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Vranov nad Topľou (Slovak before 1927 and from 1944-1969: Vranov; / Vronau an der Töpl (rare); ) is a city of approximately 23,000 inhabitants in eastern Slovakiamarker, situated near Košicemarker and Prešovmarker, and between the Topľa Rivermarker and the Ondava Rivermarker.

Parts: Vranov nad Topľou (proper); Čemerné

Location

Vranov nad Toplou occupies the northwest bulge of the Eastern Slovak Lowlandmarker (Východoslovenská nížina) in the upper part of the region called Zemplín between the rivers Topľa and Ondava.

History

First archaeological finds stem from the Migration Period. The future town Vranov nad Topľou was originally a Slavic/Slovak settlement. The medieval settlement of Vranov nad Topľou was part of the castle estate Čičva, which was given by a donation deed of king Stephen to the nobleman Reynold in 1270. Because of the advantageous geographical position of the town situated on the important trading path leading from Prešov, Vranov nad Topľou became an economic and social centre for the territory in the basin of two rivers, the Ondava and the Topľa. Besides the local trade, handicraft production has been developed here, too.

Anti-fascist memorial
first written mention dates back to 1332-1335. Vranov was granted town status before 1363.The heads of the municipal government founded were the mayor and the counselors. The town was given more municipal privileges (toll right, right to store the goods, right to hold an annual market) by King Matthias Corvinus in 1461, and the town was given the right to make out written documents with a municipal seal. The figure of King Stephen was on the first original seal. The heraldic coat-of-arms in its present form has been used since 1622. The first guilds were founded here in the 16th century. The guild of Vranov shoemakers is one of the oldest guilds in the whole Zemplín county. A grammar school was founded in the town in the 16th century.

In the second half of the 19th century, Vranov nad Topľou became the centre of a region of 44 villages. At the end of the century there was mass emigration. In 1903, Vranov got access to the railroad; electric lighting and the telephone were introduced in 1906.

After the formation of Czechoslovakiamarker, Vranov nad Topľou remained a small agrarian and craft town. During the Second World War, some partisan groups were formed in the region, and the town became the centre of an anti-fascist revolt. The period after 1945 was a time of industrial development, building of housing estates and reconstruction of the town centre.

Demographics

According to the 2001 census, the town had 22,985 inhabitants. 93.11% of inhabitants were Slovaks, 4.40% Roma, 0.61% Czechs, 0.27% Rusyns and 0.25% Ukrainian. The religious makeup was 62.61% Roman Catholics, 20.13% Greek Catholics, 7.18% Lutherans and 5.70% people with no religious affiliation.

Noteworthy objects

The town features a Gothic church from the 15th century (rebuilt 1578 and again 1718), a baroque monastery from 1718, a neo-Gothic Evangelic Lutheran church of 1930-1935, a Reformed church from the early 20th century, a synagogue of 1923, and a classicist manor house (a castle built in the 18th century on the place of a castle built in the Middle Ages).

The town is the starting point for trips to the Veľká Domaša water reservoir.

The town is an economic center of the surroundings. In the late 20th century it housed chemical (Bukóza works), clothing (Slovenka), building materials and food industries.

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