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Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian: Viktor Andrijovyč Juščenko) (born February 23, 1954) is the third and current President of Ukrainemarker. He took office on January 23, 2005.

As an informal leader of the Ukrainian opposition coalition, he was one of the two main candidates in the October–November 2004 Ukrainian presidential election. Yushchenko won the election through a re-vote of the runoff between him and Viktor Yanukovych, the government-supported candidate. The Ukrainian Supreme Court called for the run-off election to be repeated because of widespread election fraud in favor of Viktor Yanukovych in the original voting. Yushchenko won in the revote (52% to 44%). Public protests prompted by the electoral fraud played a major role in that presidential election and led to Ukraine's Orange Revolution.

Early life

Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko was born on February 23, 1954 in Khoruzhivkamarker, Sumy Oblastmarker, Ukrainian SSR, USSRmarker, into a family of teachers. His father, Andriy Andriyovych Yushchenko (1919–1992), fought in the Second World War, was captured by German forces and imprisoned as a POW in a series of concentration camps in Poland and Germany, including Auschwitz-Birkenaumarker. He survived the ordeal, and after returning home, taught English at a local school. Viktor's mother, Varvara Tymofiyovna Yushchenko (1918–2005), taught physics and mathematics at the same school.

Viktor Yushchenko graduated from the Ternopil Finance and Economics Institute in 1975 and began work as an accountant, as a deputy to the chief accountant in a kolkhoz. Then from 1975 to 1976 he served as a conscript in the KGBmarker Border Guard on the SovietmarkerTurkishmarker border.

Central banker

In 1976 Yushchenko began a career in banking. In 1983, he became the Deputy Director for Agricultural Credit at the Ukrainian Republican Office of the USSR State Bank. From 1990 to 1993, he worked as vice-chairman and first vice-chairman of the JSC Agroindustrial Bank Ukraina. In 1993, he was appointed Chairman of the National Bank of Ukraine (Ukraine's central bank). In 1997, Verkhovna Radamarker, the parliament of Ukraine, re-appointed him.

As a central banker, Yushchenko played an important part in the creation of Ukrainemarker's national currency, the hryvnia, and the establishment of a modern regulatory system for commercial banking. He also successfully overcame a debilitating wave of hyper-inflation that hit the country—he brought inflation down from more than 10,000 percent to less than 10 percent—and managed to defend the value of the currency following the 1998 Russian financial crisis.

In 1998, he wrote a thesis entitled "The Development of Supply and Demand of Money in Ukraine" and defended it in the Ukrainian Academy of Banking. He thereby earned a doctorate in economics.

Prime Minister

In December 1999, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma unexpectedly nominated Yushchenko to be the prime minister after the parliament failed by one vote to ratify the previous candidate, Valeriy Pustovoytenko.

Ukraine's economy improved during Yushchenko's cabinet service. However, his government, particularly Deputy Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko, soon became embroiled in a confrontation with influential leaders of the coal mining and natural gas industries. The conflict resulted in a 2001 no-confidence vote by the parliament, orchestrated by the Communists, who opposed Yushchenko's economic policies, and by centrist groups associated with the country's powerful "oligarchs." The vote passed 263 to 69 and resulted in Yushchenko's removal from office.

Many Ukrainians viewed the fall of Yushchenko's government with dismay, and they gathered four million votes on a petition supporting him and opposing the parliamentary vote. Supporters also organized a 10,000-strong demonstration in Kievmarker, the country's capital. Yushchenko gave a moving speech before the crowd, vowing to return one day.

"Our Ukraine" leader

In 2002, Yushchenko became the leader of the Our Ukraine (Nasha Ukrayina) political coalition, which received a plurality of seats in the year's parliamentary election. However, the number of seats won was not a majority, and efforts to form a majority coalition with other opposition parties failed. Since then, Yushchenko has remained the leader and public face of the Our Ukraine parliamentary faction.

