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The Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (VAG), also known as Volkswagen Group or as VW, is an automobile manufacturer and mobility organisation based in Wolfsburgmarker, Lower Saxonymarker, Germanymarker and is the pioneer brand within the Volkswagen Group, which contains the car brands Audi AG, Bentley Motors Limited, Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S.marker, Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A, SEAT, Škoda Auto and heavy goods vehicle manufacturer Scania ABmarker. The Supervisory Board of Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (VAG) has endorsed the creation of an integrated automotive group with Porsche under the leadership of Volkswagen.

Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, in which it is pronounced . Its current tagline or slogan is Das Auto (in English The Car). Its previous German tagline was Aus Liebe zum Automobil, which translates to: Out of Love for the Car, or, For Love of the Automobile, as translated by VW in other languages.

In November 2009, Volkswagen-Porsche overtook Toyota to become the world's largest car manufacturer in terms of production, as the German group benefits from state-backed stimulus packages around the world.


For vehicle time line tables, see: Volkswagen ,

In the early 1930s German auto industry was still largely composed of luxury models, and the average German rarely could afford something more than a motorcycle. Seeking a potential new market, some auto industries begun independent projects of a "Volks Auto" (people's automobile) - Mercedes' 170H, Adler's AutoBahn, Steyr 55, Hanomag 1,3L, among others.The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the basic design in the middle 1920's. Joseph Ganz developed the Standard Superior (going as far as advertising it as the "German Volkswagen"). Also, in Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinka's penned Tatra 77, a very popular car amongst the German elite, was becoming smaller and more affordable at each revision.In 1933, with many of the above projects still in development or early stages of production, Adolf Hitler declared his intentions for a state-sponsored "Volkswagen" program. Hitler required a basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at . The "People's Car" would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a savings scheme at 990 Reichsmark, about the price of a small motorcycle (an average income being around 32RM a week).

Despite heavy lobbing in favor of one of the existing projects, Hitler choose to sponsor an all new, state owned factory. The engineer chosen for the task was Ferdinand Porsche. By then an already famed engineer, Porsche was the designer of the Mercedes 170H, and worked at Steyr for quite some time in the late 1920s. When he opened his own design studio he landed two separate "Auto für Jedermann" (car for everybody) projects with NSU and Zündapp, both motorcycle manufacturers. Neither project come to fruition, stalling at prototype phase, but the basic concept remained in Porsche's mind time enough, so on 22 June 1934, Dr. Ferdinand Porsche agreed to create the "People's Car" for Hitler.

Changes included better fuel efficiency, reliability, ease of use, and economically efficient repairs and parts. The intention was that ordinary Europeans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme (" " — "Save five Marks a week, if you want to drive your own car"), which around 336,000 people eventually paid into. Volkswagen honoured its savings agreements in West Germanymarker (but not in East Germanymarker) after World War II . Prototypes of the car called the "KdF-Wagen" (German: Kraft durch Freude — "strength through joy"), appeared from 1936 onwards (the first cars had been produced in Stuttgartmarker). The car already had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine. The VW car was just one of many KdF programmes which included things such as tours and outings. The prefix Volks— ("People's") was not just applied to cars, but also to other products in Europe; the "Volksempfänger" radio receiver for instance. On 28 May 1937, the Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH was established by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront. It was later renamed "Volkswagenwerk GmbH" on 16 September 1938.

VW Type 82E
Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, developed the car body of the prototype, which was recognizably the Beetle known today. It was one of the first to be evolved with the aid of a wind tunnel, in use in Germany since the early 1920s.

The building of the new factory started 26 May 1938 in the new town of KdF-Stadt, now called Wolfsburgmarker, which had been purpose-built for the factory workers. This factory had only produced a handful of cars by the time war started in 1939. None was actually delivered to any holder of the completed saving stamp books, though one Type 1 Cabriolet was presented to Hitler on 20 April 1938 (his 49th birthday).

War meant production changed to military vehicles, the Type 82 Kübelwagen ("Tub car") utility vehicle (VW's most common wartime model), and the amphibious Schwimmwagen which were used to equip the German forces.
Volkswagen factory with its own power plant

1945: British Army, Major Ivan Hirst, unclear future

The company owes its post-war existence largely to one man, British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst, REME. In April 1945, KdF-Stadt, and its heavily bombed factory were captured by the Americansmarker, and subsequently handed over to the Britishmarker, within whose occupation zone the town and factory fell. The factories were placed under the control of Oldhammarker-born Hirst. At first, the plan was to use it for military vehicle maintenance. Since it had been used for military production, and had been in Hirst's words a "political animal" rather than a commercial enterprise, the equipment was in time intended to be salvaged as war reparations. Hirst painted one of the factory's cars green and demonstrated it to British Army headquarters. Short of light transport, in September 1945 the British Army was persuaded to place a vital order for 20,000. The first few hundred cars went to personnel from the occupying forces, and to the German Post Office.

Some British Service personnel were allowed to take their VW Beetle back to the United Kingdommarker when they were demobilized, and one of the very first Beetles brought back in that way (UK registration number JLT 420) is still owned by Peter Colborne-Baber, the son of the original proprietor of the UK's first official Volkswagen Importer, Colborne Garages of Ripley, Surreymarker.

By 1946 the factory was producing 1,000 cars a month, a remarkable feat considering it was still in disrepair. Owing to roof and window damage, rain stopped production and new vehicles were bartered for steel required for more production.

The car, and its town changed their Second World War-era names to "Volkswagen", and "Wolfsburgmarker" respectively, and production was increasing. It was still unclear what was to become of the factory. It was offered to representatives from the British, American and French motor industries. Famously, all rejected it. After an inspection of the plant, Sir William Rootes, head of the British Rootes Group, told Hirst the project would fail within two years, and that the car "is quite unattractive to the average motorcar buyer, is too ugly and too noisy … If you think you're going to build cars in this place, you're a bloody fool, young man". In an ironic twist of fate, Volkswagen would manufacture a locally built version of Rootes's Hillman Avenger in Argentinamarker in the 1980s, long after Rootes had gone bankrupt at the hands of Chrysler in 1978—the Beetle outliving the Avenger by over 30 years.

Ford representatives were equally critical: the car was "not worth a damn," according to Henry Ford II, the son of Edsel Ford, although he did reportedly look at the possibility of taking over the VW factory, but dismissed the idea as soon as he looked up Wolfsburg on the map and found it to be too close for comfort to the East German border.

