimarker to Kolkatamarker and the NH-9 from Machilipatnammarker to Mumbaimarker pass through the city connecting it to other parts of the country. Another National highway 221 connects the city to Jagdalpur in Madhya Pradesh state. It is connected to other areas of the state, by state highways and district roads.

Air

The domestic airport located at Gannavaram, about 20 km from the city, connects Vijayawada to Hyderabadmarker, Chennaimarker, Bangaloremarker, Rajahmundrymarker and Dubaimarker.

Rail

Situated along the Chennai - Howrahmarker and Chennai - Delhimarker rail route, Vijayawada Junction is the 3rd biggest railway junction in the world and is the largest on the South Central Railway network. Vijayawada junction had been given A-1 status by the central government. Krishna canal junction, Madhuranagar, Gunadala, Rayanapadu, Kondapalli,Nidamanuru, Gannavaram, Mustabada and Ramavarappadumarker are the other railway stations in the city. Vijayawada is the busiest railway junction in South India, and is second biggest junction in India. It has 10 platforms.It is the only railway station in south India that has escalators.

Road

Vijayawada is well connected to the rest of the country by National Highways: NH-5 and NH-9. Good motorways connect Vijayawada to all places within the state and also with major cities in India. Transport by road from Vijayawada to all the places of interest is available in the form of Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) buses.There are many buses that run between Vijayawada and Hyderabad 24 hours-a-day and365 days-a-year, unlike the rest of transportation in the state.

Local commute within the city is a breeze as all major streets are connected with the Local Public Bus Transit (City Buses) operated by APSRTC. Motor driven (auto) rickshaws and manual driven (cycle) rickshaws are the other alternative means of transport within Vijayawada. Private lorries (trucks), cars and two-wheelers (motorcycles and scooters) abound as well. Public and private bus operators provide transport services to various parts of the country.Vijayawada also has one of the biggest bus terminals in the country. It was inaugurated on 23 September 1990 and was called Telugu Satavahana Prayana Pranganam. Vijayawada is also called the City that never sleeps with reference to its busy railway junction.

Culture

There are business groups like the Sindhi and the Rajasthani in the city. They are concentrated in One-Town, the old town-nucleus. There are Tamil and Malayaleess. There is a Tamil association operating here.Similarly the Malayalees too have got their cultural organizations in Vijayawada. A few students of Tibetan and Nepalese origin come to the city to study here. There a even many Nepal students studying in andhra loyola college,vja.

Education

Vijayawada, also called as "Vidyala wada" (Place of Education), occupies a large amount of the educational infrastructure of Andhra Pradesh. The city was named as "The Educational Sahara" by a foreign ambassador earlier during the century.

Education in the city is implemented by both the government and the private institutions. Vijayawada Municipal Corporation takes care of the government educational institutions.

Following are statistics of government schools:
  • High Schools: 22(Including 1 Urdu Medium, 2 Schools both English & Telugu Media)
  • Upper Primary Schools: 15 (Including Urdu Media) ( 3 Urdu Media)
  • Elementary Schools: 52+10= 62 (10 Urdu Media, 2 English Media)
  • Students: 30,000
  • Teachers: 700


There are also “aided” schools in Vijayawada, meaning schools with both government and private partnerships as well, such as the Gollapudi high-school. Government schools are located at different places like the Jammichettu center, the Patamata high-school and Suryarao Peta, to name a few. Private schools are scattered all over the city. A majority of them implement the Andhra Pradesh State Syllabus for their students.The students, after studying their 10th class, take the Public Examination, which is equivalent of the school-leaving certificate. There are only a few schools accredited to the Central Board of Secondary Education in the city-meaning their class Ten students have to take the All India Secondary School Examination(AISSE) for their school-leaving certificate.

NTR Univ. of Health Sciences
The first college built in Vijayawada was SRR & CVR college. Andhra Loyola College was established in the year 1953 with Rev. Francis Theo Mathias, SJ as its first Principal. KBN College is another popular college in Vijayawada. The first private engineering college in Andhra Pradesh, V R Siddhartha Engineering College, is located here. The South Indian branch of the School of Architecture and Planning has been allocated to Vijayawada.