In the Autumn of 2001 both Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko broached at creating a broad opposition bloc against the incumbent President Leonid Kuchma in order to win the Ukrainian presidential election 2004.

Late 2002 Yushchenko, Oleksandr Moroz (Socialist Party of Ukraine), Petro Symonenko (Communist Party of Ukraine) and Yulia Tymoshenko (Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc) issued a joint statement concerning "the beginning of a state revolution in Ukraine". The communist stept out of the alliance, Symonenko was against a single candidate from the alliance in the Ukrainian presidential election 2004, but the other three party's remained allies (until July 2006).

On July 2, 2004 Our Ukraine and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc established the Force of the people, a coalition which aimed to stop "the destructive process that has, as a result of the incumbent authorities, become a characteristic for Ukraine", at the time President Kuchma and Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych where the incumbent authorities in Ukraine. The pact included a promise by Viktor Yushchenko to nominate Tymoshenko as Prime Minister if Yushchenko would win the October 2004 presidential election.

Yushchenko was widely regarded as the moderate political leader of the anti-Kuchma opposition, since other opposition parties were less influential and had fewer seats in parliament. Since becoming President of Ukraine in 2005, he has been an honorary leader of the Our Ukraine party.

Presidential election of 2004

In 2004, as President Kuchma's term came to an end, Yushchenko announced his candidacy for president as an independent . His major rival was Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych. Since his term as prime minister, Yushchenko had slightly modernized his political platform, adding social partnership and other liberal slogans to older ideas of European integration, including Ukraine's joining NATOmarker and fighting corruption. Supporters of Yushchenko were organized in the "Syla Narodu" ("Power to the People") electoral coalition, which he and his political allies led, with the Our Ukraine coalition as the main constituent force.

Yushchenko built his campaign on face-to-face communication with voters, since the government prevented most major TV channels from providing equal coverage to candidates. Meanwhile, his rival, Yanukovych, frequently appeared in the news and even accused Yushchenko, whose father was a Red Army soldier imprisoned at Auschwitzmarker, of being "a Nazi".

Dioxin poisoning

The campaign was often bitter and violent. Yushchenko became seriously ill in early September 2004. He was flown to Viennamarker's Rudolfinerhaus clinic for treatment and diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, accompanied by interstitial edematous changes, due to a serious viral infection and chemical substances that are not normally found in food products. Yushchenko claimed that he had been poisoned by government agents. After the illness, his face was greatly disfigured: jaundiced, bloated, and pockmarked.

Britishmarker toxicologist Professor John Henry of St Mary's Hospitalmarker in Londonmarker declared the changes in Yushchenko's face were due to chloracne, which result from dioxin poisoning. Dutchmarker toxicologist Bram Brouwer also stated his changes in appearance were the result of chloracne, and found dioxin levels in Yushchenko's blood 6,000 times above normal.

On December 11, Dr. Michael Zimpfer of the Rudolfinerhaus clinic declared that Yushchenko had ingested TCDD dioxin and had 1,000 times the usual concentration in his body. Not all in the medical community agreed with this diagnosis, including the clinic's own chief medical director, Dr. Lothar Wicke, who stated there was no evidence of poisoning and claimed to have been forced to resign because of his disagreement. Wicke also claimed to have been threatened by Yushchenko's associates. Wicke's claims led some to question Yushchenko's truthfulness and motives.

Many have linked Yushchenko's poisoning to a dinner with a group of senior Ukrainian officials (including Volodymyr Satsyuk) that took place on 5 September.

Since 2005, Yushchenko has been treated by a team of doctors led by Professor Jean Saurat at the University of Genevamarker Hospital. Saurat has recently published academic papers on the metabolism of dioxin in the human body.

In June 2008, David Zhvania, a former political ally of Yushchenko and an ex-minister in the first Tymoshenko Government, claimed in an interview with the BBC that Yushchenko had not been poisoned in 2004 and that laboratory results in the case had been falsified.