In Francemarker, Citroën started the 2CV on a similar marketing concept. Meanwhile, in Italymarker, the Fiat 500 "Topolino" was developed.

Survival in Allied occupied Germany

In Occupied Germany, the Allies followed the Morgenthau Plan, to remove all German war potential, by complete or partial pastoralisation. As part of this, in the Industrial plans for Germany, the rules for which industry Germany was to be allowed to retain were set out. German car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production numbers.

As mentioned above, the Volkswagen factory at Wolfsburgmarker came under British control in 1945; it was to be dismantled and shipped to Britain. Thankfully for Volkswagen, no British car manufacturer was interested in the factory; "the vehicle does not meet the fundamental technical requirement of a motor-car … it is quite unattractive to the average buyer … To build the car commercially would be a completely uneconomic enterprise". The factory survived by producing cars for the British Army instead. Allied dismantling policy changed in late 1946 to mid 1947, although heavy industry continued to be dismantled until 1951. In March 1947 Herbert Hoover helped change policy by stating: "There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a 'pastoral state'. It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it". Thanks to the protection of British Army Major Ivan Hirst, Volkswagen survived the perilous times, and became part of the German economic recovery.

1948–1974: icon for the West German regeneration

An original 1300 Deluxe, circa 1966.

From 1948, Volkswagen became a very important element, symbolically and economically, of West Germanmarker regeneration. Heinrich Nordhoff (1899–1968), a former senior manager at Opel who had overseen civilian and military vehicle production in the 1930s and 1940s, was recruited to run the factory in 1948. In 1949 Major Hirst left association with the company, as it had now been re-formed as a trust, controlled by the West German government, and the government of the State of Lower Saxonymarker. Apart from the introduction of the Volkswagen Type 2 commercial vehicle (van, pickup and camper), and the VW Karmann Ghia sports car, Nordhoff pursued the one-model policy until shortly before his death in 1968.

Volkswagens were first exhibited and sold in the United Statesmarker in 1949, but only sold two units in America that first year. On its entry to the U.S. market, the VW was briefly sold as a "Victory Wagon". Volkswagen of America was formed in April 1955 to standardize sales and service in the United Statesmarker. Production of the Type 1 Volkswagen Beetle increased dramatically over the years, the total reaching one million in 1955.

Volkswagens in Canada - VW Canada ordered their first cars on July 10, 1952. (shipping order 143075) The order consisted of 12 vehicles, (3) model 11C, a black, green and sandcolour (3) 11GS, a chestnut brown and two azure blue, (2) 24A-M51 in red, (1)21A in blue, (1) 23A in blue, (1) 22A beige colour, and one Ambulance. Volkswagen Products were seen in Canada for the first time at the Canadian National Exhibition in August 1952 and were accepted enthusiastically. The first shipment of cars reached Toronto in December 1952. By 1955 sales were on a basis that warranted the building of the fine Volkswagen plant on a 32 acre site on Scarboro's Golden Mile. To this, a 60,000 square foot building with administration, showrooms, service, repairs and parts, an addition of 60,000 feet was built in 1957, with storage for $4,000,000 of parts.(see 1959 Canadian Register of Commerce & Industry held in the Western Libraries at the University of Western Ontario)

Sales soared — thanks in part to the famous advertising campaigns by New York advertising agency Doyle, Dane Bernbach. Led by art director Helmut Krone, and copywriters Julian Koenig and Bob Levinson, Volkswagen advertisements became as popular as the car, using crisp layouts and witty copy to lure the younger, sophisticated consumers with whom the car became associated. Even though it was almost universally known as the Beetle (or the Bug), it was never officially labeled as such by the manufacturer, instead referred to as the Type 1. The first reference to the name Beetle occurred in U.S. advertising in 1968, but not until 1998 and the Golf-based New Beetle would the name be adopted by Volkswagen.

Although the car was becoming outdated, during the 1960s and early 1970s, American exports, innovative advertising, and a growing reputation for reliability helped production figures surpass the levels of the previous record holder, the Ford Model T. On February 17, 1972 the 15,007,034th Beetle was sold. Volkswagen could now claim the world production record for the most-produced, single make of car in history. By 1973, total production was over 16 million.

To commemorate its passing the Ford Model T's record sales mark and its victories in the Baja 1000 Mexican races from 1967 to 1971, Volkswagen produced its first limited-edition Beetle. It was marketed as the "Baja Champion SE" in the United States and the "Marathon" Superbeetle in the rest of the world. It featured unique "Marathon Blau" metallic blue paint, steel-pressed 10-spoke 15-inch (38 cm) magnesium-alloy wheels, a commemorative metal plate mounted on the glovebox and a certificate of authenticity presented to the original purchaser. Dealer-installed options for this limited-edition Superbeetle included the following: white stripes running the length of the rocker-panel, a special shifter knob, bumper overriders, tapered exhaust tips, fake walnut inserts in the dashboard (behind the steering wheel and the glovebox cover) as well as Bosch fog lights mounted on the front bumper.

Product line expansion

VW expanded its product line in 1961 with the introduction of several Type 3 models, which were essentially body style variations (Fastback, Notchback, Squareback) based on Type 1 mechanical underpinnings, and again in 1969 with the larger Type 4 (also known as the 411 and 412) models. These differed substantially from previous vehicles, with the notable introduction of monocoque/unibody construction, the option of a fully automatic transmission, electronic fuel injection, and a sturdier powerplant. Volkswagen added a "Super Beetle" (the Type 113) to its lineup in 1971. The Type 113 differed from the standard Beetle in its use of a MacPherson strut front suspension instead of the usual torsion bars. Also the nose of the car was stretched to allow the spare tyre to lie flat, and the combination of these two features significantly increased the usable front luggage space. Despite the Super Beetle's (marketed outside North America as the VW 1302, later 1303) popularity with Volkswagen customers, purists preferred the standard Beetle with its less pronounced nose and its original torsion bar suspension. In 1973, Volkswagen introduced the military-themed Type 181, or "Trekker" in Europe and the UKmarker, "Thing" in America, recalling the wartime Type 81. The military version was produced for the NATOmarker-era German Army during the Cold War years of 1970 to 1979. The US Thing version only sold for two years, 1973 and 1974, thanks at least in part to Ralph Nader's automobile safety campaigns.