The NTR University of Health Sciences is the first medical university in India. It is a public university in the city of Vijayawada. It started functioning from 1 November 1986.

.

Politics

Vijayawada is known as the political capital of Andhra Pradesh. Factionisam prevails here with lot of resulting violence. The major political parties here are Telugu Desam Party, Indian National Congress, and the Communist Party of India . Lok Satta and Praja Rajyam are relatively new parties. Earlier it was a strong center for Congress (I) and Communist Part of India (Marxist). With the entry of Telugu Desam Party, the scenario has changed. After Lok Satta and Praja Rajyam parties entered the political scene, the political equations in Vijayawada changed yet again.

Vijayawada has three main assembly constituencies namely Vijayawada West,Vijayawada Central and Vijayawada East. Parts of the city are also present in Penamaluru, Mylavaram and Gannavaram assembly constituencies. Vijayawada has one Lok Sabha seat.

Hotels and Movie Theatres

The City of Victory is also well-known for its hotels and movie theatres. The star hotels of the city include The Gateway Hotel, Hotel Fortune Murali Park, Hotel Manorama, Hotel D.V.Manor, Hotel Mamata which are situated on M.G.Road, Hotel Ilapuram in Gandhinagar and Hotel Swarna Palace on Karl Marx Road.

There are many movie theaters in and around Vijayawada. The Gandhi nagar area has some of the best movie theaters in the city. It is located very close to the railway station. Some of the theaters include INOX, Alankar, Swarna Palace, Venkateswara Palace, Annapurna, Sakuntala, Apsara, Raj and Yuvaraj. Many exhibitors in Vijayawada are now leering to the view that only multiplexes can fetch them good returns. There are 25 new multiplex screens about to come in Vijayawada. Big names like IMax, Prasads, PVR, Sringar and Adlabsmarker are coming to Vijayawada soon.

Media

Vijayawada is an important commercial, political, and cultural center in Andhra Pradesh. The print & electronic media industries have a major presence here.

Print Media

English newspapers The Hindu, Deccan Chronicle, The New Indian Express and a large number of Telugu newspapers/magazines such as Eenadu, Andhra Jyothi, Sakshi, Andhra Bhoomi, Andhra Prabha, Surya, Visalandhra and Prajasakti have editions here.

Prominent journalists from this city include Mutnuri Krishna Rao, C Raghavachari, Moturi Hanumantha Rao, Turlapati Kutumba Rao, Nanduri Rammohana Rao, Garapati Upendra Babu, Syed Akbar, AM Khan Yazdani, Kasinaduni Nageswara Rao Pantulu, Khadar Mohiuddin, Muhammad Vazeeruddin, R Ramprasad, K Sriramulu and Kuchi Gopalakrishna.

Radio

The All India Radio(AIR) has one of its AIR stations here with three transmitters ( 100 KW MW; 1 kW MW VB and 1 kW FM (Int. set up)). The FM radio channels broadcast in the city include AIR Rainbow Krishnaveni FM (102.2 MHz), Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz) and RED FM (93.5 MHz).

Daily 6.45am All India Radio vijayawada Regional News Unit broadcasting 10min State News. 10min Reginol News in afternoon from 1.20pm to 1.30pm which covers costal Andhra & Rayalasema. Koppula SubbaRao,the Senior News Reader in Telugu still working in Vijayawada AIR. Now he have 60yrs. Still his voice is so sweet.

Television

Television Vijayawada has its own Doordarshan station, which is planning to offer more programs. Telecasting in the city is carried out mainly by two means: The Cable TV and the Direct-To-Home Satellite TV. Different cable TV providers in the city are C-Channel, Sity Cable and Local TV.

Film and Literature

'Popular Film Personalities'

Many popular and successful film personalities hail from here. They include, N T Rama Rao, Parupalli Ramakrishnaiah Pantulu, a discipline of Susarla Dhakshinamurti - Musician, Great musicians - Mangalampalli Balamuralikrishna, Balanthrapu Rajinikanthi Rao, Annavarapu Ramaswami, Pemmaraju Surya Rao.Dr.Kasinadhuni Viswanath, a legend in the field of Indian cinema hails from a village called Peddapulivarru, but settled in Vijayawada.Legendary lyricist, Veturi Sundaram Murthy, is a native of Peddakallepalli in Krishna district and has settled down in Vijayawada. 'Sirivennela' Seetharama Sastry - Popular Lyricist.

Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao from Diviseema is also associated with Vijayawada as a singer. Film dialogue writer and director, the late 'Hasya Brahma' Jandhyala, is a very popular figure.Popular Writer "Malladi Venkata Krishna Murthy" is also from here.Kota Srinivasa Rao - Versatile actor turned politician, Ravi Teja - actor, Rambha, Laya - Actress, Gundu Hanumatha Rao - Actor, Girija Sri Bhagawan - Writer, C. Kowsalendra Rao and Hari Gopalakrishna Murthy-Producers

'Writers and Social Workers'

Vijayawada is a spectrum of many a literary and social activities. Here live a number of noted contributors to literature and social ideology. To cite a few of them M.D. Dinesh Nair, a well noted lecturer in English who is one of the most popular poets in English on www.poemhunter.com lives in Vijayawada.

Print

Vijayawada is one of the earliest and still continuing publishing centers in Andhra Pradeshmarker. Vague estimates say about 90% of the total volume of books in the state are printed or published from here. The annual book festival has been quite popular with publishers from around the country participating here.

The Vijayawada Book Festival is organized every year and is second largest book festival in the country after Kolkata. This book exhibition starts on every new year day (January 1), and lasts for 10 days.

Sports

Cricket is the most popular sport, with National level cricket matches played at Indira Gandhi Stadium. A new international stadium is being built in a site in Mangalagiri which will replace the local stadium as the venue for international and Ranji matches. Badminton, Chess and Volleyball are also popular. The latest fad seems to be Archery.

Famous sports personalities from Vijayawada include:



Attractions

Religious

  • Kanaka Durga Temple: One of the most popular temples in Andhra Pradesh, it is located on Indrakeeladri hill overlooking the city as well as the River Krishna. One can either motor up the ghat road or take to the steps on foot. Inscriptions of different dynasties are found in the temple. During Dasara Festival, thousands of devotees from the city and its environs throng the temple after a holy dip in the River Krishna close by the temple.
It was built after 12th century by Maharaja Poosapati Madhava Varma, the ancestor of Vijayanagaram Poosapati Kings, according to Vishnu Puranam. He is the builder of Modern Vijayawada kingdom.



  • Old Sivaalayam Temple: One of the popular temples in Vijayawada which was located at Canal Road, Vijayawada.




  • Mangalagirimarker: Located in Gunturmarker Districtmarker, 12 km from Vijayawada is the renowned temple of Lord Narasimha in Mangalagiri, on a hillock. The unique feature of this temple is that the mouth of the idol accepts half the quantity of panakam (jaggery dissolved in water) offered by devotees, irrespective of the size of the vessel.


  • Amaravati: Amaravati in guntur district, formerly called as Dhanyakataka and Andhranagari, is one of the most important Buddhist sites in the country. Acharya Nagarjuna constructed the country's largest stupa here, 2,000 years back. Amaravati is considered the most sacred pilgrim center for Buddhists in South India. It also has an Amareswara temple.


  • Hinkar Thirtha (Jain Temple), Mangalagiri: A Jain temple here with great artistic work, it is slated to be the biggest Jain temple in the region.


  • Hazarat Bal Mosque: A holy relic of the Prophet Mohammed is kept here which is displayed once a year. A large number of non-Muslims too join the celebrations.


  • Gunadala Matha Shrine: In 1925, Rf. Arlati, the Rector of St. Joseph's Orphanage at Gunadala, installed a statue of Our Lady and later a church was built and consecrated in 1971, now popularly known as St. Mary's church. Since then the Feast of Our Lady of Lourdes became an annual event here, attended by lakh's of people. The church is situated on a hillock on the eastern side of the city.


  • Marakata Rajarajeswari Temple: Unique temple of goddess completely built with stone with intricate architecture symbolizing SRICHAKRA - the abode of mother Goddess.This temple is located in the premises of Sri Ganapati Sachidananda Swamy Ashram in Patamata. The ambience in the temple premises gives a pleasant and peaceful feel to the visitors.