However, Yushchenko himself implicated David Zhvania, the godfather of one of his children, of involvement in his dioxin poisoning. [92091]

In September 2009 Larysa Cherednichenko, former head of the department for supervision over investigations into criminal cases of the Ukrainian Prosecutor General's Office, acknowledged this theory and said high-ranking officials from the presidential secretariat and family members of Yuschenko falsified evidence in his poisoning case. Cherednichenko claims she was warned that she would be dismissed from her office immediately after she wrote her report on August 26, 2009 and said she was offered two positions, which she refused and contested her dismissal in court. According to Cherednichenko she was fired from her job after submitting her report, according to the the Office of the Prosecutor General her dismissal had nothing to do with her allegations and was a part of a staffing reorganization that had been planned long before she submitted her report and measures are under way to find her another job Prosecutor: Yushchenko was deliberately poisoned in 2004, Kyiv Post (September 23, 2009).

In August 2009, The Lancet published a scientific paper by Swiss and Ukrainian researchers on the monitoring, form, distribution, and elimination of TCDD in Yushchenko after he presented with severe poisoning. The 2004 TCDD levels in Yushchenko's blood serum were 50,000-fold greater than those in the general population. This new study also concluded that the dioxin "was so pure that it was definitely made in a laboratory".

In September 2009, a special commission, created by Verkhovna Radamarker, came to a conclusion Yushchenko dioxin poisoning was falsified to strengthen his positions during 2004 presidential elections. The commission demanded to bring to justice those guilty in fabrication of blood tests. There were allegations US intelligence services injected blood samples taken from Yushchenko with dioxin to feign poisoning. These allegations were dismissed by Ukraine's Office of the Prosecutor General.

On September 27, 2009 Yushchenko said in an interview aired on Channel 1+1 that the testimony of the three men who were at a dinner in 2004 at which he believes he was poisoned were staying in Russia. Ukrainian prosecutors said Russiamarker has refused to extradite one of the men, the former deputy chief of Ukraine's security service, Volodymyr Satsyuk, because he holds both Russian and Ukrainian citizenship.

Unprecedented three rounds of voting

The initial vote, held on October 31, 2004, saw Yushchenko obtaining 39.87% in front of Yanukovych with 39.32%. As no candidate reached the 50% margin required for outright victory, a second round of run-off voting was held on November 21, 2004. Although a 75% voter turnout was recorded, observers reported many irregularities and abuses across the country, such as organized multiple voting and extra votes for Yanukovych after the polls closed. Exit poll results put Yushchenko ahead in the western and central provinces of the country, and one poll gave him an 11% margin of victory. However, the final official result was a 3% margin of victory for Yanukovych.

The allegations of electoral fraud and the discrepancy between exit polls and the final tally prompted Yushchenko and his supporters to refuse to recognize the results.

After thirteen days of massive popular protests in Kievmarker and other Ukrainian cities that became known as the Orange Revolution, the Supreme Court overturned the election results and ordered a re-vote of the run-off election for December 26. Yushchenko proclaimed a victory for the opposition and declared his confidence that he would be elected with at least 60% of the vote. He did win the re-vote of second round, but with 52% of the vote.

Ukrainian presidential election, 2010

On November 10, 2009, Viktor Yushchenko nominated for a second term as President, to be contested on January 17, 2010 presidential poll. During the campaign Yushchenko stated his fellow candidates "Tymoshenko and Yanukovych are not the ideologists who care about the fate of Ukraine and its interests. These are two political adventurers" and that Ukraine's independence and sovereignty was at the time more jeopardized than five to ten years earlier.

Late November 2009 Yushchenko stated he was going to leave politics after his second term run.