In 1964, Volkswagen succeeded in purchasing Auto Union, and in 1969, NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU). The former company owned the historic Audi brand, which had disappeared after the Second World War. VW ultimately merged Auto Union and NSU to create the modern day Audi company, and would go on to develop it as its luxury vehicle marque. However, the purchase of Auto Union and NSU proved to be a pivotal point in Volkswagen's history, as both companies yielded the technological expertise that proved necessary for VW to survive when demand for its air-cooled models went into terminal decline as the 1970s dawned.

1974: from Beetle to Golf/Rabbit

Volkswagen was in serious trouble by 1973. The Type 3 and Type 4 models had sold in much smaller numbers than the Beetle and the NSU-based K70 also failed to woo buyers. Beetle sales had started to decline rapidly in European and North American markets. The company knew that Beetle production had to end one day, but the conundrum of replacing it had been a never-ending nightmare. VW's ownership of Audi / Auto Union proved to be the key to the problem - with its expertise in front-wheel drive, and water-cooled engines which Volkswagen so desperately needed to produce a credible Beetle successor. Audi influences paved the way for this new generation of Volkswagens, known as the Polo, Golf and Passat.

The Volkswagen Polo was in fact simply a re-badging of the short-lived Audi 50, which had been hastily developed from a sedan design, the Audi 60. However, VW produced it shortly after the introduction of the Polo as the Volkswagen Derby. In the rear of the car can plainly be seen that panels are added to the Polo structure to make a "three-box" design of saloon (sedan), or saloon with a boot or trunk.

The Volkswagen Passat (Dasher in the U.S.), introduced in 1973, was again simply a fastback (available as either a hatchback or with separate boot) version of the Audi 80, using identical body and mechanical parts, and the Audi 80 was later produced on the same line in Wolfsburg as the Passat. Estate/wagon versions were offered for overseas markets, however, for two years, if British and South African customers wanted an estate/wagon version, they had to go considerably upmarket and buy the Audi 80 GL estate.

However, the pivotal model which would turn Volkswagen's fortunes emerged as the Volkswagen Golf in 1974, marketed in the United States and Canada as the Rabbit for the 1st generation (1975-1985) and 5th generation (2006-2009). This was a car unlike its predecessor in most significant ways, both mechanically as well as visually (its angular styling was designed by the Italian Giorgetto Giugiaro). Its design followed trends for small family cars set by the 1959 Mini — the Golf had a transversely mounted, water-cooled engine in the front, driving the front wheels, and had a hatchback, a format that has dominated the market segment ever since. Beetle production at Wolfsburg ended upon the Golf's introduction, but continued in smaller numbers at other German factories (Hanovermarker and Emdenmarker) until 1978, but mainstream production shifted to Brazilmarker and Mexicomarker.

Volkswagen from 1974 to 1990

Volkswagen Polo, 1990
While Volkswagen's range of cars soon became similar to that of other large European automakers, the Golf has been the mainstay of the Volkswagen lineup since its introduction, and the mechanical basis for several other cars of the company. There have been six generations of the Volkswagen Golf, the first of which was produced from the summer of 1974 until the end of 1983 (sold as the Rabbit in the United States and Canada and as the Caribe in Latin America). Its chassis also spawned the Volkswagen Scirocco sport coupe, Volkswagen Jetta saloon/sedan, Volkswagen Golf Cabriolet convertible, and Volkswagen Caddy pickup. North American production of the Rabbit commenced at a factory in New Stanton, Pennsylvaniamarker in 1978. It would be produced in the United States as the Rabbit until the spring of 1984. The second-generation Golf hatchback/Jetta sedan ran from late 1983 to late 1991, and a North American version produced in Pennsylvaniamarker went on sale at the start of the 1985 model year. The production numbers of the first-generation Golf has continued to grow annually in South Africa as the Citi Golf, with only minor modifications to the interior, engine and chassis, using tooling relocated from the New Stanton, Pennsylvaniamarker plant when that site began to build the Second Generation car.

In the 1980s, Volkswagen's sales in the United Statesmarker and Canadamarker fell dramatically, despite the success of models like the Golf elsewhere. The Japanese and the Americans were able to compete with similar products at lower prices. Sales in the United States were 293,595 in 1980, but by 1984 they were down to 177,709. The introduction of the second-generation Golf, GTI and Jetta models helped Volkswagen briefly in North America. Motor Trend named the GTI its Car of the Year for 1985, and Volkswagen rose in the J.D. Power buyer satisfaction ratings to eighth place in 1985, up from 22nd a year earlier. VW's American sales broke 200,000 in 1985 and 1986 before resuming the downward trend from earlier in the decade. Chairman Carl Hahn decided to expand the company elsewhere, and the New Stanton, Pennsylvania factory closed on 14 July 1988. Meanwhile, four years after signing a cooperation agreement with the Spanish car maker SEAT in 1982, Hahn expanded the company by purchasing a majority share of SEAT up to 75% by the end of 1986, which VW bought outright in 1990.

Volkswagen had entered the supermini market in 1976 with the Volkswagen Polo, a stylish and spacious three-door hatchback designed by Bertone. It was a strong seller in West Germanymarker and most of the rest of Western Europe, being one of the first foreign small cars to prove popular in Britainmarker. The second-generation model, launched in 1981 and sold as a hatchback and "coupe" (with the hatchback resembling a small estate car and the coupe being similar to a conventional hatchback), was an even greater success for Volkswagen. It was facelifted in 1990 and was still selling well after 13 years, when it was replaced by the third-generation Polo in 1994.

Volkswagen from 1991 to 2000

The 2000 Volkswagen Golf GL, in North American form
In 1991, Volkswagen launched the third-generation Golf, which was European Car of the Year for 1992 (the previous two generations were nominated but lost to the Citroën CX in 1975 and the Fiat Uno in 1984). The Golf Mk3 and Jetta arrived in North America just before the start of 1994 model year, first appearing in southern California in the late spring of 1993. The sedan version of the Golf was badged Vento in Europe (but remained Jetta in the USA, where its popularity eventually outstripped the Golf).