  • Subramanya Swamy Temple: One of the most popular temples in Vijayawada, it is located on a hill (Indrakeeladri) overlooking the city as well as the River Krishna. One can take to the steps on foot. During Skanda Shashti Festival, thousands of regular devotees will come from Tamil Nadu. This Temple is being maintained by Iddipilli Family.


  • Sri Nagarala Sri Maha Lakshmi Ammavaru Temple: One of the most popular temples in Vijayawada, it is located in the area of Chiitinagar. During Dasara Festival, thousands of devotees from the city visit this temple. It is maintained by the Nagaralu community.


  • Chilakalapudi Panduranga Swamy Temple: One of the most popular temples Nearby Vijayawada. It was situated in Machilipatnam the district headquarters & 70km from Vijayawada. Here The God Vishnu called as Panduranga Swamy. Here The Statue of Panduranga Swamy is as same as look like in Pandaripuram MAHARASTRA.


Others

Prakasham Barrage at Vijayawada across the Krishna River


  • Manginapudi Beach: Located about 70 km from Vijayawada.


  • Undavalli caves: Located in Guntur district, five kilometres from Vijayawada, these caves are said to have been carved in the 7th century A.D. Buddhist monks used this two-storeyed cave structure as a rest house during the monsoon. A huge monolith of Lord Buddha in a reclining posture is a magnificent sight here.


  • Rajiv Gandhi Park: Created by the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation with great care, this park welcomes tourists at the entrance of the city with its impressive horticultural network. A mini zoo and a musical water fountain are added attractions.


  • Gandhi Hill: The first Gandhi Memorial with seven stupas in the country was constructed on this hill at a height of . The stupa was unveiled on 6 October 1968 by Dr. Zakir Hussain, then President of India. Gandhi Memorial Library, a Sound and Light Show on Mahatma Gandhi's life and a planetarium are the other attractions. Gandhi Hill is open to the public every day between 4pm and 8.30pm except on Tuesdays. The Planetarium show runs everyday at 6.30pm except on Tuesdays. There is also a toy train on top of the Gandhi Hill that goes around the hill and gives a bird's eye view of the entire city.


  • Victoria Museum: A place for archaeology lovers, Victoria Museum has a carefully preserved collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions.


  • Mogalarajapuram Caves: These caves are said to have been excavated in the 5th century A.D. The caves are reputed to be the first of their kind in South India. The idols of the Hindu Gods Nataraja, Vinayaka and Arthanareeswara are carved here, but none of the statues are available here.


  • Bhavani Island: Perhaps one of the largest islands on a river, Bhavani Island is located on the Krishna River close to the city. AP Tourism is converting this 133 acre (54 hectare) island into an attractive tourist spot and a River Front Resort. The island currently has some cottages to stay in and some good adventure and fun sports. Journey to the island by boat is very pleasant.


  • Kondapalli Fort: Kondapalli village is situated from Vijayawada. A 7th century fort on the hill with an impressive three storeyed rock tower was witness to the glory of many dynasties. This fort was built by King Krishna Deva Raya. It served as a business centre. Finally the fort was used as a military training base by the British rulers. A good picnic spot, the village is famous for toy making with light-weight wood available on the hill forest. These toys are famous the world-over as "Kondapalli toys".


  • Haritha Berm Park: Haritha Berm Park which is also known as the Punnami Beach Resort, is located quite close to the Prakasm Barrage. The resort has both air-conditioned and non air-conditioned boats and organizes a trip every evening across the river and around the Bhavani island. The trip lasts around one hour and is really enjoyable.


References

  1. http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/25/stories/2006052503630200.htm
  2. VMC
  3. http://www.efftronics.com
  4. http://www.pbsystems.com
  5. http://www.gapvak.co.in
  6. http://theuxgroup.com
  7. http://www.newindpress.com/NewsItems.asp?ID=IEA20080323235149&Page=A&Title=Southern+News+-+Andhra+Pradesh&Topic=0
  8. Vijayawada cricket stadium
  9. The Hindu: Andhra Pradesh / Vijayawada News: Keeping home turf in top shape


External links




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