Opinion Polls

Viktor Yushchenko's support has slumped from a high of 52% in 2004 to below 4% in Ukrainian public opinion polls with most political commentators writing off his chances of being re-elected to a second term of office. A recent public opinion poll indicated that 83% of Ukrainians will not vote for Yushchenko All recent polls have indicated that Yushchenko's rivals Viktor Yanukovych and Yulia Tymoshenko will face off in a second round run-off ballot expected to be held in February 2010

Yushchenko attributed this low popularity ratings to adherence to his principles.

President

Inauguration

At 12 pm (Kiev time) on January 23, 2005, the inauguration of Viktor Yushchenko as the President of Ukraine took place. The event was attended by various foreign dignitaries, including:



Presidency



The first 100 days of Yushchenko's term, January 23, 2005 through May 1, 2005, were marked by numerous dismissals and appointments at all levels of the executive branch. He appointed Yulia Tymoshenko as Prime Minister and the appointment was ratified by parliament. Oleksandr Zinchenko was appointed the head of the presidential secretariat with a nominal title of Secretary of State. Petro Poroshenko, a cutthroat competitor of Tymoshenko for the post of Prime Minister, was appointed Secretary of the Security and Defense Council.

In August 2005, Yushchenko joined with Georgianmarker President Mikheil Saakashvili in signing the Borjomi Declaration, which called for the creation of an institution of international cooperation, the Community of Democratic Choice, to bring together the democracies and incipient democracies in the region around the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas. The first meeting of presidents and leaders to discuss the CDC took place on December 1–2, 2005 in Kiev.

Dismissal of other Orange Revolution members

On September 8, 2005, Yushchenko fired his government, led by Yulia Tymoshenko, after resignations and claims of corruption.

On September 9, acting Prime Minister Yuriy Yekhanurov tried to form a new government. His first attempt, on September 20, fell short by 3 votes of the necessary 226, but on September 22 the parliament ratified his government with 289 votes.

Also in September 2005, former president Leonid Kravchuk accused exiled Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky of financing Yushchenko's presidential election campaign, and provided copies of documents showing money transfers from companies he said were controlled by Berezovsky to companies controlled by Yushchenko's official backers. Berezovsky confirmed that he met Yushchenko's representatives in London before the election, and that the money was transferred from his companies, but he refused to confirm or deny that the money was used in Yushchenko's campaign. Financing of election campaigns by foreign citizens is illegal in Ukraine.

In August 2006, Yushchenko appointed his onetime opponent in the presidential race, Viktor Yanukovych, to be the new Prime Minister. This was generally regarded as indicating a rapprochement with Russia.

First dissolution of Parliament

On April 2, 2007, Yushchenko signed an order to dissolve the parliamentmarker and call early elections. Some consider the dissolution order illegal because none of the conditions spelled out under Article 90 of the Constitution of Ukraine for the president to dissolve the legislature had been met. Yushchenko's detractors argued that he was attempting to usurp the functions of the Constitutional Court by claiming constitutional violations by the parliament as a pretext for his action; the parliament appealed the Constitutional Court itself and promised to abide by its ruling. In the meantime, the parliament continued to meet and banned the financing of any new election pending the Constitutional Court's decision. Competing protests took place and the crisis escalated. In May 2007 Yushchenko illegally dismissed three members of Ukraine's Constitutional Court preventing the court from ruling on the constitutionality of his decree dismissing Ukraine's parliament.

Second dissolution of Parliament

Yushchenko again tried to dissolved the parliament on October 9, 2008 by announcing parliamentary elections to be held on December 7. Yushchenko's decree was suspended and has since lapsed. Yushchenko in defense of his actions said, "I am deeply convinced that the democratic coalition was ruined by one thing alone—human ambition. The ambition of one person." Political groups including members of his own Our Ukraine party contested the election decree and politicians vowed to challenge it in the courts.