The late 1990s saw a gradual change in perception of the company's products - with Audi having elevated itself into same league as BMW and Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen moved upmarket to fill the void left by Audi; with SEAT and the further addition of the Czechmarker car maker Škoda being acquired in the late 1990s, now occupying what was once VW's core market. The first tangible evidence of this was the fifth-generation Passat in 1996 with its high-quality interior trim and standards of build quality which were demonstrably a cut above the run-of-the-mill Ford Mondeo, Opel Vectra and Peugeot 406.

This move upmarket was continued with the Golf Mk4, introduced at the end of 1997 (and in North America in 1999), its chassis spawned a host of other cars within the Volkswagen group — the Volkswagen Bora (the sedan, still called Jetta in the USA), New Beetle, SEAT Toledo, SEAT León, Audi A3, Audi TT and Škoda Octavia. However, it was beaten into third place for the 1998 European Car of the Year award by the winning Alfa Romeo 156 and runner-up Audi A6.

The other main models have been the Polo, a smaller car than the Golf, and the larger Passat for the segment above the Golf. The Scirocco and the later Corrado were both Golf-based coupés.

By the early 1990s, Volkswagen's annual sales in the United States were below 100,000, and many car buyers found the company's products to be lacking in value. Some automotive journalists believed that Volkswagen would have to quit the North American market altogether. VW eventually realized that the Beetle was the heart and soul of the brand in North America, and the firm quickly set about creating a new Beetle for American and Canadian showrooms.
In 1994, Volkswagen unveiled the J Mays-designed Concept One, a "retro"-themed car with a resemblance to the original Beetle but based on the Polo platform. Its genesis was secret and in opposition to VW management, who felt it was too backward-looking. Management could not deny the positive public response to the concept car and gave the green light to its development as the New Beetle. The production car would be based on the Golf rather than the Polo, because the Polo frame was too small for the car to pass crash test standards in the U.S. It has been quite popular in the North America and is now gaining in the European Union.

Volkswagen's fortunes in North America improved once the third-generation Golf and Jetta models became available there. Sharp advertising and clever promotional stunts, like including Trek bicycles, and accompanying bicycle racks with a limited edition of the 1996 Jetta sedan, were credited for the firm's recovery in the U.S. and Canada, but the introductions of the New Beetle and the fifth-generation Passat were a major boost to the brand.

In the UK, Volkswagen's market share grew throughout the 1990s. In 1990, the Golf was Britain's 12th most popular car with nearly 50,000 units sold. The Mk3 Polo achieved similar success in the mid 1990s, but in 1999 the Mk4 Golf was Volkswagen's first ever entrant in Britain's top 10 list of most popular new cars. Its success continued into the 2000s, while the Polo and Passat were never far outside the top 10. Bad news for Volkswagen during this era was a dip in customer satisfaction. A brand which had built its reputation on reliability was now being overtaken by marques whose reputations had been damaged by quality problems. This bad press took several years to eradicate.

In the late 1990s Volkswagen acquired the three luxury brands Lamborghini (through Audi), Bentley and Bugatti which were mainly due to Ferdinand Piëch and added to the group portfolio. Audi's plans for Lamborghini included a small supercar later to be named the Gallardo, and a new halo vehicle, the Murciélago, and later the Reventon limited edition halo car. In late 2008 the idea of a 4-door saloon for the Lamborghini brand was shown in the form of the Lamborghini Estoque concept.

For Bentley, its future within the Volkswagen group seemed bright as the launch of the Bentley Continental range helped Bentley post record-breaking sales of 10,000. Bentley is in 2009 going to launch a new Arnage-replacing car codenamed Project Kimberly, the car being named the 'New Grand Bentley.' The name is uncertain.

Bugatti, after Volkswagen purchased the rights to use the name, showed three concept cars, the Bugatti EB110 (coupe and saloon) and the Bugatti Chiron. Bugatti then launched the Veyron hypercar, with a top speed of . Although Bugatti makes a huge loss on every Veyron, Volkswagen is still going to keep the brand and maybe will launch a new Rolls Royce Phantom-rivaling saloon rumoured to be called Royale.

Volkswagen in the 21st century

Volkswagen began introducing an array of new models after Bernd Pischetsrieder became Volkswagen Group CEO (responsible for all Group brands) in 2002. The fifth-generation VW Golf was launched in 2004, came runner-up to the Fiat Panda in the 2004 European Car of the Year, and has spawned several cousins: VW Bora, SEAT León, SEAT Toledo, Škoda Octavia and Audi A3 hatchback ranges, as well as a new mini-MPV, the SEAT Altea. The GTI, a "hot hatchback" performance version of the Golf, boasts a 2.0 L Turbocharged Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI) direct injection engine. VW began marketing the Golf under the Rabbit name once again in the U.S. and Canada in June 2006. (The GTI had arrived to North America four months earlier). The fifth-generation Jetta, and the performance version, the GLI, are also available in the United States and Canada. The sixth-generation Passat and the fifth-generation Jetta both debuted in 2005, and VW has announced plans to expand its lineup further by bringing back the Scirocco by 2008. Other models in Wolfgang Bernhard's (Volkswagen brand CEO) "product offensive" include the Tiguan mid-sized SUV in 2008 and a Passat Coupé. In November 2006 Bernd Pischetsrieder announced his resignation as Volkswagen Group CEO, and was replaced by Audi worldwide CEO Martin Winterkorn at the beginning of 2007. Winterkorn is credited with making Audi a challenger to the dominance of BMW and Mercedes, and his design-led strategy has led to Audi being considered one of the most important brands in the world. It remains to be seen how Winterkorn's focus on design shapes the Volkswagen brand's future. Nevertheless, Volkswagen continues to have complicated relations with both unions and shareholders. The German state of Lower Saxonymarker owns significant stock in VW, as does sportscar manufacturer Porsche.

In North America, VW faced many challenges. After rising significantly between 1998 and 2001, VW's North American sales began to fall sharply leading to a 2005 loss of roughly US$1 billion for its operations in the U.S. and Canada. Profitability has not been strong, and the lack of reliability of the company's cars appears to bear some of the responsibility for this situation. By 2005, its models sat near the bottom of Consumer Reports reliability ratings, and J.D. Power and Associates ranked VW 35th out of 37 bands in its initial quality survey. Attempts to enter a new market segment also compromised Volkswagen's standing in North America. In 2002, Volkswagen announced the debut of its Phaeton luxury car, which was critically acclaimed but not well received in the marketplace. VW announced its discontinuance in the U.S. market for the 2007 model year due to the disappointing sales.