In December 2008, following a back room revolt from members of our Ukraine-Peoples' Self Defense Party a revised coalition was formed between members of Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (OU-PSD), the Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (BYuT), and the Lytvyn Bloc (LB), increasing the size of the governing coalition by an additional 20 members. Yushchenko in responding to journalists questions claimed "The fact is that the so-called coalition was formed on basis of political corruption, this coalition will be able to work only if the Communist Party will join it. Speaking about such a type of coalition, it is even more shameful." Victor Yushchenko also stated that Yulia Tymoshenko’s desire to keep her job as Prime Minister was the main motive for creating the coalition and that he wanted to expel the OU-PSD lawmakers who supported the creation of the coalition from the list of members of parliament.

Yuschenko claimed (March 19, 2009) that his conflicts with Tymoshenko are not due to personal differences, but to the incompleteness of the constitutional reforms of 2004.

On July 23, 2009 under the terms of Ukraine's Constitution the president can not dismiss the parliament within six months from the expiration of his five-year term of authority which ends on January 23, 2010.

Public opinion polls

Victor Yushchenko's support in Ukraine according to recent public opinion polls has plummeted, from a high of 52% following his election in 2004 to below 4%, with most commentators writing off his chances of being reelected to a second term of office. According to a public opinion poll conducted by FOM-Ukraine in September/October 2009 88.5% of those polled did not support the actions of Yushchenko as President, while 6.7% welcomed them.

Political positions

On March 31, 2009, in his address to the nation before Parliament, Yushchenko proposed sweeping government reform changes and an economic and social plan to ameliorate current economic conditions in Ukraine and apparently to respond to standing structural problems in Ukraine's political system.

The proposal, which Yushchenko called a 'next big step forward for fairness and prosperity in Ukraine' included the following proposals:
  • Restore financial stability in the country by implementing the IMFmarker reforms and a balanced budget
  • Abolish parliamentary immunity
  • Fair pension system based on the number of years of work and salary received
  • Pass a realistic state budget for 2009 that reduces inflation and stabilizes the hryvna
  • Have the state assume responsibility for struggling banks
  • Rejuvenate rural areas by eliminating state interference in agriculture production
  • Promote Ukrainian products abroad to increase sales for our producers
  • European Union membership and increased trade while simultaneously improving relations and trade with Russiamarker
  • Allow voters to elect members of parliament from the areas where they live
  • Open up party lists for both parliamentary and local elections
  • Create bicameral parliament to bring stability to our legislative branch
  • Reduce the number of members of parliament


Yushchenko also advocates NATO membership for Ukraine and is against promoting Russian as the second state language in Ukraine.

According to Yushchenko a good future for the country is impossible without national unity. Yushchenko also advocates the formation of a single Orthodox Church in Ukraine, thus unifying the current three branches of the Orthodox church in Ukraine (the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate, the only one recognized by the world orthodox community, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kyiv Patriarchate and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church).

Actions by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army have been praised by Yushchenko, and he has tried to give anti-Sovietmarker partisans who fought in World War II the status of war veterans.

Yushchenko thinks that "the Russia-Georgia war of August 2008 poses a threat that European leaders still haven’t addressed". He has called for a demarcation of borders between Russiamarker and Ukraine, which has been delayed by Russia since Ukraine won independence from the Soviet Unionmarker in 1991. During the campaign for the Ukrainian presidential election, 2010 Yushchenko said Russiamarker’s influence was again a factor in the upcoming election and warned of “interference” from Moscowmarker in the distribution of Russian passports to residents of Crimeamarker.

Yuschenko's 2010 presidential election program promised visa-free travel with EU, the withdrawal of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federationmarker by 2017 and "an active dialogue with all of Ukraine's neighbours based on the principles of equal rights, good neighbourly relations and mutual trust", but not mention NATO membership. Yuschenko also believed that the 2008–2009 Ukrainian financial crisis could be tackled with the help of reconstruction, including road reconstruction.

Family and private life

Yushchenko is married to Kateryna Yushchenko-Chumachenko (his second wife). She is a Ukrainian-Americanmarker born in Chicagomarker who received a degree in Economics from Georgetown University and an MBA from the University of Chicago. She also studied at the Ukrainian Institute at Harvard University. Her resume includes working for the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, the Bureau for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs at the U.S.marker State Departmentmarker, the Reagan White House, the US Treasury Department, and the Joint Economic Committee of Congress. In Ukraine she first worked with the US-Ukraine Foundation, then as Country Director for KPMG Barents Group.

Kateryna Yushchenko heads the Ukraine 3000 Foundation, which emphasizes promoting civil society, particularly charity and corporate responsibility. The Foundation implements programs in the areas of children's health, integrating the disabled, improving education, supporting culture and the arts, publishing books, and researching history, particularly the Holodomor. From 1995 to 2005, she worked closely with Pryately Ditey, an organization that helps Ukrainian orphans.

Criticized by her husband's opponents for her US citizenship, Kateryna became a Ukrainian citizen on March 2005 and renounced her US citizenship, as required by Ukrainian law, in March 2007. During the 2004 election campaign, she was accused of exerting influence on behalf of the U.S. government on her husband's decisions, as an employee of the U.S. government or even a CIA agent. A Russianmarker state television journalist had earlier accused her of leading a U.S. project to help Yushchenko seize power in Ukraine; in January 2002, she won a libel case against that journalist. Ukraine's then anti-Yushchenko TV channel Inter repeated the allegations in 2001, but in January 2003 she won a libel case against that channel as well.

Yushchenko has five children and two grandchildren: sons Andriy (1985) and Taras (2004), daughters Vitalina (1980), Sophia (1999) and Chrystyna (2000), grandchildren Domenika (2000) and Victor (2005).

A practicing member of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Yushchenko often emphasizes the important role of his religious convictions in his life and worldview.

Yushchenko's speech is heavily loaded with Surzhyk elements. His main hobbies are Ukrainian traditional culture (including art, ceramics, and archaeology), mountaineering, and beekeeping. He is keen on painting, collects antiques, folk artefacts, and Ukrainian national dress, and restores objects of Trypillya culture.

Each year he climbs Hoverlamarker, Ukraine's highest mountain. After receiving a checkup in which doctors determined he was healthy despite the previous year's dioxin poisoning, he successfully climbed the mountain again on July 16, 2005.

Cultural and political image

As a politician, Viktor Yushchenko is widely perceived as a mixture of Western-oriented and moderate Ukrainian nationalist. He advocates moving Ukraine in the direction of Europe and NATO, promoting free market reforms, reforming medicine, education, and the social system, preserving Ukraine's culture, rebuilding important historical monuments, and remembering Ukraine's history, including the Holodomor famine of 1932–1933. His opponents (and allies) sometimes criticize him for indecision and secrecy, while advocates call the same attributes signs of Yushchenko's commitment to teamwork, consensus, and negotiation. He is also often accused of being unable to form a unified team free of inner quarrels.

After the end of his term as prime minister, Yushchenko became a charismatic political figure popular among Ukrainians in the western and central regions of the country. In 2001–2004, his rankings in popularity polls were higher than those of President Leonid Kuchma.

However, in the latest parliament election in March 2006, the Our Ukraine party, led by Prime Minister Yekhanurov, received less than 14% of the national vote and took third place behind the Party of Regions, and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc. In a poll undertaken by the Sofia Social research centre between July 27 and August 7, 2007 over 52% of those polled said they distrusted Ukraine's president. In 2008 Viktor Yushchenko's popularity plunged to less than 10%. According to a poll carried out by the Kiev International Institute for Sociology between January 29 and February 5, 2009, just under 70% of Ukrainian voters believe Yushchenko should leave his post, whereas just over 19% believe he should stay. When asked if Yushchenko should be impeached, over 56% of those polled were in favor with almost 27% against.