Volkswagen in 2005, despite challenges, still maintained North American sales of 224,195—a dramatic increase from the low in 1993 when US sales totaled only 49,533 vehicles. Momentum continued for fiscal 2006, as VW's North American sales for the year were 235,140 vehicles, a 4.9 percent increase over 2005, despite a slump in domestic North American manufacturer's sales. VW plans to close out the decade with the release on several new vehicles worldwide and a barrage of advertising. In conjunction with the introduction of new models, production location of Volkswagen vehicles also underwent great change. The 2007 Eos, a hardtop convertible, is produced in a new facility in Portugal. All Golfs/Rabbits and GTIs as of 2006 are manufactured in Wolfsburg, Germany, rather than VW's Mexicanmarker factory in Pueblamarker, where Golfs and GTIs for the North American market were produced from 1989 to 1998, and the Brazilian factory in Curitibamarker, where Golfs and GTIs were produced from 1999 to 2006. (The Jetta has primarily been made in Mexicomarker since 1989). VW is also in the process of reconfiguring an automotive assembly plant in Belgiummarker. The new models and investments in manufacturing improvements were noticed immediately by automotive critics. Favorable reviews for VW's newest cars include the GTI being named by Consumer Reports as the top sporty car under $25,000, one of Car and Driver magazine's "10 Best" for 2007, Automobile Magazine's 2007 Car of the Year, as well as a 2008 Motor Trend comparison ranking the midsize Passat first in its class. The J. D. Power and Associates 2006 Automotive Performance, Execution and Layout (APEAL) Study scored Volkswagen fourteenth overall with strong performances by its new Jetta and Passat models.

Volkswagen is recognized as one of the leading small diesel engine manufacturers, and is partnering with Mercedes and other companies to market BlueTec clean diesel technology, calling it BlueMotion. Volkswagen has offered a number of its vehicles with a TDI (Turbocharged Direct Injection) engine, which lends class-leading fuel economy to several models. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, four of the ten most fuel-efficient vehicles available for sale in the U.S. in 2004 were powered by Volkswagen diesel engines. They were a three-way tie for 8th (TDI Beetle, TDI Golf, TDI Jetta) and ninth, the TDI Jetta Wagon. As of 2007, VW has not yet offered a petrol-electric hybrid powertrain such as that in the Toyota Prius (though a diesel-electric hybrid 5th generation Jetta was produced as a test vehicle). In addition, all Volkswagen TDI diesel engines produced from 1996 to 2003-2006 can be driven on 100% biodiesel fuel. For the 2007 model year, however, strict U.S. government emissions regulations have forced VW to drop most diesels from their U.S. engine lineup, but a new lineup of diesel engines compatible to U.S. standards are due for 2008.

Volkswagen long resisted adding a utility vehicle to its lineup, but it finally relented with the introduction of the Touareg in the early 2000s, sharing major components with the Porsche Cayenne and Audi Q7 sport utility vehicles. Though acclaimed as a fine handling vehicle, the Touareg has been a modest seller at best. Some automotive analysts blame the Touraeg's absence of a third-row seat, the relatively poor fuel economy, and the high vehicle mass. VW plans to add a compact SUV with styling influences from its "Concept A" concept vehicle. On July 20, 2006, VW announced that the new vehicle would be called the Tiguan. Since the discontinuance of the T4 in 2003 and decision not to bring the T5 to the US market, it was ironic that Volkswagen lacked a van in its North American lineup considering that VW was a major player in the development of the class with its original Transporter. The firm did however launch a rebadged DaimlerChrysler named the Volkswagen Routan for the U.S. and Canadian markets in 2008. Owing to technical difficulty adapting the Polo to meet North American vehicle regulations, VW presented in 2006 the "Iroc" as a concept of the proposed 2009 Scirocco as a potential new small model.

In September 2006, Volkswagen began offering the City Golf and City Jetta only for the Canadian market. Both models were originally the Mk4 Golf and Jetta but were later replaced with the Brazilian versions of the Golf Mk4 and Bora. The City Golf and City Jetta were introduced to compete with the Toyota Yaris and Honda Fit. Volkswagen's introduction of such models is seen as a test of the market for a subcompact and, if successful, may be the beginnings of a thriving subcompact market for Volkswagen.

When Martin Winterkorn became the eighth postwar CEO of Volkswagen, the company made several personnel changes in Wolfsburg. Though the VW Group already had their presence in India with Škoda Auto, Volkswagen introduced the Passat and Touareg with TDI engine to India's automobile market in September 2007.

The VW 1L will be available in 2010, in limited numbers. The 1L is a lightweight two-person vehicle made out of a magnesium frame covered by an unpainted carbon-fiber skin. Every component of the vehicle is intended to reduce the vehicle's weight. Aluminum brakes, carbon-fiber wheels, titanium hubs, and ceramic bearings all contribute to the vehicle's light weight of a mere 290 kg. To reduce the weight even further, and to increase the aerodynamics of the vehicle, there are no rearview mirrors. Instead, the car is equipped with cameras that display visual information to the driver through the internal LCD screen.The car is extremely fuel-efficient, each gallon of fuel will take you over 235 miles. The fuel tank holds just 1.7 gallons, making the entire travel distance capability about 400 miles per tank. Its top speed is , which although not very fast is a welcome tradeoff for the huge savings in fuel consumption.

On July 15, 2008 Volkswagen announced that they will construct an automobile assembly plant in Chattanooga, Tennesseemarker. This plant will produce cars specifically designed for North America beginning with the New Midsize Sedan, which will be more competitive with North American market leaders Toyota Camry and Honda Accord. Production is scheduled to begin in early 2011 and is expected to end more than five years of losses in the world's largest auto market.

Relationship with Porsche, and the Volkswagen Law

Volkswagen has always had a close relationship with Porsche, the Zuffenhausenmarker-based sports car manufacturer founded in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche, the original Volkswagen designer. The first Porsche car, the Porsche 64 of 1938, used many components from the Volkswagen Beetle. The 1948 Porsche 356 continued using many Volkswagen components, including a tuned engine, gearbox and suspension.

The two companies continued their collaboration in 1969 to make the VW-Porsche 914 and 914-6, whereby the 914-6 had a 6-cylinder Porsche engine, and the standard 914 had a 4-cylinder Volkswagen engine, and in 1976 with the Porsche 912E (USA only), and the Porsche 924, which used many Audi components and was built at an Audi Neckarsulmmarker factory. Most 944s also were built there, although they used far fewer VW components.