See also



References

  1. Yushchenko approval rating FOM-Ukraine Retrieved on October 18, 2009
  2. Understanding Ukrainian Politics: Power, Politics, and Institutional Design by Paul D'Anieri, M.E. Sharpe, 2006, ISBN 0765618117/ISBN 978-0765618115, page 117
  3. Ukraine coalition born in chaos, BBC News (July 11, 2006)
  4. Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine's Democratic Breakthrough by Anders Aslund and Michael A. McFaul, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2006, ISBN 0870032216/ISBN 978-0870032219
  5. Requests from Administration of President Kuchma to media.
  6. Zhvania: results of expertises on case of Yushchenko's poisoning were falsified : Ukraine News by UNIAN
  7. Ukrainian prosecutor says evidence was falsified in Yuschenko poisoning case - newspaper, Interfax-Ukraine (September 19, 2009)
  8. Associated Press: Study: Dioxin that poisoned Yushchenko made in lab
  9. Рада требует завести дело по факту фальсификации отравления Ющенко, Segodnya (September 23, 2009)
  10. Yushchenko to Russia: Hand over witnesses, Kyiv Post (September 28, 2009)
  11. Yushchenko: Ukraine's independence, sovereignty currently jeopardized, Kyiv Post (November 21, 2009)
  12. Panorama: Yushchenko will leave politics after second term, Kyiv Post (November 28, 2009)
  13. Yushchenko attributes his low popularity ratings to adherence to his principles, Kyiv Post (November 28, 2009)
  14. Ukraine leader to build new team 9 September 2005
  15. Ukraine comeback kid in new deal 4 August 2006
  16. reuters.com, Ukraine president sets parliament election for Dec 7
  17. ap.google.com, Ukraine's president sets date for new election
  18. Yushchenko wants to expel lawmakers who supported coalition, UNIAN (17 December 2008)
  19. Yuschenko Advocates Expulsion Of Our Ukraine People's Union MPs That Support Coalition, Ukrainian News Agency (17 December 2008)
  20. Yuschenko describes his relations with Tymoshenko an internal affair, Interfax-Ukraine (March 29, 2009)
  21. Socis Poll: 25% Of Ukrainians Prepared To Support Yanukovych For President, 20.5% To Vote For Tymoshenko, Ukrainian News (August 17, 2009)
  22. Poll: Ukrainians not supporting activities of president, premier, Kyiv Post (October 12, 2009)
  23. The Next Big Step: Fairness and Prosperity for All Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko elections website
  24. Yushchenko: Ukraine has every chances to be European Union member, Kyiv Post (October 16, 2009)
  25. 'The Problems Began After the Orange Revolution', Spiegel Online (July 9, 2009)
  26. Yuschenko says good future for Ukraine impossible without national unity, reconciliation, Interfax-Ukraine (October 14, 2009)
  27. 'Yushchenko pushes for official recognition of OUN-UPA combatants'
  28. Yushchenko Warns Obama of Russia’s Post-Georgia Security Threat, Bloomberg (September 20, 2009)
  29. Monday Morning: Yushchenko says NATO needed to safeguard independence, Kyiv Post (September 28, 2009)
  30. Yuschenko's election platform promises visa-free travel with EU, not mentioning NATO membership, Kyiv Post (November 23, 2009)
  31. Yuschenko: crisis could be tackled through reconstruction, including road reconstruction, Kyiv Post (November 21, 2009)
  32. "UOC-MP threatens sanctions against President Yushchenko" UkrWeekly 14.05.2006
  33. in Surzhyk" Trud 27.06.2006 (in Russian)
  34. Корреспондент » Украина » Политика » Лидер социалистов рассказал Ющенко о "задрипаній козі у королівських покоях"
  35. Russia's neighbours go their own way by Bridget Kendall, BBC News (21 August 2008)
  36. Poll says Ukraine's president should step down now, UNIAN (February 17, 2009)


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