The Porsche Cayenne, introduced in 2002, shares its entire chassis with VW Touareg and Audi Q7, which are built at the Volkswagen factory in Bratislavamarker.

In September 2005, Porsche announced it would increase its 5% stake in Volkswagen to 20% at a cost of €3 billion, with the intention that the combined stakes of Porsche and the government of Lower Saxonymarker would ensure that any hostile takeover by foreign investors would be impossible. Speculated suitors included DaimlerChrysler, BMW, and Renault. In July 2006, Porsche increased their ownership again to 25.1%.

On February 13, 2007 Advocate General Dámaso Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer ruled that a German law preventing any shareholder in Volkswagen from executing more than 20% of the total voting rights in the firm was illegally restricting the flow of capital in Europe. This again opened the possibility of a hostile takeover of VW and so on 26 March of the same year Porsche took its holding of Volkswagen shares to 30.9%. Porsche formally announced in a press statement that it did not intend to take over Volkswagen, but intended the move to avoid a competitor taking a large stake and to stop hedge funds from dismantling VW. As expected, on October 22, 2007 the European Court of Justice ruled in agreement with Ruiz-Jarabo and the law was struck down.

On October 26, 2008, Porsche finally revealed its plan to assume control of VW. As of that day, it held 42.6 percent of Volkswagen's ordinary shares and stock options on another 31.5 percent. Combined with the state of Lower Saxonymarker's 20.1% stake, this left only 5.8% of shares on the market most of which were held by index funds who could not legally sell. Hedge funds desperate to cover their short positions forced Volkswagen stock above one thousand euros per share, briefly making it the world's largest company by market capitalization on October 28, 2008.

On 6th of May 2009 the two companies decided to join together, in a merger.

On August 13, Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft's Supervisory Board signed the agreement to create an integrated automotive group with Porsche led by Volkswagen. The initial decision was for Volkswagen to take a 42.0 percent stake in Porsche AG by the end of 2009, and it would also see the family shareholders selling the automobile trading business of Porsche Holding Salzburg to Volkswagen. In October 2009 however, Volkswagen announced that its percentage in Porsche would be 49.9% for a cost of 3.9 billion euros (the 42.0% deal would have cost 3.3 billion euros).

Clean diesel

Volkswagen has been selling clean diesel-powered engines for the European market since 2003. VW developed Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) technology for diesel engines, and it offers a wide array of TDI powertrains. As modern diesel fuel economy is 30 percent higher than gasoline engines, a proportional reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is achieved with clean diesel technology. Volkswagen is also developing hybrid technology for diesel-electric. A VW Golf turbo-diesel hybrid concept car was exhibited at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show, which has a fuel economy of 70 mpg (3.3 liters per 100 km).

Volkswagen of America Inc. promotes its work in developing "clean diesel", and other fuel-efficient technologies, to increase U.S. sales to environmentally conscious consumers. One of the vehicles being promoted is the 2009 clean-diesel Jetta TDI, which has a 16-valve, four-cylinder common rail direct injection engine which reduces emissions by 90 percent. Volkswagen also claims that this model has the advantage of fuel economy in the mid-50s and mid-40s in city conditions. Stefan Jacoby, CEO of America's Volkswagen, said that it will be released in a sedan and sport-wagon model in May 2008 in California, becoming the first 50-state clean diesel offering.

Alternative fuel

Neat ethanol vehicles

Volkswagen do Brasil produced and sold neat ethanol vehicles (E100 only) in Brazil, and production was discontinued only after they were substituted by the more modern technology of flexible-fuel vehicles. As a response to the 1973 oil crisis, the Brazilian government began promoting bioethanol as a fuel, and the National Alcohol Program -Pró-Álcool- ( ) was launched in 1975. Compelled by the second oil crisis, and after development and testing with government fleets by the Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology marker (CTA) at São José dos Camposmarker, and further testing of several prototypes developed by the four local carmakers, including Volkswagen do Brasil, neat ethanol vehicles were launched in the Brazilian market beginning in that year. Gasoline engines were modified to support hydrous ethanol characteristics and changes included compression ratio, amount of fuel injected, replacement of materials that would get corroded by the contact with ethanol, use of colder spark plugs suitable for dissipating heat due to higher flame temperatures, and an auxiliary cold-start system that injects gasoline from a small tank in the engine compartment to help starting when cold. Six years later around three quarters of Brazilian passenger cars were manufactured with ethanol engines.

Production and sales of neat ethanol vehicles tumbled beginning in 1987 owing to several factors, including a sharp decline in gasoline prices as a result of the 1980s oil glut, and high sugar prices in the world market, shifting sugarcane ethanol production from fuel to sugar. By mid 1989 a shortage of ethanol fuel supply in the local market left thousands of vehicles in line at gas stations or out of fuel in their garages, forcing consumers to abandon ethanol vehicles.

Flexible-fuel vehicles

In March 2003, on its fiftieh anniversary, Volkswagen do Brasil launched in the local market the Gol 1.6 Total Flex, the first Brazilian commercial flexible fuel vehicle capable of running on any mix of E20-E25 gasoline and up to 100% hydrous ethanol fuel (E100). After the neat ethanol fiasco, consumer confidence on ethanol-powered vehicles was restored, allowing a rapid adoption of the flex technology, which was facilitated by the fuel distribution infrastructure already in place throughout Brazil, with more than 30 thousand fueling stations, a heritage of the Pró-Álcool program,

Owing to the success and rapid consumer acceptance of the flex versions, by 2005 VW had sold 293,523 flex cars and light-duty trucks, and only 53,074 gasoline-powered automobiles, jumping to 525,838 flex-fuel vehicles while selling only 13,572 cars and 248 light trucks powered by gasoline in 2007, and reaching new car sales of 564,959 flex fuels in 2008, representing 96 percent of all cars and light-duty trucks sold in that year. VW do Brasil stopped manufacturing gasoline-only vehicles models for the local market in 2006, and remaining gasoline-engine sales comes from imports. The flex fuel models produced for the local market are Gol, Fox, CrossFox, Parati, Polo Hatch, Polo Sedan, Saveiro, Golf, and Kombi. By March 2009 Volkswagen do Brasil had attained the milestone mark of two million flexible-fuel vehicles produced since 2003.

Electric vehicles

Volkswagen announced it has hired Karl-Thomas Neumann as its group chief officer for electric traction.

Volkswagen and Sanyo have teamed up to develop a hybrid vehicle battery system.

Volkswagen head Martin Winterkorn has confirmed the company plans to build compact hybrid vehicles. He has stated "There will definitely be compact hybrid models, such as Polo and Golf, and without any great delay", with gasoline and diesel engines. For example, Golf is the ideal model to go hybrid as the Golf 1.4 TSI was recently awarded the “Auto Environment Certificate” by the Oko-Trend Institute for Environmental Research, and was considered as one of the most environmentally friendly vehicles of 2007. Also underway at Volkswagen's Braunschweigmarker R&D facilities in Northern Germany is a hybrid version of the next-generation Touareg, due in 2010.

VW intends all future models to have the hybrid option. “Future VW models will fundamentally also be constructed with hybrid concepts,” VW head of development Ulrich Hackenberg told Automobilwoche in an interview. Hackenberg mentioned that the car based on the up! concept seen at Frankfurt Motor Show, as well as all future models, could be offered with either full or partial hybrid options. The rear-engine up! will go into production in 2011. Nothing has been said about plug-in hybrid options.

VW's Chief of research, Dr. Jürgen Leohold, said the company has concluded hydrogen fuel-cell cars are not a viable option.

Current Volkswagen models



North America

Model United Statesmarker



City Golf An updated version of the MK IV Golf, only available with base 2.0 I4 engine.
City Jetta An updated version of the MK IV Jetta, only available with base 2.0 I4 engine.
Derby The Derby is a rebadged Polo Mk3 sedan
Eos Jetta-based 2 door hardtop convertible.
GLI High-performance version of the Jetta.
Gol Sold as the Pointer in Mexico
Jetta MkIV Sold as the City Jetta in Canada
Jetta MkV Sold as the Bora in Mexico
Jetta Wagon Sold as the Jetta SportWagen in the US and the Bora SportWagen in Mexico
Lupo The Lupo is a rebadged Fox
New Beetle
New Beetle Convertible
Passat Mid-size Sedan
Passat Wagon
Passat CC Sold as the CC in the US
Routan Dodge Grand Caravan-based VW. A quick fix to get VW in the N.A. minivan market before bringing over European models.
SportVan The SportVan is a rebadged SpaceFox
Tiguan Small SUV. "The GTI of SUV's"
Touareg Full Size SUV developed alongside Porsche Cayenne.

Central America and Caribbean

Jetta/Bora MkIV
Jetta/Bora MkV
Jetta/Bora GLI MkV
Jetta/Bora Variant MkV
New Beetle
New Beetle Cabrio
Passat Variant



Model Algeriamarker




South Africa

Citi Golf
SpaceFox Sold as the Volkswagen Suran in Egypt
Golf GTI
Golf Plus
Golf R32
Golf Variant
New Beetle
New Beetle Cabriolet
Passat CC Sold as the Volkswagen CC in South Africa
Polo GTI

Cult status of the Beetle

Beetles used as taxis in Mexico City
Like its competitors, the Mini, the Citroën 2CV and the Fiat 500, the original-shape Beetle long outlasted predictions of its lifespan. It maintains a very strong following worldwide, being regarded as something of a "cult car", owing to its 1960s association with the hippie movement. Currently, there is a wide array of clubs that are concerned with the Beetle. The fans are quite diverse. Looks include the resto-look, Cal Look, German-look, resto-Cal Look, buggies, Baja Bugs, old school, Disney's Herbie the Love Bug replicas, ratlook, etc. Part of their cult status is attributed to being one of a few cars with an air-cooled, horizontally-opposed engine design, and the consequent ease of repair and modification, as opposed to the more conventional and technically complex watercooled engine design. The original flat-four boxer design had fewer than 200 moving parts.

By 2002, over 21 million Type 1s had been produced.

On 30 July 2003, the last Type 1 rolled off the production line in Pueblamarker, Mexicomarker. It was car number 21,529,464, and was immediately shipped off to the company's museum in Wolfsburg, Germanymarker. In true Mexicanmarker fashion, a big celebration and a mariachi band serenaded the last car in the 68-year-old history. The last car was nicknamed El Rey, which is Spanish for "The King", named after a legendary Mexicanmarker song by José Alfredo Jiménez. The last 3000 type 1s were called the "Última Edición" or the final edition.

In the United Statesmarker, Volkswagen enthusiasts frequent large Volkswagen-themed car shows, especially in the summer months. Many of these shows feature camping, a car show called a "show 'n' shine", drag racing, parts swap meet, raffles, burnout contests, and other events. Die-hard and loyal "VW-heads" or "Dubbers" attend these shows regularly, often traveling or more (even abroad) to attend their favorite event.

In the winter, a group of drivers of the "Splitscreen" bus model (1951-1967 Microbuses, trucks, campers, and panel vans) drive from Willits, Californiamarker, to Mount Shastamarker, Californiamarker, largely on unpaved back roads. This event is called the "Mt. Shasta Snow Trip Challenge" and is a good example of VW enthusiasts' trust in the durability of their 40-year-old (or older) cars.


  • In 1966, Volkswagen starting in Formula Vee — circuit racing with cars built from easily available Beetle parts — took off in Europe. It proved very popular as a low-cost route into formula racing.
  • In 1971, Volkswagen moved on to the more powerful Formula Super Vee, which became famous for hothousing new talent. In the 11 years it ran, until 1982, it produced a stable of world-famous Formula One drivers — names like Niki Lauda, Jochen Mass, Nelson Piquet, Jochen Rindt and Keke Rosberg. Volkswagen also notched up several victories, and the championship in Formula Three.
  • In 1976, Volkswagen entered the under-2000-cc Trans-Am Series, with the Scirocco, and they won their class outright.
  • In 1981, now based in Hanovermarker, and renamed Volkswagen Motorsport, VW took a new direction into rallying, with the launch of the first-generation Golf, and Sweden's Per Eklund, Frenchman Jean-Luc Thérier, and the Finn Pentti Airikkala. The final chapters in Volkswagen Racing UK's rallying story were the 'one-make' Castrol Polo Challenge, and the Polo GTI 'Super 1600' in 2001.
  • In 2000, Volkswagen started a one-make racing cup with the newly released to Europe New Beetle called the ADAC New Beetle Cup. Beside that, the ADAC Volkswagen Lupo Cup, founded in 1998, is continued to support young talents on the way to the top.
  • In 2001, the department was renamed Volkswagen Racing, and since then has concentrated all its efforts on developing its circuit racing championship, the Volkswagen Racing Cup.
  • In 2003, VW replaced the ADAC Volkswagen Lupo Cup with the newly released Polo, to become the ADAC Volkswagen Polo Cup.
  • In 2004, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles entered the European Truck Racing series with the Volkswagen Titan series truck - it became back-to-back champions for the 2004 and 2005 series.

The Dakar

  • In 1980, Volkswagen competed in the Paris-Dakar Rally with the Audi-developed Iltis, placing 1st, 2nd, 4th and 9th overall.
  • Volkswagen enlists Dakar Champion Jutta Kleinschmidt, the first woman to win the Dakar rally in 2001, to help design and compete a Dakar Racer.
  • In 2003, the Hanover-based team starts with a 2WD buggy named Tarek. It placed 6th outright but took 1st in the 2WD and Diesel class.
  • In 2004, VW enters the newly developed Race-Touareg T2, finishing 6th overall and 2nd in the Diesel class.
  • In 2005, an updated Race-Touareg with slightly more power is entered, with driver Bruno Saby, finishing in 3rd overall and 1st in the Diesel class.
  • In 2006, Volkswagen released the most powerful Race-Touareg yet: the Race-Touareg 2. Five vehicles entered, with driver Giniel de Villers finishing in 2nd place overall, and 1st in the Diesel class.
  • In 2009, Volkswagen won the 2009 Dakar Rally held in Argentina. VW's Touareg race models finished 1st and 2nd.

Volkswagen motorsport: around the world

Below are Official, or Dealership-sponsored Volkswagen Racing activities, outside Germany:
  • Chinamarker rally participation: Shanghai-VW Santana, Shanghai-VW Polo, FAW-VW Jetta, and Shanghai-VW supported the 1st Shanghai F1 Grand Prix, with a Polo Cup support series.
  • South Africa rally participation: VW Polo, SEAT Ibiza based Polo Playa, VW Citi and VW Golf. Circuit participation: SEAT Ibiza based Polo Derby/Classic, A3 engined series which supports the A1 Racing series, and the GTI-engined F3 style racing series.
  • Francemarker: A French Volkswagen team entered the 2000 and 2001 Le Mans Series, with their 2.0 Turbo racer, which produced around 356 kW/485 hp.
  • Argentinamarker: Many Volkswagen models have competed in TC 2000, including the 1980 to 1983 champion Volkswagen 1500 and the 1994 champion Volkswagen Gol.
  • Brazilmarker rally participation: Gol and Voyage, and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles heavy trucks. Circuit participation: Brasilia, Karmann Ghia, and Gol, Voyage. The Bora used nowadays in Stock Car Brasil is actually a plastic body around a tubular chassis with Chevrolet V8 engine.
  • Perumarker: VW Peru Rally the Fox in the S1600 class.
  • Japanmarker circuit participation: Golf, Lupo and Polo Cup's.
  • Polandmarker circuit participation: Golf with TDI Cup.
  • United Kingdommarker circuit participation: Lupo, Polo, Golf, Jetta (Vento/Bora), Scirocco, Corrado, Beetle, Type 3, and Caddy. Rally entries: Beetle, Type 3, Polo and Golf. VW Racing UK now have their own cup; they also have had Rallyed a Polo 1600 class and Golf TDI.
  • Australia: VW has a very close relationship with motorsport. It was the REDeX and Mobil Trials of the 1950s which propelled VW to be a sales success in Australia. In 1999 and 2000, VW won the F2 Australian Rally Championship with the Golf GTI. In 2001 and 2002, VW raced the New Beetle RSI in the GT Performance series, it was close to the top of the board both seasons. In 2003, VW Australia was the first to race and develop the R32 Golf in the 2004 GT Performance series, and came 2nd overall.
  • Finlandmarker: In 2002, VW won the Finnish Rally Championship in a7/(F2), with a Golf Mk4 KitCar, with Mikko Hirvonen. In 1999 and 2000, VW won the Finnish Rally Championship in a7/(F2) with a Golf Mk3 KitCar. In 2000, 2001 and 2002, VW won the Finnish Racing Championship in Sport 2000 with a Golf Mk4.
  • Austriamarker: From 1967 until 1974, the Austrian sole distributor "Porsche Salzburg (Austria)" successfully entered the VW Beetle (1500, 1302S and 1303S) in Europe-wide rallies. Victories were achieved in 1972 and 1973 in the overall Austrian championship, on Elba, in the Acropolis rally (first in class). The last versions used the 1600 cc engine with 125 hp and a 5-speed Porsche 914 transmission. Top drivers were Tony Fall (GB), Achim Warmbold (D), Günter Janger (A), Harry Källström(S).
  • United Statesmarker: Beginning in 2008 Volkswagen introduced the Jetta TDI Cup. The Jetta TDI Cup is a SCCA sanctioned race series that features 25 drivers between the ages of 16 and 26 driving slightly modified 2009 Jetta TDIs. The series features 10 events at 8 different road courses across North America. There is $50,000 prize money at stake over the course of the series in addition to the $100,000 prize awarded to the champion of the series at the conclusion of the last race.

Motorsport gallery

Image:VW Berlin-Rom,Bj.1939.jpg|1939 Berlin to Rome. Porsche Type 64 racer based on Beetle platformImage:Volkswagen Beetle Fittipaldi-Baldahl 1967.jpg|Twin-engine racing Beetle developed by Wilson and Emerson Fittipaldi brothersImage:TC2000 Sportteam Competicion 2006 Volkswagen Bora.jpg|Bora in TC 2000, a national championship of ArgentineImage:Stock Car V8 Brasil Amir Nasr Racing.jpg|Bora in Stock Car BrasilImage:VW Race Touareg 2 blue vl EMS.jpg|Edition 2007 Race Touareg 2 at Essen Motor Show 2006Image:Formula Truck 2006 Interlagos Volkswagen leads.jpg|Constellation in the 2006 Brazilian Fórmula Truck Championship

See also


External links

Official site

official Motorsport links

Unaffiliated sites

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